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Green aviation : reduction of environmental impact through aircraft technology and alternative fuels

Author: Emily S Nelson; D R Reddy
Publisher: The Netherlands ; Boca Raton : CRC Press/Balkema, [2017]
Series: Sustainable energy developments.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
"Aircraft emissions currently account for ~3.5% of all greenhouse gas emissions. The number of passenger miles has increased by 5% annually despite 9/11, two wars and gloomy economic conditions. Since aircraft have no viable alternative to the internal combustion engine, improvements in aircraft efficiency and alternative fuel development become essential. This book comprehensively covers the relevant issues in  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Green aviation
The Netherlands ; Boca Raton : CRC Press/Balkema, [2017]
(DLC) 2017031115
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Emily S Nelson; D R Reddy
ISBN: 9780203119969 0203119967
OCLC Number: 1003489623
Description: 1 online resource.
Contents: Part I. Environmental impacts of aviation --
1. Noise emissions from commercial aircraft --
Edmane Envia --
1.1 Introduction --
1.2 Sources of aircraft noise --
1.3 Aircraft component noise levels (example) --
1.4 Summary --
2. Aircraft emissions: gaseous and particulate --
Changlie Wey and Chi-Ming Lee --
2.1 Introduction --
2.2 Gaseous emissions --
2.3 Particle emissions --
2.4 Alternative fuels --
2.5 Summary --
3. Improvement of aeropropulsion fuel efficiency through engine design --
Kenneth L. Suder and James D. Heidmann --
3.1 Introduction --
3.2 Early history of NASA Glenn Research Center aeropropulsion fuel efficiency efforts, 1943 to 1958 --
3.3 Introduction of turbofan engines and Improved propulsive efficiency --
3.4 Energy crisis of 1970s and NASA Aeronautics Response --
3.5 NASA's role in component test cases and computational fluid dynamics development --
3.6 Current NASA efforts at reduced fuel consumption --
3.7 Summary --
Part II. Technologies to mitigate environmental impacts --
4. Noise mitigation strategies --
Dennis L. Huff --
4.1 Introduction --
4.2 Noise reduction methods --
4.3 Future Noise-Reduction Technologies --
4.4 Summary --
5. Advanced materials for green aviation --
Ajay Misra --
5.1 Introduction --
5.2 Lightweight materials --
5.3 Smart materials --
5.4 High-temperature materials --
5.5 Materials for electric aircraft --
5.6 Summary --
6. C lean combustion and emission control --
Changlie Wey and Chi-Ming Lee --
6.1 Introduction --
6.2 Products of combustion --
6.3 Emissions control --
6.4 Engine NOx control strategies --
6.5 Tradeoffs involved in reducing NOx emissions --
6.6 Summary --
7. Airspace systems technologies --
Banavar Sridhar --
7.1 Introduction --
7.2 Current airspace operations --
7.3 Advanced airspace operations concepts --
7.4 Next generation air transportation system technologies --
7.5 Conclusions --
8. Alternative fuels and green aviation --
Emily S. Nelson --
8.1 Introduction --
8.2 Aviation fuel requirements --
8.3 Fuel properties --
8.4 Biofuel feedstocks for aviation fuels --
8.5 Manufacturing stages --
8.6 Life cycle assessment --
8.7 Conclusions --
Appendix. Basic terminology and concepts in hydrocarbon chemistry --
9. Overview of alternative fuel drivers, technology options, and demand fulfillment --
Kirsten Van Fossen, Kristin C. Lewis, Robert Malina, Hakan Olcay and James I. Hileman --
9.1 Introduction --
9.2 Alternative fuel drivers --
9.3 Technology options --
9.4 Meeting demand for alternative jet fuel --
9.5 Conclusions 244 --
10. Biofuel feedstocks and supply chains: how ecological models can assist with design and scaleup --
Kristin C. Lewis, Dan F.B. Flynn and Jeffrey J. Steiner --
10.1 Introduction --
10.2 Challenges of developing an agriculturally based advanced biofuel industry --
10.3 Potential benefits of scaled-up biofuel feedstock production --
10.4 Regionalized biomass production and linkage to conversion technology --
10.5 Applying ecological models to biofuel production --
10.6 Summary --
11. Microalgae feedstocks for aviation fuels --
Mark S. Wigmosta, Andre M. Coleman, Erik R. Venteris and Richard L. Skaggs --
11.1 Introduction --
11.2 Algae growth characteristics --
11.3 Large-scale production potential and resource constraints --
11.4 Two-billion gallon per year case study --
11.5 Summary and conclusions --
12. Certification of alternative fuels --
Mark Rumizen and Tim Edwards --
12.1 Introduction --
12.2 Background --
12.3 ASTM certification process --
12.4 U.S. Federal Aviation Administration certification --
12.5 Future pathways --
13. Environmental performance of alternative jet fuels --
Hakan Olcay, Robert Malina, Kristin Lewis, Jennifer Papazian, Kirsten van Fossen, Warren Gillette, Mark Staples, Steven R.H. Barrett, Russell W. Stratton and James I. Hileman --
13.1 Introduction --
13.2 Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions and impacts of alternative fuels on global climate change --
13.3 Water --
13.4 Biodiversity --
13.5 Conclusions --
14. Perspectives on the future of green aviation --
Jay E. Dryer --
14.1 Introduction --
14.2 Key factors affecting the future of green aviation --
14.3 Required technology for aircraft development and design --
14.4 Required technology for greater alternative fuel utilization --
14.5 Possible disruptive technologies --
14.6 Forecast --
14.7 Summary.
Series Title: Sustainable energy developments.
Responsibility: editors, Emily S. Nelson & Dhanireddy R. Reddy, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Abstract:

"Aircraft emissions currently account for ~3.5% of all greenhouse gas emissions. The number of passenger miles has increased by 5% annually despite 9/11, two wars and gloomy economic conditions. Since aircraft have no viable alternative to the internal combustion engine, improvements in aircraft efficiency and alternative fuel development become essential. This book comprehensively covers the relevant issues in green aviation. Environmental impacts, technology advances, public policy and economics are intricately linked to the pace of development that will be realized in the coming decades. Experts from NASA and industry review current technology development in green aviation that will carry the industry through 2025 and beyond. This includes increased efficiency through better propulsion systems, reduced drag airframes, advanced materials and operational changes. Clean combustion and emission control of noise, exhaust gases and particulates are also addressed through combustor design and the use of alternative fuels. Economic imperatives from aircraft lifetime and maintaince logistics dictate the drive for "drop-in" fuels, blending jet-grade and biofuel. New certification standards for such fuels are outlined. Life Cycle Assessments are used to evaluate worldwide biofuel approaches, highlighting that there is no single rational approach for sustainable buildup. In fact, unless local conditions are considered, the use of biofuels can create a net increase in environmental impact as a result of biofuel manufacturing processes. Governmental experts evaluate current and future regulations and their impact on green aviation. Sustainable approaches to biofuel development are discussed for locations around the globe, including the US, EU, Brazil, China and India."--Provided by publisher.

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