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Handbook of safety principles

Author: Niklas Möller; Sven Ove Hansson; Jan-Erik Holmberg
Publisher: Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2018. ©2018
Series: Essentials series.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
"Presents recent breakthroughs in the theory, methods, and applications of safety and risk analysis for safety engineers, risk analysts, and policy makers Safety principles are paramount to addressing structured handling of safety concerns in all technological systems. This handbook captures and discusses the multitude of safety principles in a practical and applicable manner. It is organized by five overarching
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Handbook of safety principles.
Hoboken : Wiley, 2017
(DLC) 2017024321
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Niklas Möller; Sven Ove Hansson; Jan-Erik Holmberg
ISBN: 9781118950708 1118950704 9781119443070 1119443075
OCLC Number: 1006525290
Notes: Machine generated contents note: Preface List of Contributors Chapter 1: Introduction Niklas Moller, Sven Ove Hansson, Jan-Erik Holmberg, and Carl Rollenhagen Chapter 2: Preview Niklas Moller, Sven Ove Hansson, Jan-Erik Holmberg, and Carl Rollenhagen Part I: Safety Reserves Chapter 3: Resilience Engineering and the Future of Safety Management Erik Hollnagel Chapter 4: Defence-in-Depth Jan-Erik Holmberg Chapter 5: Safety Barriers Lars Harms-Ringdahl and Carl Rollenhagen Chapter 6: Factors and Margins of Safety Neelke Doorn and Sven Ove Hansson Part II: Information and Control Chapter 7: Experience Feedback Urban Kjellen Chapter 8: Risk and Safety Indicators Drew Rae Chapter 9: Principles of Human Factors Engineering Leena Norros and Paula Savioja Chapter 10: Safety Automation Bjorn Wahlstrom Chapter 11: Risk Communication Jan Gutteling Chapter 12: The Precautionary Principle Sven Ove Hansson Chapter 13: Operating Procedure Jinkuyn Park Chapter 14: Human Machine System Anna-Lisa Osvalder and Hkan Alm Part III: Demonstrability Chapter 15: Quality Principles and Their Applications to Safety Bo Bergman Chapter 16: Safety Cases Tim Kelly Chapter 17: Inherently Safe Design Rajagopalan Srinivasan and Mohd Umair Iqbal Chapter 18: Maintenance, Maintainability, and Inspectability Torbjorn Ylipaa, Anders Skoogh, and Jon Bokrantz Part IV: Optimization Chapter 19: On the Risk-Informed Regulation in the Safety Against External Hazards Pieter van Gelder Chapter 20: Quantitative Risk Analysis Jan-Erik Holmberg Chapter 21: Qualitative Risk Analysis Risto Tiusanen Chapter 22: Principles and Limitations of Cost-Benefit Analysis for Safety Investments Genserik Reniers and Luca Talarico Chapter 23: RAMS Optimization Principles Yanfu Li and Enrico Zio Chapter 24: Maintenance Optimization and Its Relation to Safety Roger Flage Chapter 25: Human Reliability Analysis Luca Podofillini Chapter 26: ALARA, BAT and the Substitution Principle Sven Ove Hansson Part V: Organizational Principles & Practices Chapter 27: Safety Management Principles Gudela Grote Chapter 28: Safety Culture Teemu Reiman and Carl Rollenhagen Chapter 29: Principles of Behavior-Based Safety Steve Roberts and Scott Geller Chapter 30: Principles of Emergency Plans and Crisis Management Ann Enander Chapter 31: Safety Standards: Chronic Challenges and Emerging Principles Ibrahim Habli Chapter 32: Managing the Unexpected Jean-christophe Le Coze Index.
Description: 1 online resource.
Contents: Machine generated contents note: 1. Introduction --
1.1.Competition, Overlap, and Conflicts / Sven Ove Hansson / Niklas Wier / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
1.2.A New Level in the Study of Safety Principles / Niklas Wier / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson --
1.3. Metaprinciples of Safety / Niklas Wier / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson --
1.4. Other Ways to Characterize Safety Principles / Niklas Wier / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson --
1.5. Conflicts Between Safety Principles / Niklas Wier / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson --
1.6. When Can Safety Principles Be Broken? / Niklas Wier / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson --
1.7. Safety in Context / Niklas Wier / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson --
References / Niklas Wier / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson. Note continued: 2. Preview / Niklas Wier / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson --
2.1. Part I: Safety Reserves / Niklas Moller / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson --
2.2. Part II: Information and Control / Niklas Moller / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson --
2.3. Part III: Demonstrability / Niklas Moller / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson --
2.4. Part IV: Optimization / Niklas Moller / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson --
2.5. Part V: Organizational Principles and Practices / Niklas Moller / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson --
3. Resilience Engineering And The Future Of Safety Management / Niklas Moller / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson --
3.1. On the Origins of Resilience / Erik Hollnagel --
3.2. The Resilience Engineering Understanding of "Resilience" / Erik Hollnagel. Note continued: 3.3. The Four Potentials for Resilience Performance / Erik Hollnagel --
3.4. Safety Management Systems / Erik Hollnagel --
3.5. Developing Definitions of Resilience / Erik Hollnagel --
3.6. Managing the Potentials for Resilient Performance / Erik Hollnagel --
3.6.1.Organizations of the First Kind / Erik Hollnagel --
3.6.2.Organizations of the Second Kind / Erik Hollnagel --
3.6.3.Organizations of the Third Kind / Erik Hollnagel --
3.6.4.Organizations of the Fourth Kind / Erik Hollnagel --
3.7. Resilience Management: LP-HI OR HP-LI? / Erik Hollnagel --
References / Erik Hollnagel --
4. Defense-In-Depth / Erik Hollnagel --
4.1. Introduction / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
4.2. Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
4.2.1. Definitions and Terminology / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
4.3. Redundancy, Diversity, and Separation Principles / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
4.3.1. Principle of Successive Barriers and Reducing Consequences / Jan-Erik Holmberg. Note continued: 4.3.2. Principle of Accident Prevention and Mitigation / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
4.3.3. Classification of Barriers / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
4.3.4. Safety Classification / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
4.3.5. Overall Safety Goals and Risk Acceptance Criteria vs. Defense-in-Depth / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
4.4. Use and Implementation / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
4.4.1. Nuclear Power Plant Safety / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
4.4.2. Chemical Industry / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
4.4.3. Information Technology Security / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
4.4.4. Railway Safety / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
4.4.5. Automobile Safety / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
4.5. Empirical Research on use and Efficiency / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
4.6. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
4.7. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
References / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
Further Reading / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
5. Safety Barriers / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
5.1. Introduction / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl. Note continued: 5.1.1. Classical and Radical Definitions of Barriers / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.1.2. Examples / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.2. Origin and Theoretical Background / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.2.1. Energy and Sequence Models / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.2.2. Extended Models / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.3. Definitions and Terminology / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.3.1. Examples of Barrier Definitions / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.3.2. Barriers and Barrier Systems / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.3.3. Alternatives to the Barrier Concept / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.3.4. Safety Functions / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.3.5. Conclusion / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.4. Classification of Barriers / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl. Note continued: 5.4.1. General Considerations / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.4.2. System Level Classification / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.4.3. Classification Related to Accident Sequence / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.4.4. Physical and Non-physical Barriers / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.4.5. Administrative and Human Barriers / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.4.6. Passive and Active Barriers / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.4.7.Combined Models / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.4.8. Purpose of Barriers / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.5. Methods for Analysis of Safety Barriers / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.5.1. Energy Analysis / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.5.2. Event Tree Analysis / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.5.3. Fault Tree Analysis / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl. Note continued: 5.5.4. Safety Barrier Diagrams / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.5.5. Management Oversight and Risk Tree / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.5.6. MTO Event Investigation / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.5.7. Safety Function Analysis / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.5.8. Reliability Techniques / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.6. Quality and Efficiency of Barriers / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.6.1. Design and Installation of Barriers / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.6.2. Management of Barrier Systems During Operation / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.6.3. Maintenance of Barriers / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.6.4. Summary of Barrier Management Principles / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.7. Discussion and Conclusions / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl. Note continued: 5.7.1. The Classical and Radical Meaning / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.7.2. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.7.3. General Conclusions / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
5.7.4. Relations to the Other Chapters / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
References / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
6. Factors And Margins Of Safety / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl --
6.1. Introduction / Sven Ove Hansson / Neelke Doom --
6.2. Origin and History / Sven Ove Hansson / Neelke Doom --
