Garlic and other alliums : the lore and the science (Book, 2009) []
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Garlic and other alliums : the lore and the science

Author: Eric Block
Publisher: Cambridge : Royal Society of Chemistry, 2009.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats

Outlines the extensive history and use since the dawn of civilization of alliums, as well as the understanding of their botany and chemistry.


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Genre/Form: History
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Eric Block
ISBN: 9780854041909 0854041907
OCLC Number: 311464092
Description: xx, 454 pages : illustrations, map, portraits, facsimiles ; 24 cm
Contents: Machine generated contents note: ch. 1 Allium Botany and Cultivation, Ancient and Modern --
1.1. Introduction --
1.2. Allium Botany and Phytochemistry --
1.2.1. The Naming of Alliums --
1.2.2. Allium Botany --
1.2.3. Allium Phytochemistry --
1.2.4. Alliums as Ornamentals --
1.2.5. Alliums as Invasive Weeds: Crow Garlic / A. Vineale --
1.3. Allium Cultivation in Ancient and Modern Times --
1.3.1. Alliums in Ancient Egypt and the Mediterranean Basin --
1.3.2. Alliums in Ancient India, China and Medieval Europe --
1.3.3. Alllium Cultivation Today --
ch. 2 All Things Allium: Alliums in Literature, the Arts and Culture --
2.1. Introduction --
2.2. Alliums in Literature --
2.3. Alliums in Poetry --
2.4. Alliums in Film, Song and Ballet --
2.5. Alliums in Painting --
2.6. Alliums in Architecture: Onion and Garlic Domes --
2.7. Alliums Everywhere: Jewelry, Numismatics, Stamps, Porcelain, and so forth --
2.8. Allium Usage Among Different Cultures Since Biblical Times: Alliophiles, Alliophobes, the Evil Eye and Onion Laws --
ch. 3 Allium Chemistry 101: Historical Highlights, Fascinating Facts and Unusual Uses for Alliums; Kitchen Chemistry --
3.1. Introduction --
3.2. Early History of Garlic and Onion Chemistry --
3.3. The Rensselaer Connection: Isolation of Allicin from Chopped Garlic --
3.4. The Basis for the Antibiotic Activity of Allium-Derived Compounds --
3.5. The Basis for the Pungency of Cut Alliums --
3.6. The Basis for the Strong Odor of Cut Alliums --
3.7. How Onion Makes us Cry and What to do About it --
3.8. No Tears from New Zealand: Genetically Engineering the Tearless Onion --
3.9. Determining the Geographical Origin of Alliums --
3.10. Metabolism of Compounds from Alliums: Garlic Breath, Garlic Sweat, the Case of the Black-Speckled Dolls, Stinky Milk and an Ancient Fertility Test --
3.10.1. Metabolism of Allium Compounds --
3.10.2. Garlic Breath --
3.10.3. Hydrogen Sulfide: Stinky but Vital --
3.10.4. The Case of the Black-Speckled Dolls --
3.10.5. Fighting Garlic Breath Naturally; Chlorophyll as a Deodorant for Garlic --
3.10.6. Diagnostic Value of Garlic Breath; Forensic Significance of Garlic-like Odor --
3.10.7. Stinky Milk --
3.10.8. An Ancient Fertility Test --
3.11. Alliums in Art: Dyeing with Onion Skins and Garlic Glue in Gilding --
3.12. Alliums in the Kitchen as Spices, Herbs and Foods --
3.12.1. Introduction --
3.12.2. Onions in the Kitchen: The Effect of Cooking Temperature --
3.12.3. Garlic in the Kitchen: Crushing, Baking, Boiling, Frying, Pickling and Drying Garlic --
ch. 4 Chemistry in a Salad Bowl: Allium Chemistry and Biochemistry --
4.1. The Basel Connection: Alliin, the Allicin-Precursor from Garlic --
4.2. The Helsinki Connection: The Onion Lachrymatory Factor (LF) and its Precursor, Isoalliin --
4.2.1. Isoalliin, Precursor of the Onion Lachrymatory Factor (LF) --
4.2.2. The Onion Lachrymatory Factor (LF) --
