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From an antagonistic to a synergistic predator prey perspective : bifurcations in marine ecosystems

Author: Tore Johannessen
Publisher: London : Academic Press, 2014.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
From an Antagonistic to a Synergistic Predator Prey Perspective: Bifurcations in Marine Ecosystems is a groundbreaking reference that challenges the widespread perception that predators generally have a negative impact on the abundance of their prey, and it proposes a novel paradigm - Predator-prey Synergism - in which both predator and prey enhance abundance by their co-existence. Using this model, the text  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Johannessen, Tore.
From an antagonistic to a synergistic predator prey perspective : bifurcations in marine ecosystem.
London, England : Academic Press, ©2014
xv, 212 pages
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Tore Johannessen
ISBN: 9780124201118 0124201113 0124170161 9780124170162
OCLC Number: 874018544
Description: 1 online resource
Contents: Front Cover; From an Antagonistic to a Synergistic Predator Prey Perspective; Copyright Page; Dedication; Contents; List of Contributors; Preface; References; 1 Introduction; 1.1 About this book; 1.2 Unifying Principles in Ecology-Where are We?; 1.3 Recruitment Variability; 1.4 Ecosystem Bifurcation; 1.5 Predator-Prey Synergism; References; 2 Repeated Incidents of Abrupt and Persistent Recruitment Failures in Gadoids in Relation to Increasing Eutrophication, 191 ... ; 2.1 Introduction; 2.2 Methods; 2.2.1 Beach Seine Sampling; 2.2.2 Bottom Vegetation; 2.2.3 Study Sites. 2.2.4 Sampling Reliability2.2.5 Statistical Analyses; 2.3 Results; 2.3.1 Sampling Reliability; 2.3.2 Temporal Variation of 0-Group Gadoids Abundance Along the Norwegian Skagerrak Coast; 2.3.2.1 General Trends; 2.3.2.2 Spatial Variation at Selected Locations; 2.3.2.3 Differences Between an Exposed and an Semi-enclosed Subarea; 2.3.3 Areas with Recruitment Collapses; 2.3.3.1 Grenland; 2.3.3.2 Holmestrandfjord; 2.3.3.3 Inner Oslofjord; 2.3.4 Pooled Abundance of Gadoid and Non-Gadoid Fishes After the Recruitment Failures; 2.4 Discussion. 2.4.1 General Trends in the Abundance of Gadoids Along the Norwegian Skagerrak Coast2.4.2 Areas with Recruitment Collapses; 2.4.3 Eutrophication as a Probable Common Cause; References; 3 Causes of Variation in Abundance, Growth, and Mortality in 0-Group Gadoids After Settlement and a Hypothesis Underlying R ... ; 3.1 Introduction; 3.1.1 Background; 3.1.2 Mechanisms Underlying Recruitment Variability; 3.1.3 Settlement, Growth, and Recruitment; 3.2 Methods; 3.2.1 Settlement and Growth; 3.2.2 Growth and Year-Class Strength in 0-Group Cod; 3.2.3 Predation; 3.3 Results. 3.3.1 Settlement and Growth in the Gadoids3.3.2 Seasonal Patterns in the Abundance of Littoral Fishes and Invertebrates; 3.3.3 Predation; 3.3.4 Growth and Year-Class Strength of Cod; 3.4 Discussion; 3.4.1 Mortality in 0-Group Cod; 3.4.2 Predation; 3.4.3 Growth and Year-Class Strength; 3.4.3.1 Food Supply Affecting Survival But Not Growth; 3.4.3.2 Theoretical Analyses of Settlement, Growth, and Survival; 3.4.3.3 Growth of 0-Group Cod in Excess of Food; 3.4.4 A Recruitment Hypothesis for Cod; References. 4 Growth and Mortality in Settled Atlantic Cod in Relation to Diet-Evidence for a Recruitment Mechanism4.1 Introduction; 4.1.1 Empirical Background; 4.1.2 Fish Recruitment; 4.1.3 Field Test of a Recruitment Hypothesis for Cod; 4.2 Methods; 4.2.1 Sampling; 4.2.2 Diet and Condition; 4.2.3 Statistical Analyses; 4.3 Results; 4.3.1 Abundance, Size at Settlement, and Growth in 0-Group Cod; 4.3.2 Abundance of Other Littoral Fishes and Prawns; 4.3.3 Diet and Condition in Settled Cod; 4.3.3.1 Diet-July; 4.3.3.2 Condition-July; 4.3.3.3 Location 95-July 1996.
Responsibility: Tore Johannessen.

Abstract:

From an Antagonistic to a Synergistic Predator Prey Perspective: Bifurcations in Marine Ecosystems is a groundbreaking reference that challenges the widespread perception that predators generally have a negative impact on the abundance of their prey, and it proposes a novel paradigm - Predator-prey Synergism - in which both predator and prey enhance abundance by their co-existence. Using this model, the text explains a number of issues that appear paradoxical in the case of a negative predator-prey relationship, including observed ecosystem bifurcations (regime shifts), ecosystem resilience, red tides in apparently nutrient depleted water, and the dominance of grazed phytoplankton over non-grazed species under high grazing pressure. This novel paradigm can also be used to predict the potential impact of global warming on marine ecosystems, identify how marine ecosystem may respond to gradual environmental changes, and develop possible measures to mitigate the negative impact of increasing temperature in marine ecosystems. This book approaches the long-standing question of what generates recruitment variability in marine fishes and invertebrates in an engaging and unique way that students and researchers in marine ecosystems will understand. Introduces a new paradigm, Predator-prey Synergism, as a building block on which to construct new ecological theories. It suggests that Predator-prey Synergism is important in some terrestrial ecosystems and is in agreement with the punctuated equilibria theory of evolution (i.e., stepwise evolution). Suggests a general solution to the recruitment puzzle in marine organisms. Proposes a holistic hypothesis for marine spring blooming ecosystems by considering variability enhancing and variability dampening processes. Asserts that fisheries will induce variability in marine ecosystems and alter the energy flow patterns in predictable ways.

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