6.3. Definitions and Terminology / Sven Ove Hansson / Neelke Doom --
6.4. Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions / Sven Ove Hansson / Neelke Doom --
6.4.1. Structural Engineering / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson --
6.4.2. Toxicology / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson --
6.5. Use and Implementation / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson. Note continued: 6.5.1. Three Types of Numerical Safety Reserves / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson --
6.5.2. How Safety Factors are Determined / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson --
6.6. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson --
6.6.1. Engineering / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson --
6.6.2. Toxicology / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson --
6.7. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson --
6.8. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson --
6.8.1. Probabilistic Analysis / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson --
6.8.2. Cost-Benefit Analysis / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson --
Acknowledgment / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson --
References / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson --
Further Reading / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson --
7. Experience Feedback / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson --
7.1. Introduction / Urban Kjellen --
7.1.1. Example / Urban Kjellen --
7.2. Origin and History / Urban Kjellen. Note continued: 7.3. Definitions / Urban Kjellen --
7.4. Underlying Theories and Assumptions / Urban Kjellen --
7.4.1. Feedback Cycle for the Control of Anything / Urban Kjellen --
7.4.2. Safety Information Systems / Urban Kjellen --
7.4.3. The Diagnostic Process / Urban Kjellen --
7.4.4. Knowledge Management / Urban Kjellen --
7.5. Use and Implementation / Urban Kjellen --
7.5.1. Safety Practice in an Operational Setting / Urban Kjellen --
7.5.2. Risk Assessment / Urban Kjellen --
7.5.3. Transfer of Experience to New Construction Projects / Urban Kjellen --
7.5.4. Transfer of Experience from the Users to Design / Urban Kjellen --
7.6. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Urban Kjellen --
7.7. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Urban Kjellen --
7.7.1. Safety Management / Urban Kjellen --
7.7.2. Resilience Engineering / Urban Kjellen --
7.7.3. Safety Indicators / Urban Kjellen --
7.7.4. Safety Culture / Urban Kjellen --
References / Urban Kjellen. Note continued: Further Reading / Urban Kjellen --
8. Risk And Safety Indicators / Urban Kjellen --
8.1. Introduction / Drew Rae --
8.2. Origin and History / Drew Rae --
8.3. Definitions and Terminology / Drew Rae --
8.4. Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions / Drew Rae --
8.4.1. Past, Present, and Future Safety / Drew Rae --
8.4.2. Outcome Indicators / Drew Rae --
8.4.3. Risk Models and Precursor Events / Drew Rae --
8.4.4. Status of Physical and Procedural Controls / Drew Rae --
8.4.5. Safe Behaviors / Drew Rae --
8.4.6. Amount and Quality of Safety Activity / Drew Rae --
8.4.7.Organizational Drivers and Attributes / Drew Rae --
8.4.8. Variability / Drew Rae --
8.5. Use and Implementation / Drew Rae --
8.5.1. Metrics Collection / Drew Rae --
8.5.2. Incentives and Accountability / Drew Rae --
8.5.3. Benchmarking and Comparison / Drew Rae --
8.5.4. Safety Management System Performance Monitoring / Drew Rae --
8.6. Empirical Research on Use and Efficacy / Drew Rae. Note continued: 8.6.1. Usage of Indicators / Drew Rae --
8.6.2. Efficacy of Indicators / Drew Rae --
8.7. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Drew Rae --
8.7.1. Underreporting and Distortion / Drew Rae --
8.7.2. The Regulator Paradox and Estimation of Rare Events / Drew Rae --
8.7.3. Confusion Between Process Safety and Personal Safety Indicators / Drew Rae --
8.7.4. Unintended Consequences of Indirect Measurement / Drew Rae --
8.8. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Drew Rae --
8.8.1. Ensurance Principles / Drew Rae --
8.8.2. Assessment and Assurance Principles / Drew Rae --
References / Drew Rae --
9. Principles Of Human Factors Engineering / Drew Rae --
9.1. Introduction / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
9.2. Principle 1: HFE is Design Thinking / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
9.2.1. Description / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
9.2.2. Theoretical Foundation / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
9.2.3. Use and Implementation / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja. Note continued: 9.2.4. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
9.3. Principle 2: HFE Studies Human as a Manifold Entity / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
9.3.1. Description / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
9.3.2. Theoretical Foundations / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
9.3.3. Use and Implementation / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
9.3.4. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
9.4. Principle 3: HFE Focuses on Technology in Use / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
9.4.1. Description / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
9.4.2. Theoretical Foundations / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
9.4.3. Use and Implementation / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
9.4.4. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
9.5. Principle 4: Safety is Achieved Through Continuous HFE / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
9.5.1. Description / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
9.5.2. Theoretical Foundation / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja. Note continued: 9.5.3. Use and Implementation / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
9.5.4. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
9.6. Relation to Other Safety Principles / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
9.7. Limitations / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
9.8. Conclusions / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
References / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
Further Reading / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
10. Safety Automation / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja --
10.1. Introduction / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.1.1. Purpose of Safety Automation / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.1.2. Functions of I & C Systems / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.1.3. Allocation of Functions between Humans and Automation / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.2. Origin and History / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.2.1. Roots of Safety Automation / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.2.2. Systems Design / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.2.3. Typical Design Projects / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.2.4. Analog and Digital I & C / Bjorn Wahlstrom. Note continued: 10.3. Definitions and Terminology / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.3.1. System Life Cycles / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.3.2. Process and Product / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.3.3. Phases of Design / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.3.4. Operations / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.4. Underlying Theories and Assumptions / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.4.1. Systems of Systems / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.4.2. Building Reliability with Unreliable Parts / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.4.3. Reusability of Designs / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.4.4. Vendor Capability / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.4.5. Project Management / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.4.6. Regulatory Oversight / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.5. Use and Implementation / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.5.1. From Systems Design to I & C Design / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.5.2. Physical Realizations of I & C / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.5.3. Initial Considerations / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.5.4.I & C Design / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.5.5. Practices in Different Domains / Bjorn Wahlstrom. Note continued: 10.6. Research on Use and Efficiency / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.6.1. Estimates of Project Cost and Duration / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.6.2. Support Systems for Design and Construction / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.6.3. Benefits of Using Safety Principles / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.7. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.7.1. What is Safe Enough? / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.7.2. Quality of Design / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.7.3. Field Programmable Gate Arrays / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.7.4. Cyber Security / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.7.5. Regulatory Acceptance / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.8. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.8.1. Safety Reserves / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.8.2. Information and Control / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.8.3. Demonstrability / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.8.4. Optimization / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.8.5.Organizational Principles and Practices / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
10.9. Summary and Conclusions / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
References / Bjorn Wahlstrom. Note continued: 11. Risk Communication / Bjorn Wahlstrom --
11.1. Introduction / Jan M. Gutteling --
11.1.1. Example 1 / Jan M. Gutteling --
11.1.2. Risk Perception, Awareness, and Communication / Jan M. Gutteling --
11.1.3. This Chapter / Jan M. Gutteling --
11.2. The Origin and History of Risk Communication as Academic Field / Jan M. Gutteling --
11.2.1. Example 2 / Jan M. Gutteling --
11.2.2. Changing Notions about Communication / Jan M. Gutteling --
11.2.3. Example 3 / Jan M. Gutteling --
11.2.4. Conclusion / Jan M. Gutteling --
11.3. Underlying Assumptions, Concepts and Empirical Data on Risk Communication Models / Jan M. Gutteling --
11.3.1. Information versus Communication / Jan M. Gutteling --
11.3.2. Risk Communication Aims / Jan M. Gutteling --
11.3.3. Diagnostic Risk Communication Studies / Jan M. Gutteling --
11.3.4. Social Amplification of Risk / Jan M. Gutteling --
11.3.5. Trust in Risk Communication / Jan M. Gutteling --
11.3.6. Socio-Cognitive Models / Jan M. Gutteling. Note continued: 11.3.7. Risk Information Seeking Models / Jan M. Gutteling --
11.3.8. Risk Communication and Social Media / Jan M. Gutteling --
11.3.9. Conclusion / Jan M. Gutteling --
11.4. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Jan M. Gutteling --
11.5. Final Word / Jan M. Gutteling --
References / Jan M. Gutteling --
Further Reading / Jan M. Gutteling --
12. The Precautionary Principle / Jan M. Gutteling --
12.1. Introduction / Sven Ove Hansson --
12.2. History and Current Use / Sven Ove Hansson --
