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Fluid mechanics : fundamentals and applications

Author: Yunus A Çengel; John M Cimbala
Publisher: New York : McGraw Hill, [2014]
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : Third editionView all editions and formats
Summary:
Covers the basic principles and equations of fluid mechanics in the context of numerous and diverse real-world engineering examples. This title helps students develop an intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics by emphasizing the physics, using figures, numerous photographs and visual aids to reinforce the physics.
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Yunus A Çengel; John M Cimbala
ISBN: 9780073380322 0073380326 0077595467 9780077595463 9781259011221 1259011224
OCLC Number: 880405759
Description: xxii, 1000 pages : illustrations (chiefly color) ; 26 cm
Contents: Machine generated contents note: ch. One Introduction And Basic Concepts --
1-1. Introduction --
What Is a Fluid? --
Application Areas of Fluid Mechanics --
1-2.A Brief History of Fluid Mechanics --
1-3. The No-Slip Condition --
1-4. Classification of Fluid Flows --
Viscous versus Inviscid Regions of Flow --
Internal versus External Flow --
Compressible versus Incompressible Flow --
Laminar versus Turbulent Flow --
Natural (or Unforced) versus Forced Flow --
Steady versus Unsteady Flow --
One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Flows --
1-5. System and Control Volume --
1-6. Importance of Dimensions and Units --
Some SI and English Units --
Dimensional Homogeneity --
Unity Conversion Ratios --
1-7. Modeling in Engineering --
1-8. Problem-Solving Technique --
Step 1 Problem Statement --
Step 2 Schematic --
Step 3 Assumptions and Approximations --
Step 4 Physical Laws --
Step 5 Properties --
Step 6 Calculations --
Step 7 Reasoning, Verification, and Discussion. Contents note continued: 1-9. Engineering Software Packages --
Engineering Equation Solver (EES) --
CFD Software --
1-10. Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Digits --
Summary --
References and Suggested Reading --
Application Spotlight: What Nuclear Blasts and Raindrops Have in Common --
Problems --
ch. Two Properties Of Fluids --
2-1. Introduction --
Continuum --
2-2. Density and Specific Gravity --
Density of Ideal Gases --
2-3. Vapor Pressure and Cavitation --
2-4. Energy and Specific Heats --
2-5.Compressibility and Speed of Sound --
Coefficient of Compressibility --
Coefficient of Volume Expansion --
Speed of Sound and Mach Number --
2-6. Viscosity --
2-7. Surface Tension and Capillary Effect --
Capillary Effect --
Summary --
Application Spotlight: Cavitation --
References and Suggested Reading --
Problems --
ch. Three Pressure And Fluid Statics --
3-1. Pressure --
Pressure at a Point --
Variation of Pressure with Depth --
3-2. Pressure Measurement Devices. Contents note continued: The Barometer 81 The Manometer --
Other Pressure Measurement Devices --
3-3. Introduction to Fluid Statics --
3-4. Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane Surfaces --
Special Case: Submerged Rectangular Plate --
3-5. Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Curved Surfaces --
3-6. Buoyancy and Stability --
Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies --
3-7. Fluids in Rigid-Body Motion --
Special Case 1 Fluids at Rest --
Special Case 2 Free Fall of a Fluid Body --
Acceleration on a Straight Path --
Rotation in a Cylindrical Container --
Summary --
References and Suggested Reading --
Problems --
ch. Four Fluid Kinematics --
4-1. Lagrangian and Eulerian Descriptions --
Acceleration Field --
Material Derivative --
4-2. Flow Patterns and Flow Visualization --
Streamlines and Streamtubes --
Pathlines --
Streaklines --
Timelines --
Refractive Flow Visualization Techniques --
Surface Flow Visualization Techniques --
4-3. Plots of Fluid Flow Data --
Profile Plots --
Vector Plots. Contents note continued: Contour Plots --
4-4. Other Kinematic Descriptions --
Types of Motion or Deformation of Fluid Elements --
4-5. Vorticity and Rotationality --
Comparison of Two Circular Flows --
4-6. The Reynolds Transport Theorem --
Alternate Derivation of the Reynolds Transport Theorem --
