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Human rights : universality and diversity

Author: Eva Brems
Publisher: The Hague : Martinus Nijhoff Publ., 2001
Series: International studies in human rights, 66
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
Part one: Human rights and the Universality Principle.

A. General and world-wide applicability of human rights: all-inclusiveness.

D. Formal origin: norm creation.

E. Anthropological or philosophical acceptance.

G. Multicultural composition of human rights.

H. World-wide observance of human rights.

I. General opposability of human rights.

J. Human rights as a legitimate concern of the international community.

K. Absence of double standards.

L. Priority of human rights.

M. Indivisibility of human rights.

N. Uniformity of standards.

O. Universality in time.

P. Universality as a process.

II. Brief history of the universality of human rights.

A. Before the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

B. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and subsequent evolution.

Part two: An analysis of non-western human rights claims.

B. Selection of material.

II. Asian human rights claims.

B. Central texts and events.

1. The Singapore school.

1.3. The economic argument.

1.4. The vulnerability argument.

1.5. The cultural argument.

2. The Beijing white papers.

2.1."China's practice of human rights".

2.2. "China's basic position on human rights".

3. The Bangkok declaration and the Vienna conference.

3.2. The Bangkok Declaration.

3.3. The Vienna Conference.

3.3.2. The Vienna Declaration.

3.3.2.1. Sovereignty, non-interference, double standards.

3.3.2.2. Universality and indivisibility.

3.3.2.3. Development and human rights.

3.3.2.4. Parts of the debate not mentioned.

3.4. The position of NGOs.

3.4.2. Some shared concerns with the governments.

3.4.2.2. Indivisibility and economic concerns.

3.4.2.3. The individual and the community.

3.4.3. Some points of disagreement with the governments.

3.4.3.1. The sovereignty argument.

3.4.3.2. The national security argument.

4. Kuala Lumpur Declaration on Human Rights.

2.3. The individual, the community and the state.

2.4. Interpretation and implementation.

3. Attitude towards the universality of human rights.

3.1. Universality and respect for diversity.

3.2. The role of culture.

III. African human rights views.

1. Legal and political texts.

1.1. The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights.

1.1.1. Universality and specificity.

A) Originality of the African charter.

C) Beneficiaries and enforcement.

D) Peoples' rights and individual rights.

1.1.2.2. Overview of the articles.

A) Originality of the African Charter.

D) Individual duties and individual rights.

1.1.3.2. Overview of the articles.

1.1.4. Economic, social and cultural rights.

1.1.5. Limitation and derogation.

1.1.6. Choice and formulation of specific rights.

1.1.6.1. Omission of rights.

1.1.6.2. Inclusion and formulation of rights.

B) Article 17 (3).

C) Article 7 (2) in fine.

D) Article 13 (1).

1.1.8. Reception of the Charter.

1.2. The African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child.

1.2.1. Rights protected in both CRC and ACRWC.

1.2.2. Rights protected only in the ACRWC, not in the CRC.

1.2.3. Rights protected only in the CRC, not in the ACRWC.

1.3. The Tunis Declaration.

2.4. Development and human rights.

2.4.1. Priority of development over human rights.

2.4.2. Economic, social and cultural rights.

2.6. Harmful cultural practices.

2.6.2. The example of female genital mutilation.

2.6.2.2. The Western campaign and the United Nations.

IV. Islam and human rights views.

1.1. Fundamental attitude: different tendencies.

B) Older and better.

A) Attitude to "Thorny issues".

B) Traditionalists and fundamentalists.

1.1.2. Appeals for interpretation.

A) Moderate Muslim proposals.

B) Radical Muslim proposals.

C) Non-Muslim Western authors.

1.2.1.1. Rejection of universality.

1.2.1.2. Ambiguous attitude toward universality in the apologetic discourse.

1.2.1.3. Attitude toward universality among liberal Muslim.

1.2.2. Individualism versus Communalism and rights versus duties.

1.2.2.1. The relationship between the two themes.

1.2.2.2. Individualism v. Communalism.

A) Individualism and Communalism in Islam.

B) Consequences for claims about human rights.

1.2.2.3. Rights v. duties.

A) Rights and duties in Islam.

1.2.3. The religious dimension.

1.2.4. Areas of conflict between Islam and international human rights.

1.2.4.2. Freedom of religion.

B) Solving the problem.

