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The handbook of lighting surveys & audits

Author: John L Fetters
Publisher: Boca Raton : CRC Press, ©1998.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Genre/Form: Electronic book
Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Fetters, John L.
Handbook of lighting surveys & audits.
Boca Raton : CRC Press, ©1998
(DLC) 97036667
(OCoLC)37493464
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: John L Fetters
ISBN: 9780203736647 0203736648
OCLC Number: 1035845781
Notes: Includes index.
Description: 1 online resource (155 pages) : illustrations.
Contents: Intro --
Title Page --
Copyright Page --
Dedication --
Preface --
The Author --
Table of Contents --
Chapter 1: Introduction to Lighting Surveys and Audits --
Background --
Lighting Efficiency Programs --
Demand-Side Management (DSM) Programs --
EPA Green Lights Program --
Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) --
Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) --
The Changing Role of Utilities --
Opportunities for Survey Work --
Lighting Upgrade Approaches --
Two Views of Lighting Systems --
The Lighting Survey Defined --
The Lighting Audit Defined --
Purposes of Surveys and Audits --
Types of Surveys and Audits --
The Walk-Thru Survey --
The Intermediate Audit (Mini-audit) --
The Comprehensive Audit --
Summary --
Chapter 2: The Lighting Evaluation Process --
Evaluating Lighting Systems --
Step 1: Performing a Lighting Survey or Audit --
Step 2: Identifying Opportunities for Improvements --
Quantitative Identification --
Power Density (W/sf) --
Light Level or Illuminance (FC) --
Lighting Controls --
Qualitative Identification --
Step 3: Calculating Savings and Potential Payback --
Lighting Economics --
Electricity Costs --
Electric Rate Structures --
Economic Decision Statistics --
Simple Payback --
Life-Cycle Costing --
Auditor Evaluation Skills --
Selection and Training of Auditors --
Summary --
Chapter 3: Types of Surveys and Audits --
Which Type of Survey or Audit Should I Use? --
The Walk-Thru Survey --
Free" (Vendor) Surveys --
Information Gathered for the Walk-Thru Survey --
Data Analysis --
Example of Per Fixture Savings and Payback --
Example of Energy Savings and Payback --
Example of Lamps and Labor Cost Savings and Payback --
Example of Total Cost Savings --
Example of Upgrade Cost --
The Intermediate Audit (Mini-Audit) --
The Comprehensive Audit --
Zonal-Cavity Calculations --
Example of Zonal-Cavity Calculation to Find CU --
Maintenance Costs. Example of Life-Cycle Costing --
Effects of Lighting Systems on HVAC Systems --
The Effect of Income Tax on Savings --
Example of After-Tax Savings without Depreciation --
Example of After-Tax Savings with Depreciation --
The Report --
Summary --
Chapter 4: Tools and Measuring Instruments --
Personal Safety Equipment --
Access Equipment --
Data Recording Instruments --
Measuring Instruments and Their Use --
Measuring Distance --
Counting Fixtures --
Measuring Illuminance --
Light Meters --
Light Meter Suppliers --
Measuring Illuminance --
Techniques --
Measuring Electrical Values --
Lighting System Voltage --
Lighting Loads --
Clamp-On Ammeter Manufacturers --
Measuring Hours of Use --
Lighting Loggers --
Lighting Logger Manufacturers --
Locating Veiling Reflections --
Carrying Tools and Instruments --
Lighting Evaluation System (LES) --
Summary --
Chapter 5: Collecting Building Information: Tips and Techniques --
Scope of Data Collection --
Before the On-Site Audit --
Collecting Information --
Electrical Data --
Building Drawings --
Client Input --
Organizing the Audit --
Briefing the Audit Teams --
Steps to a Successful On-Site Audit --
Measuring Light Levels --
Collecting Lighting Data --
Lighting Quality --
Describing Fixtures --
Counting Fixtures and Lamps (Bulbs) --
Identifying Lamp (Bulb) Types --
Determining Lighting Loads --
Determining the Condition of Fixtures and Spaces --
Collecting Other Data --
Lighting System Voltage --
Switching Methods and Zoning --
Hours of Use --
Conducting Interviews --
Auditing Exterior Lighting Systems --
Auditing the Auditors --
Completing the Audit --
Summary --
Chapter 6: Commercial Software for Surveys and Analysis --
Computer Spreadsheets --
IESNA Lighting Handbook Software --
SYLVIA PC for Windows --
LightPAD --
Program Inputs --
Reports --
InSite --
AUDIT 2000 --