Relationship between Material Derivative and RTT --
Summary --
Application Spotlight: Fluidic Actuators --
References and Suggested Reading --
Problems --
ch. Five Bernoulli And Energy Equations --
5-1. Introduction --
Conservation of Mass --
The Linear Momentum Equation --
Conservation of Energy --
5-2. Conservation of Mass --
Mass and Volume Flow Rates --
Conservation of Mass Principle --
Moving or Deforming Control Volumes --
Mass Balance for Steady-Flow Processes --
Special Case: Incompressible Flow --
5-3. Mechanical Energy and Efficiency --
5-4. The Bernoulli Equation --
Acceleration of a Fluid Particle --
Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation --
Force Balance across Streamlines. Contents note continued: Unsteady, Compressible Flow --
Static, Dynamic, and Stagnation Pressures --
Limitations on the Use of the Bernoulli Equation --
Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL) and Energy Grade Line (EGL) --
Applications of the Bernoulli Equation --
5-5. General Energy Equation --
Energy Transfer by Heat, Q --
Energy Transfer by Work, W --
5-6. Energy Analysis of Steady Flows --
Special Case: Incompressible Flow with No Mechanical Work Devices and Negligible Friction --
Kinetic Energy Correction Factor, [alpha] --
Summary --
References and Suggested Reading --
Problems --
ch. Six Momentum Analysis Of Flow Systems --
6-1. Newton's Laws --
6-2. Choosing a Control Volume --
6-3. Forces Acting on a Control Volume --
6-4. The Linear Momentum Equation --
Special Cases --
Momentum-Flux Correction Factor, [beta] --
Steady Flow --
Flow with No External Forces --
6-5. Review of Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum --
6-6. The Angular Momentum Equation --
Special Cases. Contents note continued: Flow with No External Moments --
Radial-Flow Devices --
Application Spotlight: Manta Ray Swimming --
Summary --
References and Suggested Reading --
Problems --
ch. Seven Dimensional Analysis And Modeling --
7-1. Dimensions and Units --
7-2. Dimensional Homogeneity --
Nondimensionalization of Equations --
7-3. Dimensional Analysis and Similarity --
7-4. The Method of Repeating Variables and The Buckingham Pi Theorem --
Historical Spotlight: Persons Honored by Nondimensional Parameters --
7-5. Experimental Testing, Modeling, and Incomplete Similarity --
Setup of an Experiment and Correlation of Experimental Data --
Incomplete Similarity --
Wind Tunnel Testing --
Flows with Free Surfaces --
Application Spotlight: How a Fly Flies --
Summary --
References and Suggested Reading --
Problems --
ch. Eight Internal Flow --
8-1. Introduction --
8-2. Laminar and Turbulent Flows --
Reynolds Number --
8-3. The Entrance Region --
Entry Leneths --
8-4. Laminar Flow in Pipes. Contents note continued: Pressure Drop and Head Loss --
Effect of Gravity on Velocity and Flow Rate in Laminar Flow --
Laminar Flow in Noncircular Pipes --
8-5. Turbulent Flow in Pipes --
Turbulent Shear Stress --
Turbulent Velocity Profile --
The Moody Chart and the Colebrook Equation --
Types of Fluid Flow Problems --
8-6. Minor Losses --
8-7. Piping Networks and Pump Selection --
Series and Parallel Pipes --
Piping Systems with Pumps and Turbines --
8-8. Flow Rate and Velocity Measurement --
Pitot and Pitot-Static Probes --
Obstruction Flowmeters: Orifice, Venturi, and Nozzle Meters --
Positive Displacement Flowmeters --
Turbine Flowmeters --
Variable-Area Flowmeters (Rotameters) --
Ultrasonic Flowmeters --
Electromagnetic Flowmeters --
Vortex Flowmeters --
Thermal (Hot-Wire and Hot-Film) Anemometers --
Laser Doppler Velocimetry --
Particle Image Velocimetry --
Introduction to Biofluid Mechanics --
Application Spotlight: PIV Applied to Cardiac Flow --
Summary. Contents note continued: References and Suggested Reading --
Problems --
ch. Nine Differential Analysis Of Fluid Flow --
9-1. Introduction --
9-2. Conservation of Mass---The Continuity Equation --
Derivation Using the Divergence Theorem --
Derivation Using an Infinitesimal Control Volume --
Alternative Form of the Continuity Equation --
Continuity Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates --
Special Cases of the Continuity Equation --