1.2.4.3. Discrimination on the basis of religion.

B) Denying or minimising the problem.

C) Solving the problem.

A) The problem: Hudud crimes.

3. A specific genre: The debate on women in Islam.

1.3.1. Fundamental attitude: Different tendencies.

1.3.1.2. Feminists appeals for interpretation.

1.3.2.1. The principle of equality.

A) Choice of a husband.

C) Authority of the husband.

A) Obtaining a divorce.

1.3.2.7. Freedom of movement / Hijab.

1.3.2.8. Right to work.

1.3.2.9. Political rights / access to public functions.

2. Islamic declarations of human rights.

2.1. Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights.

2.1.2. Universality versus particularity.

2.1.2.1. Elements of universality.

2.1.2.2. Elements of Islamic particularity.

2.1.3. Individualism versus Communalism.

2.1.4. Rights versus duties.

2.1.5. Restriction of rights.

2.2. Cairo Declaration on human rights in Islam.

2.2.2. Universality versus particularity.

2.2.3. Individualism versus communalism.

2.2.4. Rights versus duties.

2.2.5. Restriction of rights.

3. Islamic reservations to human rights conventions.

3.2. Reservations of a general nature.

3.3.1. In the ICCPR and the ICESCR.

3.3.3. In the CRC.

3.4. Evolution over time: reservations as statements in a debate.

V. Some common conclusions.

B. Attitude towards the universality of human rights.

C. Flexibility and transformation.

Part three: Inclusive universality.

II. Upholding the ideal of the universality of human rights.

1. The condition of general formal acceptance.

2. The condition of mixed cultural origin or composition.

3. The condition of cross-cultural anthropological or philosophical.

Foundations: of mothers and sisters.

B.A functional and pragmatic basis for affirming universality.

1. A functional basis.

1.1. The universality of the modern state.

2. A pragmatic basis.

III. Necessary consequences of the universality of human rights: Toward.

A. General formal acceptance.

B. Participation in norm creation.

C. Absence of double standards.

F. Cross-cultural acceptance in anthropological and philosophical terms.

1. Transformation of human rights standards.

2. Flexibility of human rights standards.

3. Limits to the accommodation of particularities.

3.1. Who makes the claim?.

3.2. Thick and thin accounts of human rights: Gross violations.

3.3. Limits inherent in the concept of inclusive universality.

IV. Further marking out inclusive universality.

B. Comparison with other concepts.

1. Minow's relational and contextual approach.

2. Taylor and Habermas: Recognising cultural identities.

4. Donnelly's weak cultural relativism.

Part four: Legal techniques for the accommodation of diversity.

A. Forum and focus.

B. Contextual diversity in the consideration of human rights reports.

1. "Factors and difficulties".

1.1. Types of factors and difficulties.

1.2. Impact on the committee's evaluation.

2.1. In the ICESCR.

2.2. In the CRC.

C. Margin of appreciation.

1. Focus on Europe.

2. The margin of appreciation doctrine.

3. One doctrine, several techniques.

3.1. Contextual variations in the balancing between rights and restriction.

3.1.1. The principle of balancing: individual versus community.

3.1.2. Balancing in practice.

3.1.2.1. The weight of the individual right.

A) The importance of the interest: core activities.

B) The seriousness of the interference: "Substance" or "essence" criteria.

3.1.2.2. The weight of the community interest.

A) Choice from among the enumerated interests in a limitation clause.

1. Better position of the national authorities.

II. Economic and social policy.

III. Sovereignty-related policy fields.

3.1.3. Balancing on the world level.

3.2. Contextual variations in solving conflicts of rights.

3.3. Contextual factors as mitigating circumstances for interferences.

3.4. Organisational latitude for the concretisation of rights in different.

3.5. Contextual variability in the interpretation of vague or general.

3.5.3. Margin of appreciation in the interpretation of vague or general.

4. Margin of appreciation criteria and inclusive universality.

4.3. "No gross violations".