4.3. The St. Louis and Albany Connections: Revised Structures for Sulfenic Acids, the Onion LF and the LF Dimer --
4.4. A Tale of Two Enzymes: Alliinase, a Cellular Assembly Line for Allicin Formation; LF Synthase, Making a Slow Reaction Fast --
4.4.1. Allicin from Alliin and why Allicin from Garlic is Racemic --
4.4.2. The LF Synthase Enzyme --
4.5. The Aroma and Taste of Alliums: A Multitude of Flavor Precursors --
4.5.1. Analysis by Paper and Thin Layer Chromatography --
4.5.2. Analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and LC-MS --
4.5.3. Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Distilled Allium Oils; Artifact Problems -- Distilled Onion Oil -- Artifact Formation --
4.5.4. Ambient Mass Spectrometric Study of Alliums -- Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART): A Mass Spectrometric Method for Direct Observation of 2-Propenesulfenic Acid, Propanethial S-Oxide, Allicin and Other Reactive Allium Sulfur Compounds -- Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI) -- Extractive Electrospray Ionization (EESI) -- Plasma-Assisted Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (PADI) --
4.5.5. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic Imaging of Onion Cells --
4.5.6. Other Separation and Analysis Methods: Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC), Capillary Electrophoresis and Cysteine Sulfoxide-Specific Biosensors --
4.6. Precursors of the Precursors, Alliin, Isoalliin and Methiin: Biosynthetic Origins of Allium Sulfur Compounds --
4.7. Allicin Transformations, Part 1: Garlic Oil Revisited --
4.7.1. Allicin Wonderland --
4.7.2. Garlic Oil Formation by Hydrolysis of Allicin --
4.7.3. Analytical Considerations; Coordination Ion Spray-Mass Spectrometry (CIS-MS) --
4.7.4. Analysis of Garlic Oil by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy --
4.7.5. Synthesis of Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Trisulfides and Heavier Polysulfides --
4.7.6. Mechanistic Considerations --
4.8. Allicin Transformations, Part 2: The Discovery of Ajoene --
4.9. Antioxidant and Pro-oxidant Activity of Allium Compounds --
4.10. The Munich/Nagoya Connection: Cepaenes, Nine-Carbon, Three-Sulfur, One-Oxygen Molecules from Onion --
4.11. From Munich to Albany: The Solution to a Chemical Puzzle --
Zwiebelanes and a Bis-sulfine --
4.11.1. Discovery of Zwiebelanes --
4.11.2. Discovery of a Bis-sulfine --
4.11.3. Super Smelly Onion Compounds --
4.12. Silencing Genes Alters Natural Products Chemistry: The Tearless Onion --
4.13. Garlic Greening, Onion Pinking and a Novel Red Pyrrole Pigment from "Drumstick" Alliums --
4.14. Selenium Compounds in Alliums --
4.15. Synopsis of Allium Chemistry --
ch. 5 Alliums in Folk and Complementary Medicine --
5.1. Early History of Alliums in Folk Medicine --
5.2. Garlic Dietary Supplements: Marketing and Regulation --
5.3. Garlic as Medicine: A Legal Ruling --
5.4. Health Benefits of Garlic and Other Alliums: Evidence-Based Review System for Scientifically Evaluating Health Claims and its Application to Evaluating Research --
5.5. Antimicrobial Activity of Allium Extracts and Supplements: In vitro, In vivo, Dietary and Clinical Studies --
5.5.1. Antifungal Activity of Allium Compounds --
5.5.2. Antibacterial Activity of Allium Compounds: Bad Breath --
Disease or Cure? --
5.5.3. The Garlic Mask Treatment for Tuberculosis --
5.5.4. Antiparasitic Activity of Allium Compounds: In vitro Studies --
5.5.5. Antiviral Activity of Allium Compounds --
5.6. Alliums and Cancer: Dietary, In vitro and In vivo Studies --
5.6.1. Evidence-based Review of Garlic Intake and Cancer Risk --