9-3. The Stream Function --
The Stream Function in Cartesian Coordinates --
The Stream Function in Cylindrical Coordinates --
The Compressible Stream Function --
9-4. The Differential Linear Momentum Equation---Cauchy's Equation --
Derivation Using the Divergence Theorem --
Derivation Using an Infinitesimal Control Volume --
Alternative Form of Cauchy's Equation --
Derivation Using Newton's Second Law --
9-5. The Navier-Stokes Equation --
Introduction --
Newtonian versus Non-Newtonian Fluids. Contents note continued: Derivation of the Navier-Stokes Equation for Incompressible, Isothermal Flow --
Continuity and Navier-Stokes Equations in Cartesian Coordinates --
Continuity and Navier-Stokes Equations in Cylindrical Coordinates --
9-6. Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow Problems --
Calculation of the Pressure Field for a Known Velocity Field --
Exact Solutions of the Continuity and Navier-Stokes Equations --
Differential Analysis of Biofluid Mechanics Flows --
Application Spotlight: The No-Slip Boundary Condition --
Summary --
References and Suggested Reading --
Problems --
ch. Ten Approximate Solutions Of The Navier-Stokes Equation --
10-1. Introduction --
10-2. Nondimensionalized Equations of Motion --
10-3. The Creeping Flow Approximation --
Drag on a Sphere in Creeping Flow --
10-4. Approximation for Inviscid Regions of Flow --
Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation in Inviscid Regions of Flow --
10-5. The Irrotational Flow Approximation --
Continuity Equation. Contents note continued: Momentum Equation --
Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation in Irrotational Regions of Flow --
Two-Dimensional Irrotational Regions of Flow --
Superposition in Irrotational Regions of Flow --
Elementary Planar Irrotational Flows --
Irrotational Flows Formed by Superposition --
10-6. The Boundary Layer Approximation --
The Boundary Layer Equations --
The Boundary Layer Procedure --
Displacement Thickness --
Momentum Thickness --
Turbulent Flat Plate Boundary Layer --
Boundary Layers with Pressure Gradients --
The Momentum Integral Technique for Boundary Layers --
Summary --
References and Suggested Reading --
Application Spotlight: Droplet Formation --
Problems --
ch. Eleven External Flow: Drag And Lift --
11-1. Introduction --
11-2. Drag and Lift --
11-3. Friction and Pressure Drag --
Reducing Drag by Streamlining --
Flow Separation --
11-4. Drag Coefficients of Common Geometries --
Biological Systems and Drag --
Drag Coefficients of Vehicles --
Superposition. Contents note continued: 11-5. Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates --
Friction Coefficient --
11-6. Flow Over Cylinders And Spheres --
Effect of Surface Roughness --
11-7. Lift --
Finite-Span Wings and Induced Drag --
Lift Generated by Spinning --
Summary --
References and Suggested Reading --
Application Spotlight: Drag Reduction --
Problems --
ch. Twelve Compressible Flow --
12-1. Stagnation Properties --
12-2. One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow --
Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area --
Property Relations for Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gases --
12-3. Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles --
Converging Nozzles --
Converging-Diverging Nozzles --
12-4. Shock Waves and Expansion Waves --
Normal Shocks --
Oblique Shocks --
Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves --
12-5. Duct Flow With Heat Transfer and Negligible Friction (Rayleigh Flow) --
Property Relations for Rayleigh Flow --
Choked Rayleigh Flow --
12-6. Adiabatic Duct Flow With Friction (Fanno Flow) --
Property Relations for Fanno Flow. Contents note continued: Choked Fanno Flow --
Application Spotlight: Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interactions --
Summary --
References and Suggested Reading --
Problems --
ch. Thirteen Open-Channel Flow --
13-1. Classification of Open-Channel Flows --
Uniform and Varied Flows --
Laminar and Turbulent Flows in Channels --
13-2. Froude Number and Wave Speed --
Speed of Surface Waves --
13-3. Specific Energy --
13-4. Conservation of Mass and Energy Equations --
13-5. Uniform Flow in Channels --