4.3.2. The core of a right.

4.4. The consensus criterion.

4.4.1. The consensus criterion in the case-law of the European Court of.

4.4.1.1. Comparison in balancing.

4.4.1.2. Comparison in other legal techniques.

4.4.1.3. Reference to other conventions.

4.4.1.4. Internal uncertainty or dispute.

4.4.1.5. Consensus and evolution.

4.4.2. The consensus criterion on the world level.

4.4.2.1. Problematic aspects of the consensus criterion in general.

4.4.2.2. Additional problems on the world level.

1. Types of duties.

2. Duties in international human rights law.

2.1. Human rights texts on the universal level.

2.1.1. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

2.2. Regional human rights texts.

2.2.1. The European Convention on Human Rights.

2.2.3. The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights.

3.1.1. Potential benefits of more duties.

3.1.2. Avoiding negative effects of more duties.

3.2.1. The proposal of the interaction council.

3.2.2. The proposal of Karel Vasak.

C. Economic and social rights and the right to development.

1. Present international law.

1.1. Economic and social rights.

1.1.1. A distinct category of rights.

1.1.2. Challenging the categorization.

1.1.2.1. Positive and negative obligations.

1.1.2.2. Progressive or immediate realization.

1.2. The right to development.

1.2.1. History and legal status.

1.2.2. Specifics of the right to development.

1.2.2.1. Subjects and duty-holders.

2.2. Upgrading economic and social rights.

2.2.1. Balancing human rights evaluations.

2.2.2. Strengthening economic and social rights.

2.2.2.1. Developing the normative content of economic and social rights.

A) Types of obligations.

B) Core and margin.

C) Types of violations.

D) Responsibility, victims, response.

2.2.2.2. Improving control over the Implementation of economic and social.

2.3. Upgrading the right to development.

2.3.1. Balancing human rights evaluations.

2.3.2. Strengthening the right to development.

2.3.2.1. Developing the normative content of the right to development.

2.3.2.2. Improving control over the implementation of the right to.

D. Collective human rights.

1. Collective rights in present international law.

1.1. "Nationalist" collective human rights.

1.2. Other collective human rights.

2. Perspectives from inclusive universality.

2.1.1. Collective rights as human rights.

2.2. Increasing attention for collective human rights.

2.2.1. More collective human rights?.

2.2.2. Normative development and implementation mechanism.

IV. Conclusion on legal techniques for the accommodation of diversity.

I. Two central problems.

II. Deflating a blown up debate.

III. Promoting inclusive universality.

IV. Disarming Mala Fide critics.

V. Suggestions for further research.  Read more...

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Details

Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Eva Brems
ISBN: 9041116184 9789041116185
OCLC Number: 463945639
Description: xv, 574 s
Series Title: International studies in human rights, 66

Abstract:

Part one: Human rights and the Universality Principle.

A. General and world-wide applicability of human rights: all-inclusiveness.

D. Formal origin: norm creation.

E. Anthropological or philosophical acceptance.

G. Multicultural composition of human rights.

H. World-wide observance of human rights.

I. General opposability of human rights.

J. Human rights as a legitimate concern of the international community.

K. Absence of double standards.

L. Priority of human rights.

M. Indivisibility of human rights.

N. Uniformity of standards.

O. Universality in time.

P. Universality as a process.

II. Brief history of the universality of human rights.

A. Before the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

B. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and subsequent evolution.

Part two: An analysis of non-western human rights claims.

B. Selection of material.

II. Asian human rights claims.

B. Central texts and events.

1. The Singapore school.

1.3. The economic argument.

1.4. The vulnerability argument.

1.5. The cultural argument.

2. The Beijing white papers.

2.1."China's practice of human rights".

2.2. "China's basic position on human rights".

3. The Bangkok declaration and the Vienna conference.

3.2. The Bangkok Declaration.

3.3. The Vienna Conference.

3.3.2. The Vienna Declaration.

3.3.2.1. Sovereignty, non-interference, double standards.

3.3.2.2. Universality and indivisibility.

3.3.2.3. Development and human rights.

3.3.2.4. Parts of the debate not mentioned.

3.4. The position of NGOs.

3.4.2. Some shared concerns with the governments.

3.4.2.2. Indivisibility and economic concerns.

3.4.2.3. The individual and the community.

3.4.3. Some points of disagreement with the governments.

3.4.3.1. The sovereignty argument.

3.4.3.2. The national security argument.

4. Kuala Lumpur Declaration on Human Rights.

2.3. The individual, the community and the state.

2.4. Interpretation and implementation.

3. Attitude towards the universality of human rights.

3.1. Universality and respect for diversity.

3.2. The role of culture.

III. African human rights views.

1. Legal and political texts.

1.1. The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights.

1.1.1. Universality and specificity.

A) Originality of the African charter.