Green Lights Programs. Green Lights/Decision Support System (GL/DSS) --
Quikalc --
A Comparison of Quikalc and GL/DSS --
Calcu-Lite --
DataMaters Lighting Audits Made Plain and Simple (L.A.M.P.S.) --
Summary --
Chapter 7: Sample Audit Reports --
Sample Walk-Thru Survey Report --
Intermediate Audit Reports --
Comprehensive Audit Reports --
Chapter 8: Lighting Fact Sheets --
Fact Sheet 1: Lighting Basics --
Quantity of Light --
Quality of Light --
Fact Sheet 2: Lamp and Bulb Identification --
Incandescent Bulbs --
Fluorescent Tubes --
Compact Fluorescent (CFL) Bulbs --
High-Intensity Discharge (HID) Bulbs --
Fact Sheet 3: Lamp Color --
Color Temperature --
Color Rendering Index (CRI) --
Fact Sheet 4: Ballasts --
Types of Ballasts --
Lamp Operation --
Magnetic Ballasts --
Ballast Efficacy Factor (BEF) and Ballast Factor (BF) --
Electronic Ballasts --
Tandem Wiring --
Fact Sheet 5: Luminaires --
Optics --
Types of Luminaires --
Luminaire Light Loss Factors --
Fact Sheet 6: Luminaire Identification --
Classification of Luminaires --
Interior --
Fluorescent --
Interior --
Industrial --
Exterior --
Fact Sheet 7: Lighting Systems --
Incandescent Systems --
Fluorescent Direct Systems --
High-Intensity Discharge (HID) Direct Systems --
Fluorescent Indirect Systems --
High-Intensity Discharge (HID) Indirect Systems --
Luminous/Louvered Ceilings --
Task/ Ambient Lighting --
Industrial Lighting Systems --
Emergency Lighting Systems --
Exterior Lighting Systems --
Fact Sheet 8: Interior Lighting Layouts and Ceiling Plan Guides --
Grid Ceiling Layouts --
Luminaire Spacing --
Estimating Fixture Count from Fixture Layout --
Estimating Power Density (PD) and Illuminance (FC) --
Fact Sheet 9: Improving Lighting System Performance --
Building Systems Interaction --
Measures of Performance --
Luminaire Performance --
Upgrading Luminaire Performance. Deciding Whether to Upgrade or to Relight with New Luminaires --
Lighting Efficacy Ratings (LER) for Fluorescent Luminaires --
Other System Efficiency Improvements --
Controls --
Fact Sheet 10: The Effects of Overvoltage and Undervoltage on Lighting Systems --
Normal Fluorescent Operating Voltage --
Lamp Starting --
Lamp Output --
Lamp Life --
Ballast Life --
Fact Sheet 11: The Effect of Ambient Temperature on Lighting Systems --
Normal Fluorescent Operating Temperature --
Out-of-Tolerance Operating Temperature --
High-Intensity Discharge (HID) Operating Temperature --
Fact Sheet 12: Effects of Switching on Lamp Life --
Myths and Realities --
Lower Lighting costs --
Effects of Frequent Switching on Fluorescent Lamps --
Incandescent and High-Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps --
Fact Sheet 13: Calculations --
Lighting Power Density (PD) --
Average Light Level --
Zonal-Cavity Method --
Spacing and Spacing Criteria --
Lamps per Year --
Economic Payback --
Fact Sheet 14: Lighting Maintenance --
Principles of Lighting Maintenance --
Effect of Maintenance on Efficiency and Effectiveness --
Group Relamping --
Action Steps --
Troubleshooting --
Observing and Recording Maintenance Condition --
Fact Sheet 15: Lamp and Ballast Disposal --
Lamp Disposal --
Ballast Disposal --
Chapter 9: Lighting Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) --
Payback --
Cost versus Persistence --
Inexpensive, Low-Persistence ECMs --
Delamping Strategy --
Lamp Socket Replacements (Twist-of-the-Wrist-T.O.W.-Retrofits) --
Energy-Efficient Incandescent Bulbs: Standard Bulb Replacement --
Energy-Efficient Incandescent Bulbs: Rand PAR Bulb Replacements --
Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) --
T10 Q&D ("Quick and Dirty") Fixture Upgrade --
EXIT Light Retrofit Lamps --
Medium-Cost, More Permanent ECMs --
T8/ELB Fixture Upgrade --
EXIT Light LED Kit --
In Situ Luminaire Upgrades. New Luminaires (Relighting) --
Task/Ambient Lighting System --
Switch/Timer --
Astronomical Clock Timer --
Occupancy Sensors --
Lighting Maintenance Considerations-No Energy Payback --
Chapter 10: Checklist Forms --
Walk-Thru Survey Forms --
Walk-Thru Lighting Survey Checklists --
Walk-Thru Lighting Survey Form --
Lighting Audit Forms --
Office Lighting Checklist --
Industrial Lighting Checklist --
Fixture Schedule Forms --
List of Abbreviations --
Proprietary Names --
Glossary --
Index.
Responsibility: John L. Fetters.
More information:

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