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Forbidden citizens : Chinese exclusion and the U.S. Congress : a legislative history

Author: Martin Gold
Publisher: Alexandria, VA : TheCapital.Net, 2012.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English
Summary:
"Described as 'one of the most vulgar forms of barbarism,' by Rep. John Kasson (R-IA) in 1882, a series of laws passed by the United States Congress between 1879 and 1943 resulted in prohibiting the Chinese as a people from becoming U.S. citizens. Forbidden citizens recounts this long and shameful legislative history."--Page 4 of cover.
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Genre/Form: History
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Martin Gold
ISBN: 9781587332357 1587332353 9781587332579 1587332574
OCLC Number: 785081707
Awards: Commended for Benjamin Franklin Award (Politics/Current Events) 2013
Description: xxxix, 572 pages : illustrations ; 26 cm
Contents: 1. A question of naturalization. Overview --
The Senate debate : background --
House Committee of the whole --
Senate Committee of the whole --
Senate debate, July 2, 1870 : "a requirement disgraceful to this country" --
Chinese forbidden from holding mining claims --
Presiding over the Senate/House --
Senate debate, July 4, 1870 : they do not value the privileges of citizenship --
Senator Sumner and race discrimination --
The first Chinese student to graduate from an American university, Yung Wing --
Original Oregon Constitution barred Chinese owning real estate and mining claims --
2. The Fifteen Passenger Bill of 1879. Overview --
House debate, January 18, 1879 : "the most debased people" --
Denis Kearney and the Sandlot Orators --
Early China-U.S. diplomacy --
The Page Act --
Absenteeism and pairs in House and Senate votes --
Senate proceedings on the Fifteen Passenger Bill --
Senate debate, February 12, 1879 : "consideration begins" --
Senate debate, February 13, 1879 : "an indigestible element" --
Senate debate, February 14, 1879 : "wholly unfit to become citizens" --
Confucian traditions and family relationships --
Chinese oath swearing --
Senate debate, February 15, 1879 : "the brightest act of my life" --
James G. Blaine and the argument for exclusion --
The Nineteenth-Century Senate versus the modern Senate --
Chinese population in the United States, 1860-1940 --
The next step : the House concurs in the Senate Amendments --
A presidential veto : Rutherford B. Hayes --
The House attempts a veto override --
3. The twenty-year exclusion debate in the Senate. Overview --
Proceedings in the Senate --
Substitute Amendment to a bill --
Senate debate, February 28, 1882 : "a confession of American imbecility" --
The politics of the 1880 Democratic Party and Republican Party platforms --
Senate debate, March 1, 1882 : "to shame, to weakness, and to peril" --
China-U.S. diplomacy II --
The Know-Nothing Movement --
Senate debate, March 2, 1882 : "swarm upon us like locusts" --
Chinese and the Transcontinental Railway --
Senate debate, March 3, 1882 : "dregs of the countless hordes of China" --
Senate debate, March 6, 1882 : "will not assimilate" --
Senate debate, March 7, 1882 : "an irrepressible conflict between them" --
Senate debate, March 8, 1882 : "a storm of condemnation" --
Senate debate, March 9, 1882 : "fifty million sovereigns can be despotic" --
4. The twenty-year exclusion debate in the House of Representatives. Overview --
House debate, March 14, 1882 : "plant a cancer in your own country" --
House debate, March 15, 1882 : "no more regard for his oath" --
House debate, March 16, 1882 : "the repulsive specter of Asiatic squalor" --
House debate, March 18, 1882 : "this exhaustless stream of yellow plague" --
House debate, March 21, 1881 : "the assimilation of oil and water" --
House debate, March 22, 1882 : "who would have them for voters?" --
Role of the Bill Manager in the House of Representatives --
House debate, March 23, 1882 : "the most hideous immoralities" --
A presidential veto : Chester Arthur : "a breach of our national faith" --
Senate veto override debate, April 5, 1882 : "will not disgrace our statute books" --
The role of precedent in Congress --
5. The ten-year exclusion legislation of 1882. Overview --
House debate, April 17, 1882 : "a pack of hounds to hunt down any race" --
Senate debate, April 25, 1882 : "a subject of deep respect and repentance" --
James A. Garfield and race --
Abolition and the timing of Chinese immigration --
Senate debate, April 26, 1882 : "beyond the realm of political agitation" --
Senate debate, April 27, 1882 : "a most degraded corruption" --
House Session of May 3, 1882 ; the House concurs in the Senate amendments --
Enrollment and presidential approval --
6. The amendments of 1884. Overview --
House debate, May 3, 1894 (H.R. 1798) : "this is a white man's government" --
Senate debate, July 3, 1884 : "will repent in sackcloth and ashes" --
7. The Scott Act of 1888. Overview --
Senate debate, January 112, 1888 : "polluted with the curse of human slavery" --
Litigation as a means of resistance to the Chinese Exclusion Act --