12.3. Definitions / Sven Ove Hansson --
12.4. Underlying Theory / Sven Ove Hansson --
12.5. Research on Use and Efficiency / Sven Ove Hansson --
12.6. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Sven Ove Hansson --
12.6.1. Is the Principle Asymmetric? / Sven Ove Hansson --
12.6.2. Strawman Criticism / Sven Ove Hansson --
12.7. Relation to Expected Utility and Probabilistic Risk Assessment / Sven Ove Hansson --
12.8. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Sven Ove Hansson. Note continued: 12.8.1. Maximin / Sven Ove Hansson --
12.8.2.A Reversed Burden of Proof / Sven Ove Hansson --
12.8.3. Sound Science / Sven Ove Hansson --
Acknowledgment / Sven Ove Hansson --
References / Sven Ove Hansson --
Further Reading / Sven Ove Hansson --
13. Operating Procedure / Sven Ove Hansson --
13.1. Introduction / Jinkyun Park --
13.2. Manual, Guideline, and Procedure / Jinkyun Park --
13.3. Existing Principles for Developing a Good Procedure / Jinkyun Park --
13.4. Additional Principle to Develop a Good Procedure / Jinkyun Park --
13.4.1. Tailoring the Level of Details / Jinkyun Park --
13.4.2. Tailoring the Complexity of Instructions / Jinkyun Park --
13.5. Concluding Remarks / Jinkyun Park --
References / Jinkyun Park --
Further Reading / Jinkyun Park --
14. Human-machine System / Jinkyun Park --
14.1. Human-Machine System / Anna-Lisa Osvalder / Heikan Alm --
14.2.Complex Systems / Anna-Lisa Osvalder / Heikan Alm. Note continued: 14.3. To Control a Complex System / Anna-Lisa Osvalder / Heikan Alm --
14.4. Operator Demands / Anna-Lisa Osvalder / Heikan Alm --
14.4.1. Mental Models / Anna-Lisa Osvalder / Heikan Alm --
14.4.2. Situation Awareness / Anna-Lisa Osvalder / Heikan Alm --
14.4.3. Decision-Making / Anna-Lisa Osvalder / Heikan Alm --
14.4.4. Mental Workload / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder --
14.5. Performance-Shaping Factors / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder --
14.5.1. Stressors / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder --
14.6. User Interface Design / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder --
14.6.1. Information Design / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder --
14.6.2. Design for Attention / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder --
14.6.3. Design for Perception / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder --
14.6.4. Design for Memory Functions / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder --
14.6.5. Feedback / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder --
14.6.6. Alarms / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder. Note continued: 14.7. Demands on the Environment / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder --
14.7.1.Organization / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder --
14.7.2.Communication / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder --
14.8. Handling Complexity / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder --
References / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder --
15. Quality Principles And Their Applications To Safety / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder --
15.1. Introduction / Bo Bergman --
15.2. Improvement Knowledge and its Application to Safety / Bo Bergman --
15.2.1. Understanding Variation / Bo Bergman --
15.2.2. Knowledge Theory / Bo Bergman --
15.2.3. Psychology / Bo Bergman --
15.2.4. System Thinking / Bo Bergman --
15.3. Health-Care Improvement and Patient Safety / Bo Bergman --
15.4. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Bo Bergman --
15.5. Some Personal Experiences / Bo Bergman --
15.6. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Bo Bergman --
References / Bo Bergman --
Further Reading / Bo Bergman. Note continued: 16. Safety Cases / Bo Bergman --
16.1. Introduction / Tim Kelly --
16.2. Origins and History / Tim Kelly --
16.2.1. Windscale / Tim Kelly --
16.2.2. Flixborough / Tim Kelly --
16.2.3. Piper Alpha / Tim Kelly --
16.2.4. Clapham / Tim Kelly --
16.2.5. The Introduction of Safety Cases-A Shift in Emphasis / Tim Kelly --
16.3. Definitions and Terminology / Tim Kelly --
16.3.1. Safety Cases vs. Safety Case Reports / Tim Kelly --
16.3.2. Other Terminology / Tim Kelly --
16.4. Underlying Theory / Tim Kelly --
16.4.1. Safety Case Argumentation / Tim Kelly --
16.4.2. Types of Safety Case Argument / Tim Kelly --
16.4.3. Safety Case Lifecycle / Tim Kelly --
16.4.4. Incremental Safety Case Development / Tim Kelly --
16.4.5. Safety Case Maintenance / Tim Kelly --
16.4.6. Safety Case Evaluation / Tim Kelly --
16.4.7. Safety Case Confidence / Tim Kelly --
16.5. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Tim Kelly --
16.6. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticisms / Tim Kelly. Note continued: 16.6.1. Other Criticisms / Tim Kelly --
16.7. Relationship to Other Principles / Tim Kelly --
References / Tim Kelly --
Further Reading / Tim Kelly --
17. Inherently Safe Design / Tim Kelly --
17.1. Introduction / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan --
17.2. Origin and History of the Principle / Rajagopalan Srinivasan / Mohd Umair Iqbal --
17.3. Definitions and Terminology / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan --
17.4. Use and Implementation / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan --
17.4.1. Examples of Minimization / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan --
17.4.2. Examples of Substitution / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan --
17.4.3. Examples of Simplification / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan --
17.4.4. Example of Moderation / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan --
17.5. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan. Note continued: 17.6. Weaknesses, Limitation, and Criticism / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan --
17.7. Relation to Other Principles / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan --
References / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan --
18. Maintenance, Maintainability, And Inspectability / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan --
18.1. Introduction / Torbjorn Ylipdd / Jon Bokrantz / Anders Skoogh --
18.1.1. The Piper Alpha Disaster / Torbjorn Ylipdd / Jon Bokrantz / Anders Skoogh --
18.2. Origin and History / Torbjorn Ylipdd / Jon Bokrantz / Anders Skoogh --
18.3. Underlying Theory, Theoretical Assumptions, Definition, and Terminology / Torbjorn Ylipdd / Jon Bokrantz / Anders Skoogh --
18.4. Use and Implementation / Torbjorn Ylipdd / Jon Bokrantz / Anders Skoogh --
18.5. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Torbjorn Ylipdd / Jon Bokrantz / Anders Skoogh --
18.6. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Torbjorn Ylipdd / Jon Bokrantz / Anders Skoogh. Note continued: 18.7. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Torbjorn Ylipdd / Jon Bokrantz / Anders Skoogh --
References / Torbjorn Ylipdd / Jon Bokrantz / Anders Skoogh --
Further Reading / Torbjorn Ylipdd / Jon Bokrantz / Anders Skoogh --
19. On The Risk-Informed Regulation For The Safety Against External Hazards / Torbjorn Ylipdd / Jon Bokrantz / Anders Skoogh --
19.1. Introduction / Pieter van Gelder --
19.2. Risk-Regulation in Safety Against Environmental Risks / Pieter van Gelder --
19.3. Dealing with Uncertainties in Risk-Informed Regulation / Pieter van Gelder --
19.4. Limitations of the Current Risk Measures / Pieter van Gelder --
19.5. Spatial Risk / Pieter van Gelder --
19.6. Temporal Risk / Pieter van Gelder --
19.7. Conclusions and Recommendations / Pieter van Gelder --
Acknowledgment / Pieter van Gelder --
References / Pieter van Gelder --
20. Quantitative Risk Analysis / Pieter van Gelder --
20.1. Introduction / Jan-Erik Holmberg. Note continued: 20.2. Origin and History / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
20.3. Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
20.3.1. Risk / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
20.3.2. Probability / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
20.3.3. Uncertainty / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
20.3.4. Expected Value and Utility Principle / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
20.3.5. Risk Criteria / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
20.3.6. ALARP / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
20.3.7. Subsidiary Risk Criteria / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
20.3.8. Event Tree-Fault Tree Modeling / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
20.3.9. Bayesian Belief Network / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
20.3.10. Bow-Tie Method / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
20.3.11. Monte Carlo Simulation / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
20.4. Use and Implementation / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
20.4.1. National Risk Criteria / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
20.4.2. IEC 61508 and Safety Integrity Levels / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
20.4.3. Nuclear Power Plants / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
20.4.4. Oil and Gas Industry in Europe / Jan-Erik Holmberg. Note continued: 20.4.5. Railway Safety in Europe / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
20.4.6. Other Industries / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
20.5. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
20.6. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
20.7. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
References / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
Further Reading / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
21. Qualitative Risk Analysis / Jan-Erik Holmberg --
21.1. Introduction / Risto Tiusanen --
21.2. Origin and History of the Principle / Risto Tiusanen --
21.3. Definitions / Risto Tiusanen --
21.4. Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions / Risto Tiusanen --
21.4.1. Brainstorming / Risto Tiusanen --
21.4.2. Preliminary Hazard Analysis / Risto Tiusanen --
21.4.3. Scenario Analysis / Risto Tiusanen --
21.4.4. Operating Hazard Analysis / Risto Tiusanen --
21.4.5. HAZOP Studies / Risto Tiusanen --
21.4.6. Risk Matrixes / Risto Tiusanen --
21.5. Use and Implementation / Risto Tiusanen. Note continued: 21.5.1. Systems Engineering Approach to Risk Assessment / Risto Tiusanen --
21.5.2. System-Safety Engineering / Risto Tiusanen --
21.5.3. Industrial Safety Engineering / Risto Tiusanen --
21.5.4. Machinery-Safety Engineering / Risto Tiusanen --
21.5.5. Functional Safety Engineering / Risto Tiusanen --
21.6. Strengths, Weaknesses, Limitations and Criticism / Risto Tiusanen --
21.7. Experiences of Preliminary Hazard Identification Methods / Risto Tiusanen --
21.8. Experiences of Hazop Studies / Risto Tiusanen --
21.9. Experiences of Risk Estimation Methods / Risto Tiusanen --
21.10. Summary of Strengths and Limitations / Risto Tiusanen --
21.11. Experiences from Complex Machinery Applications / Risto Tiusanen --
21.11.1. Change from Machines to Automated Machine Systems / Risto Tiusanen --
21.11.2. Case Studies on Qualitative Methods / Risto Tiusanen --
21.11.3. Case Study Results / Risto Tiusanen --
21.12. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Risto Tiusanen. Note continued: References / Risto Tiusanen --
22. Principles And Limitations Of Cost-benefit Analysis For Safety Investments / Risto Tiusanen --
22.1. Introduction / Genserik Reniers / Luca Talarico --
22.2. Principles of Cost-Benefit Analysis / Genserik Reniers / Luca Talarico --