C) Beneficiaries and enforcement.

D) Peoples' rights and individual rights.

1.1.2.2. Overview of the articles.

A) Originality of the African Charter.

D) Individual duties and individual rights.

1.1.3.2. Overview of the articles.

1.1.4. Economic, social and cultural rights.

1.1.5. Limitation and derogation.

1.1.6. Choice and formulation of specific rights.

1.1.6.1. Omission of rights.

1.1.6.2. Inclusion and formulation of rights.

B) Article 17 (3).

C) Article 7 (2) in fine.

D) Article 13 (1).

1.1.8. Reception of the Charter.

1.2. The African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child.

1.2.1. Rights protected in both CRC and ACRWC.

1.2.2. Rights protected only in the ACRWC, not in the CRC.

1.2.3. Rights protected only in the CRC, not in the ACRWC.

1.3. The Tunis Declaration.

2.4. Development and human rights.

2.4.1. Priority of development over human rights.

2.4.2. Economic, social and cultural rights.

2.6. Harmful cultural practices.

2.6.2. The example of female genital mutilation.

2.6.2.2. The Western campaign and the United Nations.

IV. Islam and human rights views.

1.1. Fundamental attitude: different tendencies.

B) Older and better.

A) Attitude to "Thorny issues".

B) Traditionalists and fundamentalists.

1.1.2. Appeals for interpretation.

A) Moderate Muslim proposals.

B) Radical Muslim proposals.

C) Non-Muslim Western authors.

1.2.1.1. Rejection of universality.

1.2.1.2. Ambiguous attitude toward universality in the apologetic discourse.

1.2.1.3. Attitude toward universality among liberal Muslim.

1.2.2. Individualism versus Communalism and rights versus duties.

1.2.2.1. The relationship between the two themes.

1.2.2.2. Individualism v. Communalism.

A) Individualism and Communalism in Islam.

B) Consequences for claims about human rights.

1.2.2.3. Rights v. duties.

A) Rights and duties in Islam.

1.2.3. The religious dimension.

1.2.4. Areas of conflict between Islam and international human rights.

1.2.4.2. Freedom of religion.

B) Solving the problem.

1.2.4.3. Discrimination on the basis of religion.

B) Denying or minimising the problem.

C) Solving the problem.

A) The problem: Hudud crimes.

3. A specific genre: The debate on women in Islam.

1.3.1. Fundamental attitude: Different tendencies.

1.3.1.2. Feminists appeals for interpretation.

1.3.2.1. The principle of equality.

A) Choice of a husband.

C) Authority of the husband.

A) Obtaining a divorce.

1.3.2.7. Freedom of movement / Hijab.

1.3.2.8. Right to work.

1.3.2.9. Political rights / access to public functions.

2. Islamic declarations of human rights.

2.1. Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights.

2.1.2. Universality versus particularity.

2.1.2.1. Elements of universality.

2.1.2.2. Elements of Islamic particularity.

2.1.3. Individualism versus Communalism.

2.1.4. Rights versus duties.

2.1.5. Restriction of rights.

2.2. Cairo Declaration on human rights in Islam.

2.2.2. Universality versus particularity.

2.2.3. Individualism versus communalism.

2.2.4. Rights versus duties.

2.2.5. Restriction of rights.

3. Islamic reservations to human rights conventions.

3.2. Reservations of a general nature.

3.3.1. In the ICCPR and the ICESCR.

3.3.3. In the CRC.

3.4. Evolution over time: reservations as statements in a debate.

V. Some common conclusions.

B. Attitude towards the universality of human rights.

C. Flexibility and transformation.

Part three: Inclusive universality.

II. Upholding the ideal of the universality of human rights.

1. The condition of general formal acceptance.

2. The condition of mixed cultural origin or composition.

3. The condition of cross-cultural anthropological or philosophical.

Foundations: of mothers and sisters.

B.A functional and pragmatic basis for affirming universality.