Critical Uniform Flow --
Superposition Method for Nonuniform Perimeters --
13-6. Best Hydraulic Cross Sections --
Rectangular Channels --
Trapezoidal Channels --
13-7. Gradually Varied Flow --
Liquid Surface Profiles in Open Channels. y(x) --
Some Representative Surface Profiles --
Numerical Solution of Surface Profile --
13-8. Rapidly Varied Flow and The Hydraulic Jump --
13-9. Flow Control and Measurement --
Underflow Gates --
Overflow Gates --
Application Spotlight: Bridge Scour --
Summary. Contents note continued: References and Suggested Reading --
Problems --
ch. Fourteen Turbomachinery --
14-1. Classifications and Terminology --
14-2. Pumps --
Pump Performance Curves and Matching a Pump to a Piping System --
Pump Cavitation and Net Positive Suction Head --
Pumps in Series and Parallel --
Positive-Displacement Pumps --
Dynamic Pumps 806 Centrifugal Pumps --
Axial Pumps --
14-3. Pump Scaling Laws --
Dimensional Analysis --
Pump Specific Speed --
Affinity Laws --
14-4. Turbines --
Positive-Displacement Turbines --
Dynamic Turbines --
Impulse Turbines --
Reaction Turbines --
Gas and Steam Turbines --
Wind Turbines --
14-5. Turbine Scaling Laws --
Dimensionless Turbine Parameters --
Turbine Specific Speed --
Application Spotlight: Rotary Fuel Atomizers --
Summary --
References and Suggested Reading --
Problems --
ch. Fifteen Introduction To Computational Fluid Dynamics --
15-1. Introduction and Fundamentals --
Motivation --
Equations of Motion --
Solution Procedure. Contents note continued: Additional Equations of Motion --
Grid Generation and Grid Independence --
Boundary Conditions --
Practice Makes Perfect --
15-2. Laminar CFD Calculations --
Pipe Flow Entrance Region at Re = 500 --
Flow around a Circular Cylinder at Re = 150 --
15-3. Turbulent CFD Calculations --
Flow around a Circular Cylinder at Re = 10,000 --
Flow around a Circular Cylinder at Re = 107 --
Design of the Stator for a Vane-Axial Flow Fan --
15-4. CFD With Heat Transfer --
Temperature Rise through a Cross-Flow Heat Exchanger --
Cooling of an Array of Integrated Circuit Chips --
15-5.Compressible Flow CFD Calculations --
Compressible Flow through a Converging-Diverging Nozzle --
Oblique Shocks over a Wedge --
15-6. Open-Channel Flow CFD Calculations --
Flow over a Bump on the Bottom of a Channel --
Flow through a Sluice Gate (Hydraulic Jump) --
Application Spotlight: A Virtual Stomach --
Summary --
References and Suggested Reading --
Problems. Contents note continued: APPENDIX 1 PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (SI UNITS) --
Table A-1 Molar Mass, Gas Constant, and Ideal-Gas Specfic Heats of Some Substances --
Table A-2 Boiling and Freezing Point Properties --
Table A-3 Properties of Saturated Water --
Table A-4 Properties of Saturated Refrigerant-134a --
Table A-5 Properties of Saturated Ammonia --
Table A-6 Properties of Saturated Propane --
Table A-7 Properties of Liquids --
Table A-8 Properties of Liquid Metals --
Table A-9 Properties of Air at 1 atm Pressure --
Table A-10 Properties of Gases at 1 atm Pressure --
Table A-11 Properties of the Atmosphere at High Altitude --
Figure A-12 The Moody Chart for the Friction Factor for Fully Developed Flow in Circular Pipes --
Table A-13 One-Dimensional Isentropic Compressible Flow Functions for an Ideal Gas with k = 1.4 --
Table A-14 One-Dimensional Normal Shock Functions for an Ideal Gas with k = 1.4 --
Table A-15 Rayleigh Flow Functions for an Ideal Gas with k = 1.4. Contents note continued: Table A-16 Fanno Flow Functions for an Ideal Gas with k = 1.4 --
APPENDIX 2 PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (ENGLISH UNITS) --
Table A-1E Molar Mass, Gas Constant, and Ideal-Gas Specific Heats of Some Substances --
Table A-2E Boiling and Freezing Point Properties --
Table A-3E Properties of Saturated Water --
Table A-4E Properties of Saturated Refrigerant-134a --
Table A-5E Properties of Saturated Ammonia --
Table A-6E Properties of Saturated Propane --
Table A-7E Properties of Liquids --
Table A-8E Properties of Liquid Metals --
Table A-9E Properties of Air at 1 atm Pressure --
Table A-10E Properties of Gases at 1 atm Pressure --
Table A-11E Properties of the Atmosphere at High Altitude.