5.6.2. Epidemiological Studies --
5.6.3. Clinical Trials: Use of Ajoene in Treating Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer and Allicin in Gastroscopic Treatment of Gastric Carcinoma --
5.6.4. In vitro and In vivo Mechanistic Studies --
5.7. The Effect of Dietary Garlic and Onions and Garlic Supplements on Cardiovascular Disease --
5.7.1. Epidemiological Studies --
5.7.2. In vitro and In vivo Studies Relevant to the Cardiovascular Benefits of Allium Consumption --
5.7.3. Allium Antioxidants --
5.7.4. The Effect of Dietary Garlic and Garlic Supplements on Cholesterol Levels: The Stanford Clinical Trial --
5.7.5. Antithrombotic Activity of Dietary Garlic and Other Alliums; Garlic Supplements and their Effect on Platelet Biochemistry and Physiology --
5.7.6. Antihypertensive Activity of Dietary Garlic and Garlic Supplements --
5.7.7. Dietary Garlic and Inflammation --
5.7.8. Garlic and Hyperhomocysteinemia --
5.7.9. Garlic and High-Altitude Sickness and Hepatopulmonary Syndrome --
5.7.10. Summary of Cardiovascular Benefits of Garlic --
5.8. Dietary Alliums and Diabetes --
5.9. Garlic Sulfur Compounds: Antidotes for Cyanide, Arsenic and Lead Poisoning --
5.10. Dietary Alliums as Anti-asthmatic and Anti-inflammatory Agents and use for Stings and Bites; Topical Allium Extract Application and Scar Healing --
5.11. Onion Consumption and Bone Loss --
5.12. Adverse Effects and Health Risks Associated with Allium Foods --
5.12.1. How much Garlic can be Safely Consumed per Day? --
5.12.2. Garlic Consumption by Pregnant or Lactating Women: Infant Bad Breath --
5.12.3. How do Onions cause Gastric Reflux and Heartburn? --
5.12.4. Allium-Linked Botulism and Hepatitus --
5.12.5. Choking on Cloves --
5.12.6. Allium Allergies and Contact Dermatitis --
5.13. Don't Feed your Pet Onion or Garlic! --
5.14. Adverse Effects and Herb-Drug Interactions from Medicinal Use of Garlic --
5.14.1. Burns from Medicinal Use of Garlic --
5.14.2. Garlic-Drug Interactions --
5.14.3. Effect of Garlic on Platelets and Blood Clotting Processes --
5.15. Overview of the Clinical Effectiveness of Garlic --
ch. 6 Alliums in the Environment: Allelopathy and Allium-Derived Attractants, Antibiotics, Herbicides, Pesticides and Repellents --
6.1. It's a Jungle Out There! --
6.2. Herbicidal and Pesticidal Activity of Allium Plants in their Natural Environment --
6.2.1. Learning from Leeks --
6.2.2. An Assertive Plant: The Case of Bear's Garlic / A. Ursinum --
6.3. Pesticidal and Antibiotic Activity and Insect Repellent Properties of Compounds from Allium Plants --
6.3.1. Nematodes --
6.3.2. Coleoptera (beetles), Lepidoptera (moths, butterflies), Hemiptera (true bugs; includes aphids), and Diptera (true flies; includes mosquitoes), Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants) and Isoptera (termites) --
6.3.3. Arachnida (Acari: mites and ticks) --
6.3.4. Gastropods: Slugs and Snails --
6.3.5. Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, Fungi and Oomycetes: Phytoanticipins --
6.4. Use of Onion as an Insect Repellent by Capuchine Monkeys --
6.5. Bird Repellent Activity of Compounds from Allium Plants --
6.6. Companion Planting/Intercropping with Alliums Note continued: 6.7. Conclusions.
Responsibility: author, Eric Block.


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This book brings to mind the poet Horace's formula for successful writing: He wins every hand who mingles profit with pleasure, by delighting and instructing the reader at the same time. Eric Block Read more...

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