1. A functional basis.

1.1. The universality of the modern state.

2. A pragmatic basis.

III. Necessary consequences of the universality of human rights: Toward.

A. General formal acceptance.

B. Participation in norm creation.

C. Absence of double standards.

F. Cross-cultural acceptance in anthropological and philosophical terms.

1. Transformation of human rights standards.

2. Flexibility of human rights standards.

3. Limits to the accommodation of particularities.

3.1. Who makes the claim?.

3.2. Thick and thin accounts of human rights: Gross violations.

3.3. Limits inherent in the concept of inclusive universality.

IV. Further marking out inclusive universality.

B. Comparison with other concepts.

1. Minow's relational and contextual approach.

2. Taylor and Habermas: Recognising cultural identities.

4. Donnelly's weak cultural relativism.

Part four: Legal techniques for the accommodation of diversity.

A. Forum and focus.

B. Contextual diversity in the consideration of human rights reports.

1. "Factors and difficulties".

1.1. Types of factors and difficulties.

1.2. Impact on the committee's evaluation.

2.1. In the ICESCR.

2.2. In the CRC.

C. Margin of appreciation.

1. Focus on Europe.

2. The margin of appreciation doctrine.

3. One doctrine, several techniques.

3.1. Contextual variations in the balancing between rights and restriction.

3.1.1. The principle of balancing: individual versus community.

3.1.2. Balancing in practice.

3.1.2.1. The weight of the individual right.

A) The importance of the interest: core activities.

B) The seriousness of the interference: "Substance" or "essence" criteria.

3.1.2.2. The weight of the community interest.

A) Choice from among the enumerated interests in a limitation clause.

1. Better position of the national authorities.

II. Economic and social policy.

III. Sovereignty-related policy fields.

3.1.3. Balancing on the world level.

3.2. Contextual variations in solving conflicts of rights.

3.3. Contextual factors as mitigating circumstances for interferences.

3.4. Organisational latitude for the concretisation of rights in different.

3.5. Contextual variability in the interpretation of vague or general.

3.5.3. Margin of appreciation in the interpretation of vague or general.

4. Margin of appreciation criteria and inclusive universality.

4.3. "No gross violations".

4.3.2. The core of a right.

4.4. The consensus criterion.

4.4.1. The consensus criterion in the case-law of the European Court of.

4.4.1.1. Comparison in balancing.

4.4.1.2. Comparison in other legal techniques.

4.4.1.3. Reference to other conventions.

4.4.1.4. Internal uncertainty or dispute.

4.4.1.5. Consensus and evolution.

4.4.2. The consensus criterion on the world level.

4.4.2.1. Problematic aspects of the consensus criterion in general.

4.4.2.2. Additional problems on the world level.

1. Types of duties.

2. Duties in international human rights law.

2.1. Human rights texts on the universal level.

2.1.1. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

2.2. Regional human rights texts.

2.2.1. The European Convention on Human Rights.

2.2.3. The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights.

3.1.1. Potential benefits of more duties.

3.1.2. Avoiding negative effects of more duties.

3.2.1. The proposal of the interaction council.

3.2.2. The proposal of Karel Vasak.

C. Economic and social rights and the right to development.

1. Present international law.

1.1. Economic and social rights.

1.1.1. A distinct category of rights.

1.1.2. Challenging the categorization.

1.1.2.1. Positive and negative obligations.

1.1.2.2. Progressive or immediate realization.

1.2. The right to development.

1.2.1. History and legal status.

1.2.2. Specifics of the right to development.

1.2.2.1. Subjects and duty-holders.

2.2. Upgrading economic and social rights.

2.2.1. Balancing human rights evaluations.

2.2.2. Strengthening economic and social rights.

2.2.2.1. Developing the normative content of economic and social rights.

A) Types of obligations.

B) Core and margin.

C) Types of violations.

D) Responsibility, victims, response.

2.2.2.2. Improving control over the Implementation of economic and social.

2.3. Upgrading the right to development.

2.3.1. Balancing human rights evaluations.

2.3.2. Strengthening the right to development.

2.3.2.1. Developing the normative content of the right to development.

2.3.2.2. Improving control over the implementation of the right to.

D. Collective human rights.

1. Collective rights in present international law.

1.1. "Nationalist" collective human rights.