Responsibility: Yunus A. Çengel, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, John M. Cimbala, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, the Pennsylvania State University.

Abstract:

Covers the basic principles and equations of fluid mechanics in the context of numerous and diverse real-world engineering examples. This text helps students develop an intuitive understanding of  Read more...

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<http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/880405759> # Fluid mechanics : fundamentals and applications
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   schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/4915264628#Topic/fluid_dynamics> ; # Fluid dynamics
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   schema:bookEdition "Third edition." ;
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   schema:contributor <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/4915264628#Person/cimbala_john_m> ; # John M. Cimbala
   schema:creator <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/4915264628#Person/cengel_yunus_a> ; # Yunus A. Çengel
   schema:datePublished "2014" ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: APPENDIX 1 PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (SI UNITS) -- Table A-1 Molar Mass, Gas Constant, and Ideal-Gas Specfic Heats of Some Substances -- Table A-2 Boiling and Freezing Point Properties -- Table A-3 Properties of Saturated Water -- Table A-4 Properties of Saturated Refrigerant-134a -- Table A-5 Properties of Saturated Ammonia -- Table A-6 Properties of Saturated Propane -- Table A-7 Properties of Liquids -- Table A-8 Properties of Liquid Metals -- Table A-9 Properties of Air at 1 atm Pressure -- Table A-10 Properties of Gases at 1 atm Pressure -- Table A-11 Properties of the Atmosphere at High Altitude -- Figure A-12 The Moody Chart for the Friction Factor for Fully Developed Flow in Circular Pipes -- Table A-13 One-Dimensional Isentropic Compressible Flow Functions for an Ideal Gas with k = 1.4 -- Table A-14 One-Dimensional Normal Shock Functions for an Ideal Gas with k = 1.4 -- Table A-15 Rayleigh Flow Functions for an Ideal Gas with k = 1.4."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Fourteen Turbomachinery -- 14-1. Classifications and Terminology -- 14-2. Pumps -- Pump Performance Curves and Matching a Pump to a Piping System -- Pump Cavitation and Net Positive Suction Head -- Pumps in Series and Parallel -- Positive-Displacement Pumps -- Dynamic Pumps 806 Centrifugal Pumps -- Axial Pumps -- 14-3. Pump Scaling Laws -- Dimensional Analysis -- Pump Specific Speed -- Affinity Laws -- 14-4. Turbines -- Positive-Displacement Turbines -- Dynamic Turbines -- Impulse Turbines -- Reaction Turbines -- Gas and Steam Turbines -- Wind Turbines -- 14-5. Turbine Scaling Laws -- Dimensionless Turbine Parameters -- Turbine Specific Speed -- Application Spotlight: Rotary Fuel Atomizers -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Fifteen Introduction To Computational Fluid Dynamics -- 15-1. Introduction and Fundamentals -- Motivation -- Equations of Motion -- Solution Procedure."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Additional Equations of Motion -- Grid Generation and Grid Independence -- Boundary Conditions -- Practice Makes Perfect -- 15-2. Laminar CFD Calculations -- Pipe Flow Entrance Region at Re = 500 -- Flow around a Circular Cylinder at Re = 150 -- 15-3. Turbulent CFD Calculations -- Flow around a Circular Cylinder at Re = 10,000 -- Flow around a Circular Cylinder at Re = 107 -- Design of the Stator for a Vane-Axial Flow Fan -- 15-4. CFD With Heat Transfer -- Temperature Rise through a Cross-Flow Heat Exchanger -- Cooling of an Array of Integrated Circuit Chips -- 15-5.Compressible Flow CFD Calculations -- Compressible Flow through a Converging-Diverging Nozzle -- Oblique Shocks over a Wedge -- 15-6. Open-Channel Flow CFD Calculations -- Flow over a Bump on the Bottom of a Channel -- Flow through a Sluice Gate (Hydraulic Jump) -- Application Spotlight: A Virtual Stomach -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Nine Differential Analysis Of Fluid Flow -- 9-1. Introduction -- 9-2. Conservation of Mass---The Continuity Equation -- Derivation Using the Divergence Theorem -- Derivation Using an Infinitesimal Control Volume -- Alternative Form of the Continuity Equation -- Continuity Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates -- Special Cases of the Continuity Equation -- 9-3. The Stream Function -- The Stream Function in Cartesian Coordinates -- The Stream Function in Cylindrical Coordinates -- The Compressible Stream Function -- 9-4. The Differential Linear Momentum Equation---Cauchy's Equation -- Derivation Using the Divergence Theorem -- Derivation Using an Infinitesimal Control Volume -- Alternative Form of Cauchy's Equation -- Derivation Using Newton's Second Law -- 9-5. The Navier-Stokes Equation -- Introduction -- Newtonian versus Non-Newtonian Fluids."