Senate debate, March 1, 1888 : "the world was created wrong" --
President Cleveland responds --
The senate consents to the Bayard-Zhang Treaty --
The Senate considers legislation to implement the Bayard-Zhang Treaty (S. 3304) --
House proceedings on the implementation bill (S. 3304) : "the hideous Mongolian incubus" --
Senate concurs in the House Amendment, and China's reaction : "a response of outrage" --
The Scott Act (H.R. 11336) --
House debate, September 3, 1888 : "the truth is a merchantable commodity" --
Senate debate, September 3, 1888 : "deport every single one of them" --
Senate debate, September 4, 1888 : "an inferior race" --
Senate debate, September 5, 1888 : "homogeneity in races" --
Senate debate, September 6, 1888 : "a cruelty and an outrage" --
Senate debate, September 7, 1888 : "stop this ulcer" --
Senate debate, September 10, 1888 : "China is our great friend" --
Senate debate, September 11, 1888 : "the evil will go on increasing" --
Senate debate, September 13, 1888 : "that seething, roaring, blood-curdling curse" --
Senate debate, September 14, 1888 : no quorum means stalemate --
Senate debate, September 17, 1888 : passage --
House debate, September 20, 1888 : "a demagogical way to make some capital" --
President Cleveland signs the Scott Act, October 1, 1888 --
A political note --
8. The Geary Act of 1892. Overview --
House debate, April 4, 1892 : "an absolute abrogation" --
Senate debate, April 13, 1892 : "time was of the essence" --
Senate debate, April 21, 1892 : "goes far beyond any bill" --
Senate debate, April 22. 1892 : "a harsh proceeding" --
Senate debate, April 23, 1892 : "a very shrewd people" --
Senate debate, April 25, 1892 : "intense feeling of antagonism" --
Bicameral agreement : conference report : "one credible white witness" --
Senate debate, May 3, 1892 : "he does not stand like an ordinary person" --
House debate, May 4, 1892 : "the old slavery days returned" --
Chinese registration under the Geary Act --
Chinese food in America --
Mexico, Canada, and the Chinese --
9. The 1902 extension. Overview --
Senate debate, April 4, 1902 : "one of the great policies of our country" --
Senate debate, April 5, 1902 : "amplest assurance of American friendship" --
Boxer Rebellion (1900) --
Senate debate, April 7. 1902 : "obnoxious social conditions" --
Senate debate, April 8, 1902 : "they came like locusts" --
The panic of 1873 --
The Qing dynasty under siege --
Politics and immigration enforcement : The Bureau of Immigration --
Senate debate, April 9, 1902 : "narrow, bigoted, intolerant, and indefensible" --
Senate debate, April 10, 1902 : "the Chinese must be kept out" --
Senate debate, April 12, 1902 : "mere question of legislative detail" --
Senate debate, April 14, 1902 : parsing words --
Imperialism and the Open Door Policy --
Senate debate, April 15, 1902 : "ruthlessly disregards treaty rights" --
Senate debate, April 16, 1902 : "if I stand alone" --
House debate, April 4, 1902 : "largely a Pacific question" --
House debate, April 5, 1902 : "to a rouse this sleeping five-toed dragon" --
House debate, April 7, 1902 : "clearly unconstitutional" --
Resolving differences between the Senate and the House : the Senate debate of April 17, 1902 --
Resolving differences between the Senate and the House : further proceedings on H.R. 13031, as amended --
10. Permanent law, 1904. Overview --
Senate debate, April 8, 1904 : S. 5344 : separating laws and treaties --
Senate debate, April 22, 1904 : H.R. 15054 : "there would have been great trouble" --
Reaction from China to the 1904 legislation --
In the year of permanent exclusion : the detention of Soong Ailing --
11. Repeal. Overview --
The last emperor, China, Japan, and WWII --
The House Committee Report, October 11, 1943, and H.R. 3070 --
The structure of the National Origins Quota System --
The War Brides Act of 1945 --
H.R. 3070 and House debate, October 20, 1943 : "important in the cause off winning the war" --
Madame Chiang Kaishek speaks to the Senate and to the House, February 18, 1943 --
Extraterritoriality and other concessions --
The Europe-first strategy --
Citizens Committee to Repeal Chinese Exclusion --
H.R. 3070 and House debate, October 21, 1943 : "face is not just oriental" --
Motion to recommit in the House --
H.R. 3070 to the Senate --
Senate committee consideration --
Senate debate, November 26, 1943 : "the white man feared the onrush of the yellow man" --
Bill enrollment and presidential signature --
Epilogue --
Appendices. 1. Review and Discussion Questions --
2. Burlingame Treaty --
3. Naturalization Act of 1870 (16 Stat. 254) --
4. Fifteen Passenger Bill (1879) and veto message of President Rutherford Hayes of the Fifteen Passenger Bill --
5. Angell Treaty 1880 --
6. Veto message of President Chester A. Arthur of Senate Bill No. 71, April 4, 1882 --
7. The Ten-Year Exclusion Legislation of 1882, H.R. 5804 --
8. Gresham-Yang Treaty (1894) --
9. The 1902 Extension --
10. Permanent Law 1904 --
11. Magnuson Act (Chinese Exclusion Repeal Act of 1943) --
12. American immigration laws timeline.
Responsibility: by Martin B. Gold.

