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Fundamentals of thermodynamics

Author: C Borgnakke; Richard Edwin Sonntag
Publisher: [Place of publication not identified] : John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2014.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 8th edView all editions and formats
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Now in a new edition, this book continues to set the standard for teaching readers how to be effective problem solvers, emphasizing the authors's signature methodologies that have taught over a half  Read more...

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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: C Borgnakke; Richard Edwin Sonntag
ISBN: 1118321774 9781118321775
OCLC Number: 857214540
Notes: Includes index.
Description: xvii, 770 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm
Contents: 1 Introduction 1 1.1 A Thermodynamic System and the Control Volume, 2 1.2 Macroscopic versus Microscopic Points of View, 5 1.3 Properties and State of a Substance, 6 1.4 Processes and Cycles, 6 1.5 Units for Mass, Length, Time, and Force, 8 1.6 Specific Volume and Density, 10 1.7 Pressure, 12 1.8 Energy, 18 1.9 Equality of Temperature, 20 1.10 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, 21 1.11 Temperature Scales, 21 1.12 Engineering Applications, 22 Summary, 26 Problems, 28 2 Pure Substance Behavior 35 2.1 The Pure Substance, 36 2.2 The Phase Boundaries, 36 2.3 The P-v-T Surface, 40 2.4 Tables of Thermodynamic Properties, 43 2.5 The Two-Phase States, 45 2.6 The Liquid and Solid States, 47 2.7 The Superheated Vapor States, 48 2.8 The Ideal Gas States, 51 2.9 The Compressibility Factor, 54 2.10 Equations of State, 58 2.11 Computerized Tables, 59 2.12 Engineering Applications, 59 Summary, 63 Problems, 64 3 First Law of Thermodynamics and Energy Equation 71 3.1 The Energy Equation, 71 3.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics, 74 3.3 The Definition of Work, 75 3.4 Work Done at the Moving Boundary of a Simple Compressible System, 80 3.5 Definition of Heat, 87 3.6 Heat Transfer Modes, 88 3.7 Internal Energy-a Thermodynamic Property, 90 3.8 Problem Analysis and Solution Technique, 92 3.9 The Thermodynamic Property Enthalpy, 97 3.10 The Constant-Volume and Constant-Pressure Specific Heats, 100 3.11 The Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heat of Ideal Gases, 102 3.12 General Systems That Involve Work, 108 3.13 Conservation of Mass, 110 3.14 Engineering Applications, 112 Summary, 119 Problems, 122 4 Energy Equation for a Control Volume 138 4.1 Conservation of Mass and the Control Volume, 138 4.2 The Energy Equation for a Control Volume, 141 4.3 The Steady-State Process, 143 4.4 Examples of Steady-State Processes, 145 4.5 Multiple Flow Devices, 157 4.6 The Transient Process, 159 4.7 Engineering Applications, 165 Summary, 169 Problems, 172 5 The Classical Second Law of Thermodynamics 186 5.1 Heat Engines and Refrigerators, 186 5.2 The Second Law of Thermodynamics, 192 5.3 The Reversible Process, 195 5.4 Factors That Render Processes Irreversible, 196 5.5 The Carnot Cycle, 199 5.6 Two Propositions Regarding the Efficiency of a Carnot Cycle, 201 5.7 The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale, 202 5.8 The Ideal-Gas Temperature Scale, 203 5.9 Ideal versus Real Machines, 207 5.10 Engineering Applications, 210 Summary, 213 Problems, 215 6 Entropy for a Control Mass 224 6.1 The Inequality of Clausius, 224 6.2 Entropy-a Property of a System, 228 6.3 The Entropy of a Pure Substance, 230 6.4 Entropy Change in Reversible Processes, 232 6.5 The Thermodynamic Property Relation, 237 6.6 Entropy Change of a Solid or Liquid, 238 6.7 Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas, 239 6.8 The Reversible Polytropic Process for an Ideal Gas, 243 6.9 Entropy Change of a Control Mass During an Irreversible Process, 247 6.10 Entropy Generation and the Entropy Equation, 248 6.11 Principle of the Increase of Entropy, 251 6.12 Entropy as a Rate Equation, 254 6.13 Some General Comments about Entropy and Chaos, 258 Summary, 260 Problems, 262 7 Entropy Equation for a Control Volume 274 7.1 The Second Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Volume, 274 7.2 The Steady-State Process and the Transient Process, 276 7.3 The Steady-State Single-Flow Process, 283 7.4 Principle of the Increase of Entropy, 287 7.5 Engineering Applications-Efficiency, 290 7.6 Summary of General Control Volume Analysis, 296 Summary, 297 Problems, 299 8 Exergy 313 