1.2. Other collective human rights.

2. Perspectives from inclusive universality.

2.1.1. Collective rights as human rights.

2.2. Increasing attention for collective human rights.

2.2.1. More collective human rights?.

2.2.2. Normative development and implementation mechanism.

IV. Conclusion on legal techniques for the accommodation of diversity.

I. Two central problems.

II. Deflating a blown up debate.

III. Promoting inclusive universality.

IV. Disarming Mala Fide critics.

V. Suggestions for further research.

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\n\n

Primary Entity<\/h3>\n
<http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/463945639<\/a>> # Human rights : universality and diversity<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:CreativeWork<\/a>, schema:Book<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:oclcnum<\/a> \"463945639<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:placeOfPublication<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Place\/the_hague<\/a>> ; # The Hague<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:placeOfPublication<\/a> <http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/vocabulary\/countries\/ne<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/children<\/a>> ; # Children<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/women<\/a>> ; # Women<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/culture<\/a>> ; # Culture<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/regional_human_rights_protection_systems<\/a>> ; # Regional human rights protection systems<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/885057<\/a>> ; # Cultural relativism<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/international_law<\/a>> ; # International law<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/collective_rights<\/a>> ; # Collective rights<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/civil_and_political_rights<\/a>> ; # Civil and political rights<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Place\/africa<\/a>> ; # Africa<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/history<\/a>> ; # History<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/economic_social_and_cultural_rights<\/a>> ; # Economic, social and cultural rights<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Place\/asia<\/a>> ; # Asia<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/belief_systems<\/a>> ; # Belief systems<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/authorities\/classification\/K3240<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/cultural_relativism<\/a>> ; # Cultural relativism<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/dewey.info\/class\/323\/e21\/<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/human_rights_social_aspects<\/a>> ; # Human rights--Social aspects<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/963330<\/a>> ; # Human rights--Social aspects<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Place\/europe<\/a>> ; # Europe<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/development<\/a>> ; # Development<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:bookFormat<\/a> bgn:PrintBook<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:creator<\/a> <http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/233171101<\/a>> ; # Eva Brems<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:datePublished<\/a> \"2001<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1. \"Factors and difficulties\".<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"A) Originality of the African charter.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.2.2. The proposal of Karel Vasak.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.1.2.2. Overview of the articles.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"C) Non-Muslim Western authors.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"Part two: An analysis of non-western human rights claims.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"A) Obtaining a divorce.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3. The condition of cross-cultural anthropological or philosophical.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"4.3. \"No gross violations\".<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"II. Deflating a blown up debate.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.2.1.1. Rejection of universality.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"4.4.2. The consensus criterion on the world level.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.2. Thick and thin accounts of human rights: Gross violations.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"F. Cross-cultural acceptance in anthropological and philosophical terms.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"4.4.1. The consensus criterion in the case-law of the European Court of.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2. Flexibility of human rights standards.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.5. The cultural argument.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.1. The African Charter on Human and Peoples\' Rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.1. Fundamental attitude: different tendencies.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.6. Harmful cultural practices.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"B.A functional and pragmatic basis for affirming universality.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.1.2.2. Progressive or immediate realization.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.2. Contextual variations in solving conflicts of rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.3.2. Strengthening the right to development.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.2.1.3. Attitude toward universality among liberal Muslim.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.5. Contextual variability in the interpretation of vague or general.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"IV. Conclusion on legal techniques for the accommodation of diversity.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.6.2.2. The Western campaign and the United Nations.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.1.2. Challenging the categorization.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"C. Absence of double standards.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.3.2.8. Right to work.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2. Islamic declarations of human rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.2.2.2. Individualism v. Communalism.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"4.4.1.1. Comparison in balancing.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"C. Margin of appreciation.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"I. Two central problems.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.2.2.3. Rights v. duties.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.1.2.2. The weight of the community interest.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.4.2. Economic, social and cultural rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1. Collective rights in present international law.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.1.2. Appeals for interpretation.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"C) Solving the problem.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"V. Suggestions for further research.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.2. Regional human rights texts.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.2.4.3. Discrimination on the basis of religion.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.1. Universality and respect for diversity.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1. Transformation of human rights standards.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.2.1. Balancing human rights evaluations.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.2. \"China\'s basic position on human rights\".<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3. One doctrine, several techniques.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.3. The individual, the community and the state.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2. The Beijing white papers.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.6.2. The example of female genital mutilation.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.3.3. In the CRC.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.2. The right to development.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"IV. Disarming Mala Fide critics.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.1.\"China\'s practice of human rights\".<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1. The condition of general formal acceptance.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"A) Types of obligations.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.1.2.1. Elements of universality.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.2.1. The European Convention on Human Rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"L. Priority of human rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.2.1.2. Ambiguous attitude toward universality in the apologetic discourse.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.3. The economic argument.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.3. Upgrading the right to development.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"IV. Islam and human rights views.