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Pressure Drop and Head Loss -- Effect of Gravity on Velocity and Flow Rate in Laminar Flow -- Laminar Flow in Noncircular Pipes -- 8-5. Turbulent Flow in Pipes -- Turbulent Shear Stress -- Turbulent Velocity Profile -- The Moody Chart and the Colebrook Equation -- Types of Fluid Flow Problems -- 8-6. Minor Losses -- 8-7. Piping Networks and Pump Selection -- Series and Parallel Pipes -- Piping Systems with Pumps and Turbines -- 8-8. Flow Rate and Velocity Measurement -- Pitot and Pitot-Static Probes -- Obstruction Flowmeters: Orifice, Venturi, and Nozzle Meters -- Positive Displacement Flowmeters -- Turbine Flowmeters -- Variable-Area Flowmeters (Rotameters) -- Ultrasonic Flowmeters -- Electromagnetic Flowmeters -- Vortex Flowmeters -- Thermal (Hot-Wire and Hot-Film) Anemometers -- Laser Doppler Velocimetry -- Particle Image Velocimetry -- Introduction to Biofluid Mechanics -- Application Spotlight: PIV Applied to Cardiac Flow -- Summary."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Momentum Equation -- Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation in Irrotational Regions of Flow -- Two-Dimensional Irrotational Regions of Flow -- Superposition in Irrotational Regions of Flow -- Elementary Planar Irrotational Flows -- Irrotational Flows Formed by Superposition -- 10-6. The Boundary Layer Approximation -- The Boundary Layer Equations -- The Boundary Layer Procedure -- Displacement Thickness -- Momentum Thickness -- Turbulent Flat Plate Boundary Layer -- Boundary Layers with Pressure Gradients -- The Momentum Integral Technique for Boundary Layers -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Application Spotlight: Droplet Formation -- Problems -- ch. Eleven External Flow: Drag And Lift -- 11-1. Introduction -- 11-2. Drag and Lift -- 11-3. Friction and Pressure Drag -- Reducing Drag by Streamlining -- Flow Separation -- 11-4. Drag Coefficients of Common Geometries -- Biological Systems and Drag -- Drag Coefficients of Vehicles -- Superposition."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Contour Plots -- 4-4. Other Kinematic Descriptions -- Types of Motion or Deformation of Fluid Elements -- 4-5. Vorticity and Rotationality -- Comparison of Two Circular Flows -- 4-6. The Reynolds Transport Theorem -- Alternate Derivation of the Reynolds Transport Theorem -- Relationship between Material Derivative and RTT -- Summary -- Application Spotlight: Fluidic Actuators -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Five Bernoulli And Energy Equations -- 5-1. Introduction -- Conservation of Mass -- The Linear Momentum Equation -- Conservation of Energy -- 5-2. Conservation of Mass -- Mass and Volume Flow Rates -- Conservation of Mass Principle -- Moving or Deforming Control Volumes -- Mass Balance for Steady-Flow Processes -- Special Case: Incompressible Flow -- 5-3. Mechanical Energy and Efficiency -- 5-4. The Bernoulli Equation -- Acceleration of a Fluid Particle -- Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation -- Force Balance across Streamlines."@en ;
   schema:description "Machine generated contents note: ch. One Introduction And Basic Concepts -- 1-1. Introduction -- What Is a Fluid? -- Application Areas of Fluid Mechanics -- 1-2.A Brief History of Fluid Mechanics -- 1-3. The No-Slip Condition -- 1-4. Classification of Fluid Flows -- Viscous versus Inviscid Regions of Flow -- Internal versus External Flow -- Compressible versus Incompressible Flow -- Laminar versus Turbulent Flow -- Natural (or Unforced) versus Forced Flow -- Steady versus Unsteady Flow -- One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Flows -- 1-5. System and Control Volume -- 1-6. Importance of Dimensions and Units -- Some SI and English Units -- Dimensional Homogeneity -- Unity Conversion Ratios -- 1-7. Modeling in Engineering -- 1-8. Problem-Solving Technique -- Step 1 Problem Statement -- Step 2 Schematic -- Step 3 Assumptions and Approximations -- Step 4 Physical Laws -- Step 5 Properties -- Step 6 Calculations -- Step 7 Reasoning, Verification, and Discussion."