8.1 Exergy, Reversible Work, and Irreversibility, 313 8.2 Exergy and Second-Law Efficiency, 324 8.3 Exergy Balance Equation, 332 8.4 Engineering Applications, 337 Summary, 338 Problems, 339 9 Power and Refrigeration Systems-with Phase Change 349 9.1 Introduction to Power Systems, 350 9.2 The Rankine Cycle, 352 9.3 Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the Rankine Cycle, 355 9.4 The Reheat Cycle, 359 9.5 The Regenerative Cycle and Feedwater Heaters, 362 9.6 Deviation of Actual Cycles from Ideal Cycles, 368 9.7 Combined Heat and Power: Other Configurations, 372 9.8 Introduction to Refrigeration Systems, 374 9.9 The Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle, 375 9.10 Working Fluids for Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems, 378 9.11 Deviation of the Actual Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle from the Ideal Cycle, 379 9.12 Refrigeration Cycle Configurations, 382 9.13 The Absorption Refrigeration Cycle, 384 Summary, 386 Problems, 387 10 Power and Refrigeration Systems-Gaseous Working Fluids 400 10.1 Air-Standard Power Cycles, 400 10.2 The Brayton Cycle, 401 10.3 The Simple Gas-Turbine Cycle with a Regenerator, 408 10.4 Gas-Turbine Power Cycle Configurations, 411 10.5 The Air-Standard Cycle for Jet Propulsion, 415 10.6 The Air-Standard Refrigeration Cycle, 418 10.7 Reciprocating Engine Power Cycles, 421 10.8 The Otto Cycle, 422 10.9 The Diesel Cycle, 427 10.10 The Stirling Cycle, 430 10.11 The Atkinson and Miller Cycles, 430 10.12 Combined-Cycle Power and Refrigeration Systems, 433 Summary, 435 Problems, 437 11 Ideal Gas Mixtures 448 11.1 General Considerations and Mixtures of Ideal Gases, 448 11.2 A Simplified Model of a Mixture Involving Gases and a Vapor, 456 11.3 The Energy Equation Applied to Gas-Vapor Mixtures, 460 11.4 The Adiabatic Saturation Process, 463 11.5 Engineering Applications-Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures and the Psychrometric Chart, 465 Summary, 471 Problems, 473 12 Thermodynamic Property Relations 485 12.1 The Clapeyron Equation, 485 12.2 Mathematical Relations for a Homogeneous Phase, 488 12.3 The Maxwell Relations, 490 12.4 Thermodynamic Relations Involving Enthalpy, Internal Energy, and Entropy, 493 12.5 Volume Expansivity and Isothermal and Adiabatic Compressibility, 499 12.6 Real-Gas Behavior and Equations of State, 501 12.7 The Generalized Chart for Changes of Enthalpy at Constant Temperature, 506 12.8 The Generalized Chart for Changes of Entropy at Constant Temperature, 509 12.9 The Property Relation for Mixtures, 513 12.10 Pseudopure Substance Models for Real Gas Mixtures, 516 12.11 Engineering Applications-Thermodynamic Tables, 521 Summary, 524 Problems, 526 13 Combustion 536 13.1 Fuels, 536 13.2 The Combustion Process, 540 13.3 Enthalpy of Formation, 547 13.4 Energy Analysis of Reacting Systems, 550 13.5 Enthalpy and Internal Energy of Combustion; Heat of Reaction, 555 13.6 Adiabatic Flame Temperature, 560 13.7 The Third Law of Thermodynamics and Absolute Entropy, 563 13.8 Second-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems, 564 13.9 Fuel Cells, 569 13.10 Engineering Applications, 573 Summary, 578 Problems, 579 14 Phase and Chemical Equilibrium 591 14.1 Requirements for Equilibrium, 591 14.2 Equilibrium Between Two Phases of a Pure Substance, 593 14.3 Metastable Equilibrium, 597 14.4 Chemical Equilibrium, 598 14.5 Simultaneous Reactions, 608 14.6 Coal Gasification, 612 14.7 Ionization, 612 14.8 Engineering Applications, 615 Summary, 618 Problems, 619 15 Compressible Flow 627 15.1 Stagnation Properties, 627 15.2 The Momentum Equation for a Control Volume, 629 15.3 Forces Acting on a Control Surface, 632 15.4 Adiabatic, One-Dimensional, Steady-State Flow of an Incompressible Fluid through a Nozzle, 634 15.5 Velocity of Sound in an Ideal Gas, 636 15.6 Reversible, Adiabatic, One-Dimensional Flow of an Ideal Gas through a Nozzle, 639 15.7 Mass Flow Rate of an Ideal Gas through an Isentropic Nozzle, 642 15.8 Normal Shock in an Ideal Gas Flowing through a Nozzle, 647 15.9 Nozzle and Diffuser Coefficients, 652 15.10 Nozzles and Orifices as Flow-Measuring Devices, 655 Summary, 659 Problems, 664 Contents of Appendix 671 Appendix A SI Units: Single-State Properties 673 Appendix B SI Units: Thermodynamic Tables 693 Appendix C Ideal Gas Specific Heat 743 Appendix D Equations of State 745 Appendix E Figures 751 Answers to Selected Problems 757 Index 765
Responsibility: Claus Borgnakke, Richard E. Sonntag.

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