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HIV-1 latency

Author: Guido Silvestri, (Professor of pathology and laboratory medicine); Mathias Lichterfeld
Publisher: Cham, Switzerland : Springer, [2018]
Series: Current topics in microbiology and immunology, 417.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
This volume summarizes recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of HIV-1 latency, in characterizing residual viral reservoirs, and in developing targeted interventions to reduce HIV-1 persistence during antiretroviral therapy. Specific chapters address the molecular mechanisms that govern and regulate HIV-1 transcription and latency; assays and technical approaches to quantify viral reservoirs in humans and  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: (OCoLC)1054365701
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Guido Silvestri, (Professor of pathology and laboratory medicine); Mathias Lichterfeld
ISBN: 9783030028169 303002816X 9783030028176 3030028178
OCLC Number: 1056952108
Description: 1 online resource.
Contents: Intro; Preface; Contents; 74 Molecular Control of HIV and SIV Latency; Abstract; 1 Introduction; 2 The HIV-1 and SIVmac Promoters; 3 Regulation of HIV-1/SIV Transcription; 3.1 Nuclear Topography; 3.2 Viral Integration Site; 3.3 Epigenetic Modifications of HIV-1/SIV Promoter; 3.4 Regulation of HIV-1 Transcription by Tat/P-TEFb; 3.5 The Role of Cellular Transcription Factors; 4 Post-transcriptional Regulation of HIV-1 Expression; 4.1 HIV-1 mRNA Processing and Latency; 4.2 Noncoding mRNAs and HIV-1 Latency; 5 Concluding Remarks; References 75 Assays to Measure Latency, Reservoirs, and ReactivationAbstract; 1 Introduction; 2 Definitions; 3 The Viral Outgrowth Assay; 3.1 Assay Design and Rationale; 3.2 Recent Improvements and Potential Problems with the QVOA; 4 The Proviral Landscape: Defective and Non-induced Proviruses; 5 Other Reservoir Assays; 5.1 PCR and Hybridization-Based Assays; 5.2 Induction Assays; 6 Other Approaches to Reservoir Measurement; 6.1 Residual Viremia; 6.2 Biomarkers; 6.3 Time to Rebound; 7 Conclusions; Acknowledgements; References; 72 The Antiviral Immune Response and Its Impact on the HIV-1 Reservoir Abstract1 Introduction; 2 Innate Immune Response; 2.1 Type I Interferon and Restriction Factors; 2.2 Natural Killer Cells; 3 Adaptive Immune Response: Humoral Immunity; 3.1 HIV-1-Specific Antibodies; 3.2 The Development of Broadly Neutralizing Abs; 3.3 Abs as a Preventative or Therapeutic Treatment; 3.4 Bispecific Abs; 4 Adaptive Immune Response: Cellular Immunity; 4.1 HIV-1-Specific CD8+ T Cells; 4.2 CD8+ T Cell Responses in Patients with Natural Control of HIV-1 Infection; 4.3 CD8+ T Cell Based Vaccines; 4.4 CD8+ T Cell Based "Shock and Kill" Therapy; 5 Conclusions; References 73 Nonhuman Primate Models for Studies of AIDS Virus Persistence During Suppressive Combination Antiretroviral TherapyAbstract; 1 Introduction; 2 NHP/AIDS Models; 2.1 HIV-1 Infection of Nonhuman Primates; 2.2 Discovery of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) and Simian AIDS; 2.3 SIV Infection in Different NHP Species; 3 Advantages of NHP Models for HIV/AIDS Cure Research; 4 Challenges for Using NHP/AIDS Models for HIV Cure Research; 4.1 Logistical Challenges; 4.2 Challenges in cART Administration to AIDS Virus Infected NHP; 5 Administration of Antiretroviral Drugs to NHPs 5.1 Antiretroviral Drugs That Have Been Utilized in NHPs5.2 Future cART Regimen Development for NHPs; 6 Alternative Models; 6.1 Chinese-Origin Rhesus Macaques; 6.2 RT-SHIV Infections; 6.3 SIVagm.sab Infections; 6.4 CNS Infection Models; 6.5 Envelope SHIVs; 7 Virologic Assays; 7.1 PCR and RT-PCR-Based Assays; 7.2 In Situ Approaches; 7.3 Other Virologic Assessments; 8 Concluding Remarks; Financial Support; References; 89 SIV Latency in Macrophages in the CNS; Abstract; 1 Introduction; 2 HIV Infection and SIV Infection in the CNS; 3 New Insights on Macrophage Origin and Phenotypes
Series Title: Current topics in microbiology and immunology, 417.
Responsibility: Guido Silvestri, Mathias Lichterfeld, editors.

Abstract:

This volume summarizes recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of HIV-1 latency, in characterizing residual viral reservoirs, and in developing targeted interventions to reduce HIV-1  Read more...

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