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Firms and the Decline in Earnings Inequality in Brazil.

Author: Jorge Alvarez; Felipe Benguria; Niklas Engbom
Publisher: Washington, D.C. : International Monetary Fund, 2017.
Series: IMF Working Papers; Working Paper, no. 17/278.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : English
Summary:
We document a large decrease in earnings inequality in Brazil between 1996 and 2012. Using administrative linked employer-employee data, we fit high-dimensional worker and firm fixed effects models to understand the sources of this decrease. Firm effects account for 40 percent of the total decrease and worker effects for 29 percent. Changes in observable worker and firm characteristics contributed little to these  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Alvarez, Jorge.
Firms and the Decline in Earnings Inequality in Brazil.
Washington, D.C. : International Monetary Fund, ©2017
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Jorge Alvarez; Felipe Benguria; Niklas Engbom
ISBN: 9781484333518 1484333519 1484333039 9781484333037
OCLC Number: 1020027312
Notes: 7 Results from regression of estimated firm effects on firm characteristics controlling for differential pass-through by firm size.
Description: 1 online resource (60 pages).
Contents: Cover; Contents; 1 Introduction; 2 Institutions and macroeconomic trends in Brazil; 3 Data; 3.1 Linked employer-employee data (RAIS); 3.2 Firm characteristics data (PIA); 4 Inequality trends in Brazil from 1988 -2012; 4.1 The evolution of earnings inequality; 4.2 Earnings dispersion between and within firms; 5 Empirical framework; 5.1 Worker and firm fixed effects model; 5.2 Determinants of the estimated firm effects; 5.3 Determinants of the estimated worker effects; 6 Results; 6.1 AKM decomposition; 6.2 The link between firm effects and firm characteristics. 6.3 The link between worker effects and worker characteristics6.4 Support for the AKM model; 6.5 Potential explanations behind decreasing inequality in Brazil; 7 Conclusion; References; Appendix; A: Mincer regressions; B: Earnings growth and firm average earnings growth by initial earnings percentile; C: Variance between and within firms by region, firm size and productivit y; D: Robustness of AKM results; D.1 Longer subperiods; D.2 Hourl ywages; E: Robustness of the relationship between productivit yand pay; E.1 Regressions of firm effects on firm observables in a balanced panel. E.2 Relationship between firm effects, productivity, and exporter statusF: Largest connected set; List of Figures; 1 Variance of log earnings in Brazil, 1988-2012; 2 Log percentile ratios of the earnings distribution in Brazil, normalized to 0 in 1996; 3 Variance of log earnings between and within firms; 4 Variance between and within firms, by sector; 5 Variance decomposition from AKM model; 6 Estimated AKM firm effects versus value added per worker, by period; 7 Variance of firm effects, variance explained by value added per worker, and counterfactual variance with constant returns. 8 Estimated AKM firm effects versus value added per worker, by firm size quartile and period9 Variance of worker effects, variance explained by age and education, and variance holding the return to age and education constant; 10 Average changes in earnings of workers swit ching employers; 11 AKM residual by firm and worker fixed effect deciles; 12 Variance decomposition from Mincer regressions; 13 Individual real labor earnings growth between and within firms; 14 Variance between and within firms within Brazilian regions; 15 Variance between and within firms, by firm size terciles. 16 Variance between and within firms, by productivity terciles17 Estimated AKM firm effects versus value added per worker, by exporter status and period; List of Tables; 1 RAIS summary statistics; 2 PIA summary statistics; 3 Frequency of switches, by period; 4 AKM estimation results, by period; 5 Comparison of AKM estimation results between workers at larger manufacturing and mining firms and largest connected set, by period; 6 Results from regression of estimated firm effects on firm charcateristics.
Series Title: IMF Working Papers; Working Paper, no. 17/278.

Abstract:

We document a large decrease in earnings inequality in Brazil between 1996 and 2012. Using administrative linked employer-employee data, we fit high-dimensional worker and firm fixed effects models to understand the sources of this decrease. Firm effects account for 40 percent of the total decrease and worker effects for 29 percent. Changes in observable worker and firm characteristics contributed little to these trends. Instead, the decrease is primarily due to a compression of returns to these characteristics, particularly a declining firm productivity pay premium. Our results shed light on potential drivers of earnings inequality dynamics.

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