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Unsteady, Compressible Flow -- Static, Dynamic, and Stagnation Pressures -- Limitations on the Use of the Bernoulli Equation -- Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL) and Energy Grade Line (EGL) -- Applications of the Bernoulli Equation -- 5-5. General Energy Equation -- Energy Transfer by Heat, Q -- Energy Transfer by Work, W -- 5-6. Energy Analysis of Steady Flows -- Special Case: Incompressible Flow with No Mechanical Work Devices and Negligible Friction -- Kinetic Energy Correction Factor, [alpha] -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Six Momentum Analysis Of Flow Systems -- 6-1. Newton's Laws -- 6-2. Choosing a Control Volume -- 6-3. Forces Acting on a Control Volume -- 6-4. The Linear Momentum Equation -- Special Cases -- Momentum-Flux Correction Factor, [beta] -- Steady Flow -- Flow with No External Forces -- 6-5. Review of Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum -- 6-6. The Angular Momentum Equation -- Special Cases."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Table A-16 Fanno Flow Functions for an Ideal Gas with k = 1.4 -- APPENDIX 2 PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (ENGLISH UNITS) -- Table A-1E Molar Mass, Gas Constant, and Ideal-Gas Specific Heats of Some Substances -- Table A-2E Boiling and Freezing Point Properties -- Table A-3E Properties of Saturated Water -- Table A-4E Properties of Saturated Refrigerant-134a -- Table A-5E Properties of Saturated Ammonia -- Table A-6E Properties of Saturated Propane -- Table A-7E Properties of Liquids -- Table A-8E Properties of Liquid Metals -- Table A-9E Properties of Air at 1 atm Pressure -- Table A-10E Properties of Gases at 1 atm Pressure -- Table A-11E Properties of the Atmosphere at High Altitude."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: The Barometer 81 The Manometer -- Other Pressure Measurement Devices -- 3-3. Introduction to Fluid Statics -- 3-4. Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane Surfaces -- Special Case: Submerged Rectangular Plate -- 3-5. Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Curved Surfaces -- 3-6. Buoyancy and Stability -- Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies -- 3-7. Fluids in Rigid-Body Motion -- Special Case 1 Fluids at Rest -- Special Case 2 Free Fall of a Fluid Body -- Acceleration on a Straight Path -- Rotation in a Cylindrical Container -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Four Fluid Kinematics -- 4-1. Lagrangian and Eulerian Descriptions -- Acceleration Field -- Material Derivative -- 4-2. Flow Patterns and Flow Visualization -- Streamlines and Streamtubes -- Pathlines -- Streaklines -- Timelines -- Refractive Flow Visualization Techniques -- Surface Flow Visualization Techniques -- 4-3. Plots of Fluid Flow Data -- Profile Plots -- Vector Plots."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Derivation of the Navier-Stokes Equation for Incompressible, Isothermal Flow -- Continuity and Navier-Stokes Equations in Cartesian Coordinates -- Continuity and Navier-Stokes Equations in Cylindrical Coordinates -- 9-6. Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow Problems -- Calculation of the Pressure Field for a Known Velocity Field -- Exact Solutions of the Continuity and Navier-Stokes Equations -- Differential Analysis of Biofluid Mechanics Flows -- Application Spotlight: The No-Slip Boundary Condition -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Ten Approximate Solutions Of The Navier-Stokes Equation -- 10-1. Introduction -- 10-2. Nondimensionalized Equations of Motion -- 10-3. The Creeping Flow Approximation -- Drag on a Sphere in Creeping Flow -- 10-4. Approximation for Inviscid Regions of Flow -- Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation in Inviscid Regions of Flow -- 10-5. The Irrotational Flow Approximation -- Continuity Equation."