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2. Taylor and Habermas: Recognising cultural identities.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"4. Kuala Lumpur Declaration on Human Rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.2. In the CRC.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"III. African human rights views.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"B) Consequences for claims about human rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1. A functional basis.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"B) Radical Muslim proposals.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.2. Upgrading economic and social rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"II. Asian human rights claims.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.1.2. Avoiding negative effects of more duties.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"D. Formal origin: norm creation.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.4. The position of NGOs.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.2. Other collective human rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"E. Anthropological or philosophical acceptance.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.1.3.2. Overview of the articles.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.1.1. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3. Limits to the accommodation of particularities.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.2.1. Rights protected in both CRC and ACRWC.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3. Attitude towards the universality of human rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"4.4. The consensus criterion.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.1.2.1. Positive and negative obligations.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"M. Indivisibility of human rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.1. \"Nationalist\" collective human rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.1.1. A distinct category of rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.2. The Bangkok Declaration.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.2.2. Specifics of the right to development.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.4.2.3. The individual and the community.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"A. General formal acceptance.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.2. Impact on the committee\'s evaluation.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.1.5. Limitation and derogation.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"B. Comparison with other concepts.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.2.3. Rights protected only in the CRC, not in the ACRWC.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"A) The problem: Hudud crimes.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"N. Uniformity of standards.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.3. Contextual factors as mitigating circumstances for interferences.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"B) Traditionalists and fundamentalists.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.4.2.2. Indivisibility and economic concerns.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"B. Attitude towards the universality of human rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"4.4.2.2. Additional problems on the world level.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.2.3. The religious dimension.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.4. Organisational latitude for the concretisation of rights in different.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"4.4.1.2. Comparison in other legal techniques.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.1. Who makes the claim?.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2. Perspectives from inclusive universality.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.3.2.1. Sovereignty, non-interference, double standards.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"C. Flexibility and transformation.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.1.5. Restriction of rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.4. The vulnerability argument.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.1.2.2. Elements of Islamic particularity.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"II. Economic and social policy.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.1.6.2. Inclusion and formulation of rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"4. Donnelly\'s weak cultural relativism.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.1. Economic and social rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"4.4.1.4. Internal uncertainty or dispute.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1. Focus on Europe.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"B. Selection of material.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.2. The African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.2.2. Rights protected only in the ACRWC, not in the CRC.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.2.4. Areas of conflict between Islam and international human rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"A) Rights and duties in Islam.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.2. Increasing attention for collective human rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"A. General and world-wide applicability of human rights: all-inclusiveness.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3. A specific genre: The debate on women in Islam.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.2. Cairo Declaration on human rights in Islam.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2. A pragmatic basis.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1. Minow\'s relational and contextual approach.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"C) Article 7 (2) in fine.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3. Islamic reservations to human rights conventions.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2. The margin of appreciation doctrine.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"K. Absence of double standards.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.1. Human rights texts on the universal level.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.3.1.2. Feminists appeals for interpretation.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.1. Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.3.1. Fundamental attitude: Different tendencies.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"A) Choice of a husband.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"II. Brief history of the universality of human rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"B. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and subsequent evolution.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.3.2.2. Universality and indivisibility.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"H. World-wide observance of human rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"A) Individualism and Communalism in Islam.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"III. Sovereignty-related policy fields.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.1. Types of factors and difficulties.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.3.2.2. Improving control over the implementation of the right to.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.4.3. Some points of disagreement with the governments.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.2.1. More collective human rights?.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"4.3.2. The core of a right.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"Part three: Inclusive universality.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"D) Responsibility, victims, response.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1. Types of duties.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.2. Reservations of a general nature.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.1.2.1. The weight of the individual right.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.4.2. Some shared concerns with the governments.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"Part one: Human rights and the Universality Principle.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"IV. Further marking out inclusive universality.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.1.3. Balancing on the world level.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.1. In the ICESCR.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.1.6. Choice and formulation of specific rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"4.4.1.5. Consensus and evolution.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.1.8. Reception of the Charter.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"II. Upholding the ideal of the universality of human rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.2.5. Restriction of rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.4. Development and human rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.2.1. History and legal status.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.3.2.1. The principle of equality.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.2.4.2. Freedom of religion.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1. Present international law.