22.3. CBA Methodologies / Genserik Reniers / Luca Talarico --
22.3.1. CBA for Type I Accidents / Genserik Reniers / Luca Talarico --
22.3.2. CBA for Type II Safety Investments / Genserik Reniers / Luca Talarico --
22.3.3. Disproportion Factor / Genserik Reniers / Luca Talarico --
22.4. Conclusions / Genserik Reniers / Luca Talarico --
References / Genserik Reniers / Luca Talarico --
23. Rams Optimization Principles / Genserik Reniers / Luca Talarico --
23.1. Introduction to Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, and Safety (RAMS) Optimization / Enrico Zio / Yan-Fu Li --
23.2. Multi-Objective Optimization / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio --
23.2.1. Problem Formulation / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio. Note continued: 23.2.2. Pareto Optimality / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio --
23.3. Solution Methods / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio --
23.3.1. Weighted-Sum Approach / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio --
23.3.2.e-Constraint Approach / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio --
23.3.3. Goal Programming / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio --
23.3.4. Evolutionary Algorithms / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio --
23.4. Performance Measures / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio --
23.5. Selection of Preferred Solutions / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio --
23.5.1."Min-Max" Method / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio --
23.6. Guidelines for Implementation and Use / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio --
23.7. Numerical Case Study / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio --
23.8. Discussion / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio --
23.9. Relations to Other Principles / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio --
References / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio --
Further Reading / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio --
24. Maintenance Optimization And Its Relation To Safety / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio --
24.1. Introduction / Roger Flage. Note continued: 24.2. Related Principles and Terms / Roger Flage --
24.2.1. Key Terms / Roger Flage --
24.2.2. Maintenance Optimization Models as Special Types of Cost-Benefit Analysis / Roger Flage --
24.2.3. Risk Assessment and Risk Management / Roger Flage --
24.2.4. The ALARP Principle and Risk Acceptance Criteria / Roger Flage --
24.3. Maintenance Optimization / Roger Flage --
24.3.1. Theory / Roger Flage --
24.3.2. Use and Implementation / Roger Flage --
24.4. Discussion and Conclusions / Roger Flage --
Further Reading / Roger Flage --
References / Roger Flage --
25. Human Reliability Analysis / Roger Flage --
25.1. Introduction With Examples / Luca Podofillini --
25.2. Origin and History of the Principle / Luca Podofillini --
25.3. Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions / Luca Podofillini --
25.4. Use and Implementation / Luca Podofillini --
25.5. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Luca Podofillini. Note continued: 25.6. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Luca Podofillini --
25.7. Relationship with Other Principles / Luca Podofillini --
References / Luca Podofillini --
26. ALARA, BAT, And The Substitution Principle / Luca Podofillini --
26.1. Introduction / Sven Ove Hansson --
26.2. ALARA / Sven Ove Hansson --
26.2.1. History and Current Use / Sven Ove Hansson --
26.2.2. Definitions and Terminology / Sven Ove Hansson --
26.2.3. Theory and Interpretation / Sven Ove Hansson --
26.2.4. Effects of Applying the Principle / Sven Ove Hansson --
26.2.5. Weaknesses and Criticism / Sven Ove Hansson --
26.3. Best Available Technology / Sven Ove Hansson --
26.3.1. History and Current Use / Sven Ove Hansson --
26.3.2. Definitions and Terminology / Sven Ove Hansson --
26.3.3. Theory and Interpretation / Sven Ove Hansson --
26.3.4. Effects of Applying the Principle / Sven Ove Hansson --
26.3.5. Weaknesses and Criticism / Sven Ove Hansson. Note continued: 26.4. The Substitution Principle / Sven Ove Hansson --
26.4.1. History and Current Use / Sven Ove Hansson --
26.4.2. Definitions and Terminology / Sven Ove Hansson --
26.4.3. Theory and Interpretation / Sven Ove Hansson --
26.4.4. Effects of Applying the Principle / Sven Ove Hansson --
26.4.5. Weaknesses and Criticism / Sven Ove Hansson --
26.5.Comparative Discussion / Sven Ove Hansson --
26.5.1.Comparisons Between the Three Principles / Sven Ove Hansson --
26.5.2.Comparisons with Other Principles / Sven Ove Hansson --
Acknowledgment / Sven Ove Hansson --
References / Sven Ove Hansson --
Further Reading / Sven Ove Hansson --
27. Safety Management Principles / Sven Ove Hansson --
27.1. Introduction / Gudela Grote --
27.2. Origin and History of the Principle / Gudela Grote --
27.3. Definitions / Gudela Grote --
27.4. Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions / Gudela Grote --
27.5. Use and Implementation / Gudela Grote. Note continued: 27.6. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Gudela Grote --
27.6.1. Contextual factors / Gudela Grote --
27.6.2. Examples for the effects of context on safety management / Gudela Grote --
27.7. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Gudela Grote --
27.8. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Gudela Grote --
References / Gudela Grote --
Further Reading / Gudela Grote --
28. Safety Culture / Gudela Grote --
28.1. Introduction / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman --
28.2. Origin and History / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman --
28.2.1. The Chernobyl Accident / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman --
28.2.2.Organizational Culture and Organizational Climate: The Broader Context / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman --
28.2.3. Safety Climate / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman --
28.2.4.Organizational Culture and Safety Culture / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman --
28.3. Definitions and Terminology / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman. Note continued: 28.4. Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman --
28.4.1. Some Common Features of Safety Culture Models / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman --
28.4.2. Theoretical Frameworks / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman --
28.5. Empirical Research / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman --
28.6. Use and Implementation / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman --
28.6.1. When and Where to Use the Concept? / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman --
28.6.2. Safety Culture as an Evaluation Framework / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman --
28.6.3. Developing Safety Culture / Teemu Reiman / Carl Rollenhagen --
28.7. Weaknesses and Critique / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman --
28.8. Main Messages and What the Concept Tells About Safety / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman --
References / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman --
29. Principles Of Behavior-Based Safety / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman --
29.1. Introduction / E. Scott Geller / Steve Roberts. Note continued: 29.2. Origin and History of BBS / E. Scott Geller / Steve Roberts --
29.3. Leadership / E. Scott Geller / Steve Roberts --
29.4. Physical Environment/Conditions / E. Scott Geller / Steve Roberts --
29.5. Systems / E. Scott Geller / Steve Roberts --
29.6. Behaviors / E. Scott Geller / Steve Roberts --
29.7. Employee Involvement and Ownership / E. Scott Geller / Steve Roberts --
29.8. Person States / E. Scott Geller / Steve Roberts --
29.9. The Benefits of Behavior-Based Safety / E. Scott Geller / Steve Roberts --
29.10. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticisms / E. Scott Geller / Steve Roberts --
29.11. Relationship with Other Principles / Steve Roberts / E. Scott Geller --
References / E. Scott Geller / Steve Roberts --
Further Reading / Steve Roberts / E. Scott Geller --
30. Principles Of Emergency Plans And Crisis Management / Steve Roberts / E. Scott Geller --
30.1. Introduction / Ann Enander --
30.1.1.Components in an Emergency Plan / Ann Enander. Note continued: 30.1.2. Emergency Planning as a Process / Ann Enander --
30.1.3. Crisis Management in Theory and Practice / Ann Enander --
30.1.4. Crisis Leadership / Ann Enander --
30.2. Origin and History / Ann Enander --
30.3. Definitions and Terminology / Ann Enander --
30.3.1. Classifications and Typologies / Ann Enander --
30.4. Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions / Ann Enander --
30.4.1. The Emergency Response Cycle / Ann Enander --
30.5. Use and Implementation / Ann Enander --
30.6. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Ann Enander --
30.7. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Ann Enander --
30.7.1. Myths and Misconceptions / Ann Enander --
30.7.2. Success or Failure / Ann Enander --
30.8. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Ann Enander --
References / Ann Enander --
Further Reading / Ann Enander --
31. Safety Standards: Chronic Challenges And Emerging Principles / Ann Enander --
31.1. Introduction / Ibrahim Habli. Note continued: 31.2. Definitions and Terminology / Ibrahim Habli --
31.3.Organization of Safety Standards / Ibrahim Habli --
31.3.1. Safety Lifecycle Models / Ibrahim Habli --
31.4. Domain Specific Principles / Ibrahim Habli --
31.4.1. Software Safety Assurance Principles / Ibrahim Habli --
31.4.2. Automotive Functional Safety Principles / Ibrahim Habli --
31.5. Development of Standards / Ibrahim Habli --
31.6. Rationale in Standards / Ibrahim Habli --
31.7. Chapter Summary / Ibrahim Habli --
References / Ibrahim Habli --
Further Reading / Ibrahim Habli --
32. Managing The Unexpected / Ibrahim Habli --
32.1. Introduction / Jean-Christophe Le Coze --
32.2. Defining the Unexpected / Jean-Christophe Le Coze --
32.2.1. The Unexpected, What Are We Dealing With? Three Examples / Jean-Christophe Le Coze --
32.2.2. Were These Disasters Unexpected, Surprising? / Jean-Christophe Le Coze --
32.2.3. The Unexpected, a Highly Relative Category / Jean-Christophe Le Coze. Note continued: 32.3. Thirty Years of Research on the Unexpected / Jean-Christophe Le Coze --
32.3.1. Conceptualizing the Unexpected: Four Different Threads / Jean-Christophe Le Coze --
32.3.2. Charles Perrow and Normal Accident / Jean-Christophe Le Coze --
32.3.3. Barry Turner and Man-Made Disaster: A "Kuhnian" Thread / Jean-Christophe Le Coze --
32.3.4. Jens Rasmussen and Complexity: An Ashbyan Thread / Jean-Christophe Le Coze --
32.3.5. Four Threads, Four Sensitivities, But Not Exclusive: A Synthesis / Jean-Christophe Le Coze --
32.4. Managing the Unexpected / Jean-Christophe Le Coze --
32.4.1. Building Favorable Power Configurations (vs. Marxian Thread) / Jean-Christophe Le Coze --
32.4.2. Confronting Our Fallible (Cultural) Constructs (vs. Kuhnian Thread) / Jean-Christophe Le Coze --
32.4.3. Keeping Sight of the Relation Between Parts and Whole (vs. Ashbyan Thread) / Jean-Christophe Le Coze --
32.4.4. Limitations and Opening / Jean-Christophe Le Coze. Note continued: 32.5. Relation to Other Principles: Further Reading / Jean-Christophe Le Coze --
32.6. Conclusion / Jean-Christophe Le Coze --
References / Jean-Christophe Le Coze.
Series Title: Essentials series.
