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Gas mixtures : preparation and control

Author: Gary O Nelson
Publisher: Boca Raton [Fla.] : Lewis Publishers, an imprint of CRC Press LLC, [1992] ©1992
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Genre/Form: Electronic book
Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: (DLC) 91044350
(OCoLC)25051424
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Gary O Nelson
ISBN: 9781351446143 1351446142 9781351446150 1351446150
OCLC Number: 1034988612
Description: 1 online resource : illustrations
Contents: Cover --
Title Page --
Copyright Page --
PREFACE --
BIOGRAPHY --
Table of Contents --
1: Introduction and General Principles --
1.1 Fundamental Gas Laws --
1.1.1 Ideal Gases --
1.1.1.1 Pressure, Temperature, and Volume --
1.1.1.2 Density --
1.1.1.3 Concentration --
1.1.2 Nonideal Gases --
1.1.2.1 Atmospheric Pressure --
1.1.2.2 High Pressure --
1.2 Safety Considerations --
1.3 Scientific Notation and Units of Measurement --
2: Air Purification --
2.1 Removal of Water Vapor --
2.1.1 Solid Desiccants --
2.1.1.1 Anhydrous Magnesium Perchlorate --
2.1.1.2 Calcium Sulfate --
2.1.1.3 Silica Gel --
2.1.1.4 Activated Alumina --
2.1.1.5 Molecular Sieve --
2.1.2 Liquid Desiccants --
2.1.3 Cooling --
2.2 Removal of Particulates --
2.3 Removal of Organic Vapors --
2.4 Removal of Miscellaneous Contaminants --
2.5 A Typical Laboratory Compressed-Air System --
References --
3: Flow Rate and Volume Measurements --
3.1 Primary Standards --
3.1.1 Spirometers --
3.1.2 Pitot Tubes --
3.1.3 Frictionless Pistons --
3.1.4 Syringe Drive Systems --
3.1.5 Aspirator Bottles --
3.2 Intermediate Standards --
3.2.1 Wet Test Meters --
3.2.2 Dry Gas Meters --
3.3 Secondary Standards --
3.3.1 Rotameters --
3.3.2 Mass Flow Meters --
3.3.3 Orifice Meters --
3.3.4 Critical Orifices --
3.3.5 Porous Plugs --
3.3.6 Controlled Leaks --
3.3.7 Miscellaneous Devices --
References --
4: Static Systems for Producing Gas Mixtures --
4.1 Systems at Atmospheric Pressure --
4.1.1 Single Rigid Chambers --
4.1.1.1 Sample Introduction --
4.1.1.2 Gas Blenders --
4.1.1.3 Miscellaneous Dispensers --
4.1.1.4 Mixing Devices --
4.1.1.5 Concentration Calculations --
4.1.1.6 Volume Dilution Calculations --
4.1.1.7 Discussion --
4.1.2 Rigid Chambers in Series --
4.1.3 Nonrigid Chambers --
4.1.3.1 Sample Introduction --
4.1.3.2 Sample Decay --
4.2 Pressurized Systems --
4.2.1 Gravimetric Methods. 4.2.2 Partial Pressure Methods --
4.2.3 Volumetric Methods --
4.3 Partially Evacuated Systems --
Reference --
5: Dynamic Systems for Producing Gas Mixtures --
5.1 Gas Stream Mixing --
5.1.1 Single Dilution --
5.1.2 Double Dilution --
5.2 Injection Methods --
5.2.1 Liquid Reservoirs --
5.2.2 Syringe Drive Systems --
5.2.3 Liquid Pumps --
5.2.4 Miscellaneous Injection Methods --
5.2.4.1 Electrolytic Methods --
5.2.4.2 Gravity Feed Methods --
5.2.4.3 Liquid and Gas Pistons --
5.2.4.4 Pulse Diluters --
5.2.5 Injection Ports --
5.2.6 Vaporization Techniques --
5.2.7 The Ultimate System --
5.2.8 Calculations --
5.3 Diffusion Methods --
5.4 Permeation Methods --
5.4.1 Device Construction --
5.4.2 Calibration --
5.4.3 Calculations --
5.4.4 Discussion --
5.5 Evaporation Methods --
5.6 Electrolytic Methods --
5.7 Chemical Methods --
References --
6: Specialized Systems --
6.1 Ozone --
6.1.1 Methods of Generation --
6.1.2 Methods of Analysis --
6.2 Nitrogen Dioxide --
6.2.1 Static Systems --
6.2.2 Dynamic Systems --
6.3 Mercury --
6.4 Hydrogen Cyanide --
6.4.1 Static Systems --
6.4.2 Dynamic Systems --
6.5 Hydrogen Fluoride --
6.6 Formaldehyde --
6.7 Chlorine Dioxide --
6.8 Bromine and Iodine --
6.9 Humidity --
6.9.1 Static Systems --
6.9.2 Dynamic Systems --
6.9.3 Calculations --
6.9.4 Methods of Measurement --
References --
Appendices --
Appendix A: Conversion Factors --
Appendix B: Atomic Weights and Numbers --
Appendix C: Values of the Molar Gas Constant --
Appendix D: Density of Dry Air --
Appendix E: Densities of Common Gases and Their Deviation from the Perfect Gas Law --
Appendix F: Diffusion Coefficients at 25°C and 760 mmHg in Air --
Appendix G: Constants for Vapor Pressure Calculations --
Appendix H: Vapor Pressures of Water at Various Temperatures --
Appendix I: Mass of Water Vapor in Saturated Air at 1 atm Pressure. Appendix J: Relative Humidity from Wet- and Dry-Bulb Thermometer Readings --
Appendix K: Gas Row Conversion Factors for Mass Flow Controllers --
Appendix L: Table of Atomic Volumes Used for Diffusion Coefficient Calculation --
Appendix M: Density of Dry Air as a Function of Altitude at 20oC --
Appendix N: Equilibrium Relative Humidity of Selected Saturated Salt Solutions --
Appendix O: Characteristics of Commercially Available Permeation Sources --
Appendix P: Cylinder Size and Capacities --
Appendix Q: Viscosity of Gases and Vapors --
Appendix R: Miran lA Operating Instructions --
Index.
Responsibility: Gary O. Nelson.

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