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Flow with No External Moments -- Radial-Flow Devices -- Application Spotlight: Manta Ray Swimming -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Seven Dimensional Analysis And Modeling -- 7-1. Dimensions and Units -- 7-2. Dimensional Homogeneity -- Nondimensionalization of Equations -- 7-3. Dimensional Analysis and Similarity -- 7-4. The Method of Repeating Variables and The Buckingham Pi Theorem -- Historical Spotlight: Persons Honored by Nondimensional Parameters -- 7-5. Experimental Testing, Modeling, and Incomplete Similarity -- Setup of an Experiment and Correlation of Experimental Data -- Incomplete Similarity -- Wind Tunnel Testing -- Flows with Free Surfaces -- Application Spotlight: How a Fly Flies -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Eight Internal Flow -- 8-1. Introduction -- 8-2. Laminar and Turbulent Flows -- Reynolds Number -- 8-3. The Entrance Region -- Entry Leneths -- 8-4. Laminar Flow in Pipes."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: 11-5. Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates -- Friction Coefficient -- 11-6. Flow Over Cylinders And Spheres -- Effect of Surface Roughness -- 11-7. Lift -- Finite-Span Wings and Induced Drag -- Lift Generated by Spinning -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Application Spotlight: Drag Reduction -- Problems -- ch. Twelve Compressible Flow -- 12-1. Stagnation Properties -- 12-2. One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow -- Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area -- Property Relations for Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gases -- 12-3. Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles -- Converging Nozzles -- Converging-Diverging Nozzles -- 12-4. Shock Waves and Expansion Waves -- Normal Shocks -- Oblique Shocks -- Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves -- 12-5. Duct Flow With Heat Transfer and Negligible Friction (Rayleigh Flow) -- Property Relations for Rayleigh Flow -- Choked Rayleigh Flow -- 12-6. Adiabatic Duct Flow With Friction (Fanno Flow) -- Property Relations for Fanno Flow."@en ;
   schema:description "Covers the basic principles and equations of fluid mechanics in the context of numerous and diverse real-world engineering examples. This title helps students develop an intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics by emphasizing the physics, using figures, numerous photographs and visual aids to reinforce the physics."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: 1-9. Engineering Software Packages -- Engineering Equation Solver (EES) -- CFD Software -- 1-10. Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Digits -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Application Spotlight: What Nuclear Blasts and Raindrops Have in Common -- Problems -- ch. Two Properties Of Fluids -- 2-1. Introduction -- Continuum -- 2-2. Density and Specific Gravity -- Density of Ideal Gases -- 2-3. Vapor Pressure and Cavitation -- 2-4. Energy and Specific Heats -- 2-5.Compressibility and Speed of Sound -- Coefficient of Compressibility -- Coefficient of Volume Expansion -- Speed of Sound and Mach Number -- 2-6. Viscosity -- 2-7. Surface Tension and Capillary Effect -- Capillary Effect -- Summary -- Application Spotlight: Cavitation -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Three Pressure And Fluid Statics -- 3-1. Pressure -- Pressure at a Point -- Variation of Pressure with Depth -- 3-2. Pressure Measurement Devices."@en ;
   schema:description "Contents note continued: Choked Fanno Flow -- Application Spotlight: Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interactions -- Summary -- References and Suggested Reading -- Problems -- ch. Thirteen Open-Channel Flow -- 13-1. Classification of Open-Channel Flows -- Uniform and Varied Flows -- Laminar and Turbulent Flows in Channels -- 13-2. Froude Number and Wave Speed -- Speed of Surface Waves -- 13-3. Specific Energy -- 13-4. Conservation of Mass and Energy Equations -- 13-5. Uniform Flow in Channels -- Critical Uniform Flow -- Superposition Method for Nonuniform Perimeters -- 13-6. Best Hydraulic Cross Sections -- Rectangular Channels -- Trapezoidal Channels -- 13-7. Gradually Varied Flow -- Liquid Surface Profiles in Open Channels. y(x) -- Some Representative Surface Profiles -- Numerical Solution of Surface Profile -- 13-8. Rapidly Varied Flow and The Hydraulic Jump -- 13-9. Flow Control and Measurement -- Underflow Gates -- Overflow Gates -- Application Spotlight: Bridge Scour -- Summary."@en ;
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