Responsibility: edited by Niklas Möller, Sven Ove Hansson, Jan-Erik Holmberg, Carl Rollenhage.

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Presents recent breakthroughs in the theory, methods, and applications of safety and risk analysis for safety engineers, risk analysts, and policy makers Safety principles are paramount to  Read more...

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    schema:description "Note continued: 17.6. Weaknesses, Limitation, and Criticism / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan -- 17.7. Relation to Other Principles / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan -- References / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan -- 18. Maintenance, Maintainability, And Inspectability / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan -- 18.1. Introduction / Torbjorn Ylipdd / Jon Bokrantz / Anders Skoogh -- 18.1.1. The Piper Alpha Disaster / Torbjorn Ylipdd / Jon Bokrantz / Anders Skoogh -- 18.2. Origin and History / Torbjorn Ylipdd / Jon Bokrantz / Anders Skoogh -- 18.3. Underlying Theory, Theoretical Assumptions, Definition, and Terminology / Torbjorn Ylipdd / Jon Bokrantz / Anders Skoogh -- 18.4. Use and Implementation / Torbjorn Ylipdd / Jon Bokrantz / Anders Skoogh -- 18.5. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Torbjorn Ylipdd / Jon Bokrantz / Anders Skoogh -- 18.6. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Torbjorn Ylipdd / Jon Bokrantz / Anders Skoogh."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 20.2. Origin and History / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 20.3. Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 20.3.1. Risk / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 20.3.2. Probability / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 20.3.3. Uncertainty / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 20.3.4. Expected Value and Utility Principle / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 20.3.5. Risk Criteria / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 20.3.6. ALARP / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 20.3.7. Subsidiary Risk Criteria / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 20.3.8. Event Tree-Fault Tree Modeling / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 20.3.9. Bayesian Belief Network / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 20.3.10. Bow-Tie Method / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 20.3.11. Monte Carlo Simulation / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 20.4. Use and Implementation / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 20.4.1. National Risk Criteria / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 20.4.2. IEC 61508 and Safety Integrity Levels / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 20.4.3. Nuclear Power Plants / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 20.4.4. Oil and Gas Industry in Europe / Jan-Erik Holmberg."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 11. Risk Communication / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 11.1. Introduction / Jan M. Gutteling -- 11.1.1. Example 1 / Jan M. Gutteling -- 11.1.2. Risk Perception, Awareness, and Communication / Jan M. Gutteling -- 11.1.3. This Chapter / Jan M. Gutteling -- 11.2. The Origin and History of Risk Communication as Academic Field / Jan M. Gutteling -- 11.2.1. Example 2 / Jan M. Gutteling -- 11.2.2. Changing Notions about Communication / Jan M. Gutteling -- 11.2.3. Example 3 / Jan M. Gutteling -- 11.2.4. Conclusion / Jan M. Gutteling -- 11.3. Underlying Assumptions, Concepts and Empirical Data on Risk Communication Models / Jan M. Gutteling -- 11.3.1. Information versus Communication / Jan M. Gutteling -- 11.3.2. Risk Communication Aims / Jan M. Gutteling -- 11.3.3. Diagnostic Risk Communication Studies / Jan M. Gutteling -- 11.3.4. Social Amplification of Risk / Jan M. Gutteling -- 11.3.5. Trust in Risk Communication / Jan M. Gutteling -- 11.3.6. Socio-Cognitive Models / Jan M. Gutteling."@en ;
    schema:description ""Presents recent breakthroughs in the theory, methods, and applications of safety and risk analysis for safety engineers, risk analysts, and policy makers Safety principles are paramount to addressing structured handling of safety concerns in all technological systems. This handbook captures and discusses the multitude of safety principles in a practical and applicable manner. It is organized by five overarching categories of safety principles: Safety Reserves; Information and Control; Demonstrability; Optimization; and Organizational Principles and Practices. With a focus on the structured treatment of a large number of safety principles relevant to all related fields, each chapter defines the principle in question and discusses its application as well as how it relates to other principles and terms. This treatment includes the history, the underlying theory, and the limitations and criticism of the principle. Several chapters also problematize and critically discuss the very concept of a safety principle. The book treats issues such as: What are safety principles and what roles do they have? What kinds of safety principles are there? When, if ever, should rules and principles be disobeyed? How do safety principles relate to the law; what is the status of principles in different domains? The book also features: Insights from leading international experts on safety and reliability Real-world applications and case studies including systems usability, verification and validation, human reliability, and safety barriers Different taxonomies for how safety principles are categorized Breakthroughs in safety and risk science that can significantly change, improve, and inform important practical decisions A structured treatment of safety principles relevant to numerous disciplines and application areas in industry and other sectors of society Comprehensive and practical coverage of the multitude of safety principles including maintenance optimization, substitution, safety automation, risk communication, precautionary approaches, non-quantitative safety analysis, safety culture, and many others The Handbook of Safety Principles is an ideal reference and resource for professionals engaged in risk and safety analysis and research. This book is also appropriate as a graduate and PhD-level textbook for courses in risk and safety analysis, reliability, safety engineering, and risk management offered within mathematics, operations research, and engineering departments. NIKLAS MLLER, PhD, is Associate Professor at the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden. The author of approximately 20 international journal articles, Dr. Mller's research interests include the philosophy of risk, metaethics, philosophy of science, and epistemology. SVEN OVE HANSSON, PhD, is Professor of Philosophy at the Royal Institute of Technology. He has authored over 300 articles in international journals and is a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences. Dr. Hansson is also a Topical Editor for the Wiley Encyclopedia of Operations Research and Management Science. JAN-ERIK HOLMBERG, PhD, is Senior Consultant at Risk Pilot AB and Adjunct Professor of Probabilistic Riskand Safety Analysis at the Royal Institute of Technology. Dr. Holmberg received his PhD in Applied Mathematics from Helsinki University of Technology in 1997. CARL ROLLENHAGEN, PhD, is Adjunct Professor of Risk and Safety at the Royal Institute of Technology. Dr. Rollenhagen has performed extensive research in the field of human factors and MTO (Man, Technology, and Organization) with a specific emphasis on safety culture and climate, event investigation methods, and organizational safety assessment"--"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 14.7. Demands on the Environment / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder -- 14.7.1.Organization / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder -- 14.7.2.Communication / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder -- 14.8. Handling Complexity / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder -- References / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder -- 15. Quality Principles And Their Applications To Safety / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder -- 15.1. Introduction / Bo Bergman -- 15.2. Improvement Knowledge and its Application to Safety / Bo Bergman -- 15.2.1. Understanding Variation / Bo Bergman -- 15.2.2. Knowledge Theory / Bo Bergman -- 15.2.3. Psychology / Bo Bergman -- 15.2.4. System Thinking / Bo Bergman -- 15.3. Health-Care Improvement and Patient Safety / Bo Bergman -- 15.4. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Bo Bergman -- 15.5. Some Personal Experiences / Bo Bergman -- 15.6. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Bo Bergman -- References / Bo Bergman -- Further Reading / Bo Bergman."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 7.3. Definitions / Urban Kjellen -- 7.4. Underlying Theories and Assumptions / Urban Kjellen -- 7.4.1. Feedback Cycle for the Control of Anything / Urban Kjellen -- 7.4.2. Safety Information Systems / Urban Kjellen -- 7.4.3. The Diagnostic Process / Urban Kjellen -- 7.4.4. Knowledge Management / Urban Kjellen -- 7.5. Use and Implementation / Urban Kjellen -- 7.5.1. Safety Practice in an Operational Setting / Urban Kjellen -- 7.5.2. Risk Assessment / Urban Kjellen -- 7.5.3. Transfer of Experience to New Construction Projects / Urban Kjellen -- 7.5.4. Transfer of Experience from the Users to Design / Urban Kjellen -- 7.6. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Urban Kjellen -- 7.7. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Urban Kjellen -- 7.7.1. Safety Management / Urban Kjellen -- 7.7.2. Resilience Engineering / Urban Kjellen -- 7.7.3. Safety Indicators / Urban Kjellen -- 7.7.4. Safety Culture / Urban Kjellen -- References / Urban Kjellen."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 29.2. Origin and History of BBS / E. Scott Geller / Steve Roberts -- 29.3. Leadership / E. Scott Geller / Steve Roberts -- 29.4. Physical Environment/Conditions / E. Scott Geller / Steve Roberts -- 29.5. Systems / E. Scott Geller / Steve Roberts -- 29.6. Behaviors / E. Scott Geller / Steve Roberts -- 29.7. Employee Involvement and Ownership / E. Scott Geller / Steve Roberts -- 29.8. Person States / E. Scott Geller / Steve Roberts -- 29.9. The Benefits of Behavior-Based Safety / E. Scott Geller / Steve Roberts -- 29.10. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticisms / E. Scott Geller / Steve Roberts -- 29.11. Relationship with Other Principles / Steve Roberts / E. Scott Geller -- References / E. Scott Geller / Steve Roberts -- Further Reading / Steve Roberts / E. Scott Geller -- 30. Principles Of Emergency Plans And Crisis Management / Steve Roberts / E. Scott Geller -- 30.1. Introduction / Ann Enander -- 30.1.1.Components in an Emergency Plan / Ann Enander."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 10.6. Research on Use and Efficiency / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.6.1. Estimates of Project Cost and Duration / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.6.2. Support Systems for Design and Construction / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.6.3. Benefits of Using Safety Principles / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.7. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.7.1. What is Safe Enough? / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.7.2. Quality of Design / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.7.3. Field Programmable Gate Arrays / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.7.4. Cyber Security / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.7.5. Regulatory Acceptance / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.8. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.8.1. Safety Reserves / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.8.2. Information and Control / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.8.3. Demonstrability / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.8.4. Optimization / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.8.5.Organizational Principles and Practices / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.9. Summary and Conclusions / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- References / Bjorn Wahlstrom."