Abstract:

"Described as 'one of the most vulgar forms of barbarism,' by Rep. John Kasson (R-IA) in 1882, a series of laws passed by the United States Congress between 1879 and 1943 resulted in prohibiting the Chinese as a people from becoming U.S. citizens. Forbidden citizens recounts this long and shameful legislative history."--Page 4 of cover.

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Overview -- Senate debate, January 112, 1888 : "polluted with the curse of human slavery" -- Litigation as a means of resistance to the Chinese Exclusion Act -- Senate debate, March 1, 1888 : "the world was created wrong" -- President Cleveland responds -- The senate consents to the Bayard-Zhang Treaty -- The Senate considers legislation to implement the Bayard-Zhang Treaty (S. 3304) -- House proceedings on the implementation bill (S. 3304) : "the hideous Mongolian incubus" -- Senate concurs in the House Amendment, and China's reaction : "a response of outrage" -- The Scott Act (H.R. 11336) -- House debate, September 3, 1888 : "the truth is a merchantable commodity" -- Senate debate, September 3, 1888 : "deport every single one of them" -- Senate debate, September 4, 1888 : "an inferior race" -- Senate debate, September 5, 1888 : "homogeneity in races" -- Senate debate, September 6, 1888 : "a cruelty and an outrage" -- Senate debate, September 7, 1888 : "stop this ulcer" -- Senate debate, September 10, 1888 : "China is our great friend" -- Senate debate, September 11, 1888 : "the evil will go on increasing" -- Senate debate, September 13, 1888 : "that seething, roaring, blood-curdling curse" -- Senate debate, September 14, 1888 : no quorum means stalemate -- Senate debate, September 17, 1888 : passage -- House debate, September 20, 1888 : "a demagogical way to make some capital" -- President Cleveland signs the Scott Act, October 1, 1888 -- A political note -- 8. The Geary Act of 1892. Overview -- House debate, April 4, 1892 : "an absolute abrogation" -- Senate debate, April 13, 1892 : "time was of the essence" -- Senate debate, April 21, 1892 : "goes far beyond any bill" -- Senate debate, April 22. 1892 : "a harsh proceeding" -- Senate debate, April 23, 1892 : "a very shrewd people" -- Senate debate, April 25, 1892 : "intense feeling of antagonism" -- Bicameral agreement : conference report : "one credible white witness" -- Senate debate, May 3, 1892 : "he does not stand like an ordinary person" -- House debate, May 4, 1892 : "the old slavery days returned" -- Chinese registration under the Geary Act -- Chinese food in America -- Mexico, Canada, and the Chinese -- 9. The 1902 extension. Overview -- Senate debate, April 4, 1902 : "one of the great policies of our country" -- Senate debate, April 5, 1902 : "amplest assurance of American friendship" -- Boxer Rebellion (1900) -- Senate debate, April 7. 1902 : "obnoxious social conditions" -- Senate debate, April 8, 1902 : "they came like locusts" -- The panic of 1873 -- The Qing dynasty under siege -- Politics and immigration enforcement : The Bureau of Immigration -- Senate debate, April 9, 1902 : "narrow, bigoted, intolerant, and indefensible" -- Senate debate, April 10, 1902 : "the Chinese must be kept out" -- Senate debate, April 12, 1902 : "mere question of legislative detail" -- Senate debate, April 14, 1902 : parsing words -- Imperialism and the Open Door Policy -- Senate debate, April 15, 1902 : "ruthlessly disregards treaty rights" -- Senate debate, April 16, 1902 : "if I stand alone" -- House debate, April 4, 1902 : "largely a Pacific question" -- House debate, April 5, 1902 : "to a rouse this sleeping five-toed dragon" -- House debate, April 7, 1902 : "clearly unconstitutional" -- Resolving differences between the Senate and the House : the Senate debate of April 17, 1902 -- Resolving differences between the Senate and the House : further proceedings on H.R. 13031, as amended -- 10. Permanent law, 1904. Overview -- Senate debate, April 8, 1904 : S. 5344 : separating laws and treaties -- Senate debate, April 22, 1904 : H.R. 15054 : "there would have been great trouble" -- Reaction from China to the 1904 legislation -- In the year of permanent exclusion : the detention of Soong Ailing -- 11. Repeal. 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