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 21.5.1. Systems Engineering Approach to Risk Assessment / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.5.2. System-Safety Engineering / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.5.3. Industrial Safety Engineering / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.5.4. Machinery-Safety Engineering / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.5.5. Functional Safety Engineering / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.6. Strengths, Weaknesses, Limitations and Criticism / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.7. Experiences of Preliminary Hazard Identification Methods / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.8. Experiences of Hazop Studies / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.9. Experiences of Risk Estimation Methods / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.10. Summary of Strengths and Limitations / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.11. Experiences from Complex Machinery Applications / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.11.1. Change from Machines to Automated Machine Systems / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.11.2. Case Studies on Qualitative Methods / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.11.3. Case Study Results / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.12. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Risto Tiusanen."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 31.2. Definitions and Terminology / Ibrahim Habli -- 31.3.Organization of Safety Standards / Ibrahim Habli -- 31.3.1. Safety Lifecycle Models / Ibrahim Habli -- 31.4. Domain Specific Principles / Ibrahim Habli -- 31.4.1. Software Safety Assurance Principles / Ibrahim Habli -- 31.4.2. Automotive Functional Safety Principles / Ibrahim Habli -- 31.5. Development of Standards / Ibrahim Habli -- 31.6. Rationale in Standards / Ibrahim Habli -- 31.7. Chapter Summary / Ibrahim Habli -- References / Ibrahim Habli -- Further Reading / Ibrahim Habli -- 32. Managing The Unexpected / Ibrahim Habli -- 32.1. Introduction / Jean-Christophe Le Coze -- 32.2. Defining the Unexpected / Jean-Christophe Le Coze -- 32.2.1. The Unexpected, What Are We Dealing With? Three Examples / Jean-Christophe Le Coze -- 32.2.2. Were These Disasters Unexpected, Surprising? / Jean-Christophe Le Coze -- 32.2.3. The Unexpected, a Highly Relative Category / Jean-Christophe Le Coze."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 23.2.2. Pareto Optimality / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio -- 23.3. Solution Methods / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio -- 23.3.1. Weighted-Sum Approach / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio -- 23.3.2.e-Constraint Approach / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio -- 23.3.3. Goal Programming / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio -- 23.3.4. Evolutionary Algorithms / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio -- 23.4. Performance Measures / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio -- 23.5. Selection of Preferred Solutions / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio -- 23.5.1."Min-Max" Method / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio -- 23.6. Guidelines for Implementation and Use / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio -- 23.7. Numerical Case Study / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio -- 23.8. Discussion / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio -- 23.9. Relations to Other Principles / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio -- References / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio -- Further Reading / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio -- 24. Maintenance Optimization And Its Relation To Safety / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio -- 24.1. Introduction / Roger Flage."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: References / Risto Tiusanen -- 22. Principles And Limitations Of Cost-benefit Analysis For Safety Investments / Risto Tiusanen -- 22.1. Introduction / Genserik Reniers / Luca Talarico -- 22.2. Principles of Cost-Benefit Analysis / Genserik Reniers / Luca Talarico -- 22.3. CBA Methodologies / Genserik Reniers / Luca Talarico -- 22.3.1. CBA for Type I Accidents / Genserik Reniers / Luca Talarico -- 22.3.2. CBA for Type II Safety Investments / Genserik Reniers / Luca Talarico -- 22.3.3. Disproportion Factor / Genserik Reniers / Luca Talarico -- 22.4. Conclusions / Genserik Reniers / Luca Talarico -- References / Genserik Reniers / Luca Talarico -- 23. Rams Optimization Principles / Genserik Reniers / Luca Talarico -- 23.1. Introduction to Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, and Safety (RAMS) Optimization / Enrico Zio / Yan-Fu Li -- 23.2. Multi-Objective Optimization / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio -- 23.2.1. Problem Formulation / Yan-Fu Li / Enrico Zio."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 12.8.1. Maximin / Sven Ove Hansson -- 12.8.2.A Reversed Burden of Proof / Sven Ove Hansson -- 12.8.3. Sound Science / Sven Ove Hansson -- Acknowledgment / Sven Ove Hansson -- References / Sven Ove Hansson -- Further Reading / Sven Ove Hansson -- 13. Operating Procedure / Sven Ove Hansson -- 13.1. Introduction / Jinkyun Park -- 13.2. Manual, Guideline, and Procedure / Jinkyun Park -- 13.3. Existing Principles for Developing a Good Procedure / Jinkyun Park -- 13.4. Additional Principle to Develop a Good Procedure / Jinkyun Park -- 13.4.1. Tailoring the Level of Details / Jinkyun Park -- 13.4.2. Tailoring the Complexity of Instructions / Jinkyun Park -- 13.5. Concluding Remarks / Jinkyun Park -- References / Jinkyun Park -- Further Reading / Jinkyun Park -- 14. Human-machine System / Jinkyun Park -- 14.1. Human-Machine System / Anna-Lisa Osvalder / Heikan Alm -- 14.2.Complex Systems / Anna-Lisa Osvalder / Heikan Alm."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 24.2. Related Principles and Terms / Roger Flage -- 24.2.1. Key Terms / Roger Flage -- 24.2.2. Maintenance Optimization Models as Special Types of Cost-Benefit Analysis / Roger Flage -- 24.2.3. Risk Assessment and Risk Management / Roger Flage -- 24.2.4. The ALARP Principle and Risk Acceptance Criteria / Roger Flage -- 24.3. Maintenance Optimization / Roger Flage -- 24.3.1. Theory / Roger Flage -- 24.3.2. Use and Implementation / Roger Flage -- 24.4. Discussion and Conclusions / Roger Flage -- Further Reading / Roger Flage -- References / Roger Flage -- 25. Human Reliability Analysis / Roger Flage -- 25.1. Introduction With Examples / Luca Podofillini -- 25.2. Origin and History of the Principle / Luca Podofillini -- 25.3. Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions / Luca Podofillini -- 25.4. Use and Implementation / Luca Podofillini -- 25.5. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Luca Podofillini."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 26.4. The Substitution Principle / Sven Ove Hansson -- 26.4.1. History and Current Use / Sven Ove Hansson -- 26.4.2. Definitions and Terminology / Sven Ove Hansson -- 26.4.3. Theory and Interpretation / Sven Ove Hansson -- 26.4.4. Effects of Applying the Principle / Sven Ove Hansson -- 26.4.5. Weaknesses and Criticism / Sven Ove Hansson -- 26.5.Comparative Discussion / Sven Ove Hansson -- 26.5.1.Comparisons Between the Three Principles / Sven Ove Hansson -- 26.5.2.Comparisons with Other Principles / Sven Ove Hansson -- Acknowledgment / Sven Ove Hansson -- References / Sven Ove Hansson -- Further Reading / Sven Ove Hansson -- 27. Safety Management Principles / Sven Ove Hansson -- 27.1. Introduction / Gudela Grote -- 27.2. Origin and History of the Principle / Gudela Grote -- 27.3. Definitions / Gudela Grote -- 27.4. Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions / Gudela Grote -- 27.5. Use and Implementation / Gudela Grote."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 9.2.4. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- 9.3. Principle 2: HFE Studies Human as a Manifold Entity / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- 9.3.1. Description / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- 9.3.2. Theoretical Foundations / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- 9.3.3. Use and Implementation / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- 9.3.4. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- 9.4. Principle 3: HFE Focuses on Technology in Use / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- 9.4.1. Description / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- 9.4.2. Theoretical Foundations / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- 9.4.3. Use and Implementation / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- 9.4.4. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- 9.5. Principle 4: Safety is Achieved Through Continuous HFE / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- 9.5.1. Description / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- 9.5.2. Theoretical Foundation / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 20.4.5. Railway Safety in Europe / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 20.4.6. Other Industries / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 20.5. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 20.6. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 20.7. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- References / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- Further Reading / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 21. Qualitative Risk Analysis / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 21.1. Introduction / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.2. Origin and History of the Principle / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.3. Definitions / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.4. Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.4.1. Brainstorming / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.4.2. Preliminary Hazard Analysis / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.4.3. Scenario Analysis / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.4.4. Operating Hazard Analysis / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.4.5. HAZOP Studies / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.4.6. Risk Matrixes / Risto Tiusanen -- 21.5. Use and Implementation / Risto Tiusanen."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 6.5.1. Three Types of Numerical Safety Reserves / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson -- 6.5.2. How Safety Factors are Determined / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson -- 6.6. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson -- 6.6.1. Engineering / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson -- 6.6.2. Toxicology / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson -- 6.7. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson -- 6.8. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson -- 6.8.1. Probabilistic Analysis / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson -- 6.8.2. Cost-Benefit Analysis / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson -- Acknowledgment / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson -- References / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson -- Further Reading / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson -- 7. Experience Feedback / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson -- 7.1. Introduction / Urban Kjellen -- 7.1.1. Example / Urban Kjellen -- 7.2. Origin and History / Urban Kjellen."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 2. Preview / Niklas Wier / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson -- 2.1. Part I: Safety Reserves / Niklas Moller / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson -- 2.2. Part II: Information and Control / Niklas Moller / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson -- 2.3. Part III: Demonstrability / Niklas Moller / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson -- 2.4. Part IV: Optimization / Niklas Moller / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson -- 2.5. Part V: Organizational Principles and Practices / Niklas Moller / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson -- 3. Resilience Engineering And The Future Of Safety Management / Niklas Moller / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson -- 3.1. On the Origins of Resilience / Erik Hollnagel -- 3.2. The Resilience Engineering Understanding of "Resilience" / Erik Hollnagel."@en ;
    schema:description "Machine generated contents note: 1. Introduction -- 1.1.Competition, Overlap, and Conflicts / Sven Ove Hansson / Niklas Wier / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 1.2.A New Level in the Study of Safety Principles / Niklas Wier / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson -- 1.3. Metaprinciples of Safety / Niklas Wier / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson -- 1.4. Other Ways to Characterize Safety Principles / Niklas Wier / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson -- 1.5. Conflicts Between Safety Principles / Niklas Wier / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson -- 1.6. When Can Safety Principles Be Broken? / Niklas Wier / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson -- 1.7. Safety in Context / Niklas Wier / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson -- References / Niklas Wier / Carl Rollenhagen / Jan-Erik Holmberg / Sven Ove Hansson."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 28.4. Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman -- 28.4.1. Some Common Features of Safety Culture Models / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman -- 28.4.2. Theoretical Frameworks / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman -- 28.5. Empirical Research / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman -- 28.6. Use and Implementation / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman -- 28.6.1. When and Where to Use the Concept? / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman -- 28.6.2. Safety Culture as an Evaluation Framework / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman -- 28.6.3. Developing Safety Culture / Teemu Reiman / Carl Rollenhagen -- 28.7. Weaknesses and Critique / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman -- 28.8. Main Messages and What the Concept Tells About Safety / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman -- References / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman -- 29. Principles Of Behavior-Based Safety / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman -- 29.1. Introduction / E. Scott Geller / Steve Roberts."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 30.1.2. Emergency Planning as a Process / Ann Enander -- 30.1.3. Crisis Management in Theory and Practice / Ann Enander -- 30.1.4. Crisis Leadership / Ann Enander -- 30.2. Origin and History / Ann Enander -- 30.3. Definitions and Terminology / Ann Enander -- 30.3.1. Classifications and Typologies / Ann Enander -- 30.4. Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions / Ann Enander -- 30.4.1. The Emergency Response Cycle / Ann Enander -- 30.5. Use and Implementation / Ann Enander -- 30.6. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Ann Enander -- 30.7. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Ann Enander -- 30.7.1. Myths and Misconceptions / Ann Enander -- 30.7.2. Success or Failure / Ann Enander -- 30.8. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Ann Enander -- References / Ann Enander -- Further Reading / Ann Enander -- 31. Safety Standards: Chronic Challenges And Emerging Principles / Ann Enander -- 31.1. Introduction / Ibrahim Habli."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 32.3. Thirty Years of Research on the Unexpected / Jean-Christophe Le Coze -- 32.3.1. Conceptualizing the Unexpected: Four Different Threads / Jean-Christophe Le Coze -- 32.3.2. Charles Perrow and Normal Accident / Jean-Christophe Le Coze -- 32.3.3. Barry Turner and Man-Made Disaster: A "Kuhnian" Thread / Jean-Christophe Le Coze -- 32.3.4. Jens Rasmussen and Complexity: An Ashbyan Thread / Jean-Christophe Le Coze -- 32.3.5. Four Threads, Four Sensitivities, But Not Exclusive: A Synthesis / Jean-Christophe Le Coze -- 32.4. Managing the Unexpected / Jean-Christophe Le Coze -- 32.4.1. Building Favorable Power Configurations (vs. Marxian Thread) / Jean-Christophe Le Coze -- 32.4.2. Confronting Our Fallible (Cultural) Constructs (vs. Kuhnian Thread) / Jean-Christophe Le Coze -- 32.4.3. Keeping Sight of the Relation Between Parts and Whole (vs. Ashbyan Thread) / Jean-Christophe Le Coze -- 32.4.4. Limitations and Opening / Jean-Christophe Le Coze."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 14.3. To Control a Complex System / Anna-Lisa Osvalder / Heikan Alm -- 14.4. Operator Demands / Anna-Lisa Osvalder / Heikan Alm -- 14.4.1. Mental Models / Anna-Lisa Osvalder / Heikan Alm -- 14.4.2. Situation Awareness / Anna-Lisa Osvalder / Heikan Alm -- 14.4.3. Decision-Making / Anna-Lisa Osvalder / Heikan Alm -- 14.4.4. Mental Workload / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder -- 14.5. Performance-Shaping Factors / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder -- 14.5.1. Stressors / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder -- 14.6. User Interface Design / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder -- 14.6.1. Information Design / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder -- 14.6.2. Design for Attention / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder -- 14.6.3. Design for Perception / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder -- 14.6.4. Design for Memory Functions / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder -- 14.6.5. Feedback / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder -- 14.6.6. Alarms / Heikan Alm / Anna-Lisa Osvalder."@en ;
    schema:description ""Presents recent breakthroughs in the theory, methods, and applications of safety and risk analysis for safety engineers, risk analysts, and policy makers"--"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 5.1.1. Classical and Radical Definitions of Barriers / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.1.2. Examples / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.2. Origin and Theoretical Background / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.2.1. Energy and Sequence Models / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.2.2. Extended Models / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.3. Definitions and Terminology / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.3.1. Examples of Barrier Definitions / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.3.2. Barriers and Barrier Systems / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.3.3. Alternatives to the Barrier Concept / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.3.4. Safety Functions / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.3.5. Conclusion / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.4. Classification of Barriers / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 18.7. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Torbjorn Ylipdd / Jon Bokrantz / Anders Skoogh -- References / Torbjorn Ylipdd / Jon Bokrantz / Anders Skoogh -- Further Reading / Torbjorn Ylipdd / Jon Bokrantz / Anders Skoogh -- 19. On The Risk-Informed Regulation For The Safety Against External Hazards / Torbjorn Ylipdd / Jon Bokrantz / Anders Skoogh -- 19.1. Introduction / Pieter van Gelder -- 19.2. Risk-Regulation in Safety Against Environmental Risks / Pieter van Gelder -- 19.3. Dealing with Uncertainties in Risk-Informed Regulation / Pieter van Gelder -- 19.4. Limitations of the Current Risk Measures / Pieter van Gelder -- 19.5. Spatial Risk / Pieter van Gelder -- 19.6. Temporal Risk / Pieter van Gelder -- 19.7. Conclusions and Recommendations / Pieter van Gelder -- Acknowledgment / Pieter van Gelder -- References / Pieter van Gelder -- 20. Quantitative Risk Analysis / Pieter van Gelder -- 20.1. Introduction / Jan-Erik Holmberg."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 10.3. Definitions and Terminology / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.3.1. System Life Cycles / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.3.2. Process and Product / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.3.3. Phases of Design / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.3.4. Operations / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.4. Underlying Theories and Assumptions / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.4.1. Systems of Systems / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.4.2. Building Reliability with Unreliable Parts / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.4.3. Reusability of Designs / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.4.4. Vendor Capability / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.4.5. Project Management / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.4.6. Regulatory Oversight / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.5. Use and Implementation / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.5.1. From Systems Design to I & C Design / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.5.2. Physical Realizations of I & C / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.5.3. Initial Considerations / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.5.4.I & C Design / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.5.5. Practices in Different Domains / Bjorn Wahlstrom."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 5.4.1. General Considerations / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.4.2. System Level Classification / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.4.3. Classification Related to Accident Sequence / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.4.4. Physical and Non-physical Barriers / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.4.5. Administrative and Human Barriers / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.4.6. Passive and Active Barriers / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.4.7.Combined Models / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.4.8. Purpose of Barriers / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.5. Methods for Analysis of Safety Barriers / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.5.1. Energy Analysis / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.5.2. Event Tree Analysis / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.5.3. Fault Tree Analysis / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 5.5.4. Safety Barrier Diagrams / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.5.5. Management Oversight and Risk Tree / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.5.6. MTO Event Investigation / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.5.7. Safety Function Analysis / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.5.8. Reliability Techniques / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.6. Quality and Efficiency of Barriers / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.6.1. Design and Installation of Barriers / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.6.2. Management of Barrier Systems During Operation / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.6.3. Maintenance of Barriers / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.6.4. Summary of Barrier Management Principles / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.7. Discussion and Conclusions / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 9.5.3. Use and Implementation / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- 9.5.4. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- 9.6. Relation to Other Safety Principles / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- 9.7. Limitations / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- 9.8. Conclusions / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- References / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- Further Reading / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- 10. Safety Automation / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- 10.1. Introduction / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.1.1. Purpose of Safety Automation / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.1.2. Functions of I & C Systems / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.1.3. Allocation of Functions between Humans and Automation / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.2. Origin and History / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.2.1. Roots of Safety Automation / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.2.2. Systems Design / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.2.3. Typical Design Projects / Bjorn Wahlstrom -- 10.2.4. Analog and Digital I & C / Bjorn Wahlstrom."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 27.6. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Gudela Grote -- 27.6.1. Contextual factors / Gudela Grote -- 27.6.2. Examples for the effects of context on safety management / Gudela Grote -- 27.7. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Gudela Grote -- 27.8. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Gudela Grote -- References / Gudela Grote -- Further Reading / Gudela Grote -- 28. Safety Culture / Gudela Grote -- 28.1. Introduction / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman -- 28.2. Origin and History / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman -- 28.2.1. The Chernobyl Accident / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman -- 28.2.2.Organizational Culture and Organizational Climate: The Broader Context / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman -- 28.2.3. Safety Climate / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman -- 28.2.4.Organizational Culture and Safety Culture / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman -- 28.3. Definitions and Terminology / Carl Rollenhagen / Teemu Reiman."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 5.7.1. The Classical and Radical Meaning / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.7.2. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.7.3. General Conclusions / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 5.7.4. Relations to the Other Chapters / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- References / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 6. Factors And Margins Of Safety / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl -- 6.1. Introduction / Sven Ove Hansson / Neelke Doom -- 6.2. Origin and History / Sven Ove Hansson / Neelke Doom -- 6.3. Definitions and Terminology / Sven Ove Hansson / Neelke Doom -- 6.4. Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions / Sven Ove Hansson / Neelke Doom -- 6.4.1. Structural Engineering / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson -- 6.4.2. Toxicology / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson -- 6.5. Use and Implementation / Neelke Doom / Sven Ove Hansson."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: Further Reading / Urban Kjellen -- 8. Risk And Safety Indicators / Urban Kjellen -- 8.1. Introduction / Drew Rae -- 8.2. Origin and History / Drew Rae -- 8.3. Definitions and Terminology / Drew Rae -- 8.4. Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions / Drew Rae -- 8.4.1. Past, Present, and Future Safety / Drew Rae -- 8.4.2. Outcome Indicators / Drew Rae -- 8.4.3. Risk Models and Precursor Events / Drew Rae -- 8.4.4. Status of Physical and Procedural Controls / Drew Rae -- 8.4.5. Safe Behaviors / Drew Rae -- 8.4.6. Amount and Quality of Safety Activity / Drew Rae -- 8.4.7.Organizational Drivers and Attributes / Drew Rae -- 8.4.8. Variability / Drew Rae -- 8.5. Use and Implementation / Drew Rae -- 8.5.1. Metrics Collection / Drew Rae -- 8.5.2. Incentives and Accountability / Drew Rae -- 8.5.3. Benchmarking and Comparison / Drew Rae -- 8.5.4. Safety Management System Performance Monitoring / Drew Rae -- 8.6. Empirical Research on Use and Efficacy / Drew Rae."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 8.6.1. Usage of Indicators / Drew Rae -- 8.6.2. Efficacy of Indicators / Drew Rae -- 8.7. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Drew Rae -- 8.7.1. Underreporting and Distortion / Drew Rae -- 8.7.2. The Regulator Paradox and Estimation of Rare Events / Drew Rae -- 8.7.3. Confusion Between Process Safety and Personal Safety Indicators / Drew Rae -- 8.7.4. Unintended Consequences of Indirect Measurement / Drew Rae -- 8.8. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Drew Rae -- 8.8.1. Ensurance Principles / Drew Rae -- 8.8.2. Assessment and Assurance Principles / Drew Rae -- References / Drew Rae -- 9. Principles Of Human Factors Engineering / Drew Rae -- 9.1. Introduction / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- 9.2. Principle 1: HFE is Design Thinking / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- 9.2.1. Description / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- 9.2.2. Theoretical Foundation / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja -- 9.2.3. Use and Implementation / Leena Norms / Paula Savioja."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 3.3. The Four Potentials for Resilience Performance / Erik Hollnagel -- 3.4. Safety Management Systems / Erik Hollnagel -- 3.5. Developing Definitions of Resilience / Erik Hollnagel -- 3.6. Managing the Potentials for Resilient Performance / Erik Hollnagel -- 3.6.1.Organizations of the First Kind / Erik Hollnagel -- 3.6.2.Organizations of the Second Kind / Erik Hollnagel -- 3.6.3.Organizations of the Third Kind / Erik Hollnagel -- 3.6.4.Organizations of the Fourth Kind / Erik Hollnagel -- 3.7. Resilience Management: LP-HI OR HP-LI? / Erik Hollnagel -- References / Erik Hollnagel -- 4. Defense-In-Depth / Erik Hollnagel -- 4.1. Introduction / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 4.2. Underlying Theory and Theoretical Assumptions / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 4.2.1. Definitions and Terminology / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 4.3. Redundancy, Diversity, and Separation Principles / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 4.3.1. Principle of Successive Barriers and Reducing Consequences / Jan-Erik Holmberg."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 16. Safety Cases / Bo Bergman -- 16.1. Introduction / Tim Kelly -- 16.2. Origins and History / Tim Kelly -- 16.2.1. Windscale / Tim Kelly -- 16.2.2. Flixborough / Tim Kelly -- 16.2.3. Piper Alpha / Tim Kelly -- 16.2.4. Clapham / Tim Kelly -- 16.2.5. The Introduction of Safety Cases-A Shift in Emphasis / Tim Kelly -- 16.3. Definitions and Terminology / Tim Kelly -- 16.3.1. Safety Cases vs. Safety Case Reports / Tim Kelly -- 16.3.2. Other Terminology / Tim Kelly -- 16.4. Underlying Theory / Tim Kelly -- 16.4.1. Safety Case Argumentation / Tim Kelly -- 16.4.2. Types of Safety Case Argument / Tim Kelly -- 16.4.3. Safety Case Lifecycle / Tim Kelly -- 16.4.4. Incremental Safety Case Development / Tim Kelly -- 16.4.5. Safety Case Maintenance / Tim Kelly -- 16.4.6. Safety Case Evaluation / Tim Kelly -- 16.4.7. Safety Case Confidence / Tim Kelly -- 16.5. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Tim Kelly -- 16.6. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticisms / Tim Kelly."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 25.6. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Luca Podofillini -- 25.7. Relationship with Other Principles / Luca Podofillini -- References / Luca Podofillini -- 26. ALARA, BAT, And The Substitution Principle / Luca Podofillini -- 26.1. Introduction / Sven Ove Hansson -- 26.2. ALARA / Sven Ove Hansson -- 26.2.1. History and Current Use / Sven Ove Hansson -- 26.2.2. Definitions and Terminology / Sven Ove Hansson -- 26.2.3. Theory and Interpretation / Sven Ove Hansson -- 26.2.4. Effects of Applying the Principle / Sven Ove Hansson -- 26.2.5. Weaknesses and Criticism / Sven Ove Hansson -- 26.3. Best Available Technology / Sven Ove Hansson -- 26.3.1. History and Current Use / Sven Ove Hansson -- 26.3.2. Definitions and Terminology / Sven Ove Hansson -- 26.3.3. Theory and Interpretation / Sven Ove Hansson -- 26.3.4. Effects of Applying the Principle / Sven Ove Hansson -- 26.3.5. Weaknesses and Criticism / Sven Ove Hansson."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 16.6.1. Other Criticisms / Tim Kelly -- 16.7. Relationship to Other Principles / Tim Kelly -- References / Tim Kelly -- Further Reading / Tim Kelly -- 17. Inherently Safe Design / Tim Kelly -- 17.1. Introduction / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan -- 17.2. Origin and History of the Principle / Rajagopalan Srinivasan / Mohd Umair Iqbal -- 17.3. Definitions and Terminology / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan -- 17.4. Use and Implementation / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan -- 17.4.1. Examples of Minimization / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan -- 17.4.2. Examples of Substitution / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan -- 17.4.3. Examples of Simplification / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan -- 17.4.4. Example of Moderation / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan -- 17.5. Empirical Research on Use and Efficiency / Mohd Umair Iqbal / Rajagopalan Srinivasan."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 11.3.7. Risk Information Seeking Models / Jan M. Gutteling -- 11.3.8. Risk Communication and Social Media / Jan M. Gutteling -- 11.3.9. Conclusion / Jan M. Gutteling -- 11.4. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Jan M. Gutteling -- 11.5. Final Word / Jan M. Gutteling -- References / Jan M. Gutteling -- Further Reading / Jan M. Gutteling -- 12. The Precautionary Principle / Jan M. Gutteling -- 12.1. Introduction / Sven Ove Hansson -- 12.2. History and Current Use / Sven Ove Hansson -- 12.3. Definitions / Sven Ove Hansson -- 12.4. Underlying Theory / Sven Ove Hansson -- 12.5. Research on Use and Efficiency / Sven Ove Hansson -- 12.6. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Sven Ove Hansson -- 12.6.1. Is the Principle Asymmetric? / Sven Ove Hansson -- 12.6.2. Strawman Criticism / Sven Ove Hansson -- 12.7. Relation to Expected Utility and Probabilistic Risk Assessment / Sven Ove Hansson -- 12.8. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Sven Ove Hansson."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 32.5. Relation to Other Principles: Further Reading / Jean-Christophe Le Coze -- 32.6. Conclusion / Jean-Christophe Le Coze -- References / Jean-Christophe Le Coze."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 4.3.2. Principle of Accident Prevention and Mitigation / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 4.3.3. Classification of Barriers / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 4.3.4. Safety Classification / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 4.3.5. Overall Safety Goals and Risk Acceptance Criteria vs. Defense-in-Depth / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 4.4. Use and Implementation / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 4.4.1. Nuclear Power Plant Safety / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 4.4.2. Chemical Industry / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 4.4.3. Information Technology Security / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 4.4.4. Railway Safety / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 4.4.5. Automobile Safety / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 4.5. Empirical Research on use and Efficiency / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 4.6. Weaknesses, Limitations, and Criticism / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 4.7. Relations to Other Safety Principles / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- References / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- Further Reading / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 5. Safety Barriers / Jan-Erik Holmberg -- 5.1. Introduction / Carl Rollenhagen / Lars Harms-Ringdahl."@en ;
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