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"A. Before the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"A) Attitude to \"Thorny issues\".<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.2.3. The African Charter on Human and Peoples\' Rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"B. Contextual diversity in the consideration of human rights reports.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"Foundations: of mothers and sisters.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.1.3. Individualism versus Communalism.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"B) Denying or minimising the problem.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.1.1. Universality and specificity.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.3.1. Balancing human rights evaluations.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.2.2.1. Developing the normative content of economic and social rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"4.4.1.3. Reference to other conventions.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.3.2.7. Freedom of movement \/ Hijab.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.3. The Vienna Conference.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.2.2. Individualism versus Communalism and rights versus duties.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.4.3.1. The sovereignty argument.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"D. Collective human rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.2.3. Individualism versus communalism.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"I. General opposability of human rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.4.1. Priority of development over human rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"J. Human rights as a legitimate concern of the international community.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"B. Central texts and events.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"C) Authority of the husband.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1. Legal and political texts.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"A. Forum and focus.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.1. Contextual variations in the balancing between rights and restriction.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.4. Interpretation and implementation.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.1.4. Rights versus duties.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.2. The role of culture.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"III. Promoting inclusive universality.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"A) The importance of the interest: core activities.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.3.2.9. Political rights \/ access to public functions.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.3.1. In the ICCPR and the ICESCR.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"A) Moderate Muslim proposals.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.1.2. Universality versus particularity.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.2.2. Strengthening economic and social rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"D) Article 13 (1).<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.3.2.4. Parts of the debate not mentioned.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.3. The Tunis Declaration.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"B) Article 17 (3).<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.1.4. Economic, social and cultural rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"C) Beneficiaries and enforcement.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"4.4.2.1. Problematic aspects of the consensus criterion in general.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"III. Necessary consequences of the universality of human rights: Toward.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.1. The universality of the modern state.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"G. Multicultural composition of human rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.1.1. The principle of balancing: individual versus community.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.2.2.1. Subjects and duty-holders.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"A) Originality of the African Charter.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.3. Limits inherent in the concept of inclusive universality.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.2.1. The proposal of the interaction council.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"B) Solving the problem.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"V. Some common conclusions.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.3.2.3. Development and human rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"4. Margin of appreciation criteria and inclusive universality.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.4. Evolution over time: reservations as statements in a debate.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1. The Singapore school.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.2.2.1. The relationship between the two themes.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"Part four: Legal techniques for the accommodation of diversity.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.3.2.1. Developing the normative content of the right to development.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"B) Core and margin.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3. The Bangkok declaration and the Vienna conference.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1. Better position of the national authorities.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.1.2. Balancing in practice.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.3.2. The Vienna Declaration.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"D) Peoples\' rights and individual rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.1.1. Potential benefits of more duties.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.2.2. Normative development and implementation mechanism.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"D) Individual duties and individual rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.2.2.2. Improving control over the Implementation of economic and social.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"B) The seriousness of the interference: \"Substance\" or \"essence\" criteria.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.5.3. Margin of appreciation in the interpretation of vague or general.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"B) Older and better.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2. Duties in international human rights law.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"C. Economic and social rights and the right to development.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2. The condition of mixed cultural origin or composition.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"P. Universality as a process.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.1.1. Collective rights as human rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"A) Choice from among the enumerated interests in a limitation clause.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"B. Participation in norm creation.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"O. Universality in time.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"1.1.6.1. Omission of rights.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.2.2. Universality versus particularity.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"C) Types of violations.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"2.2.4. Rights versus duties.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"3.4.3.2. The national security argument.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:exampleOfWork<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/id\/192191959<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:inLanguage<\/a> \"en<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isPartOf<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Series\/international_studies_in_human_rights<\/a>> ; # International studies in human rights ;<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Human rights : universality and diversity<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:productID<\/a> \"463945639<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:publication<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/463945639#PublicationEvent\/the_hague_martinus_nijhoff_publ_2001<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:publisher<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Agent\/martinus_nijhoff_publ<\/a>> ; # Martinus Nijhoff Publ.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:workExample<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9789041116185<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nwdrs:describedby<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/463945639<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n\n

Related Entities<\/h3>\n
<http:\/\/dewey.info\/class\/323\/e21\/<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Agent\/martinus_nijhoff_publ<\/a>> # Martinus Nijhoff Publ.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nbgn:Agent<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Martinus Nijhoff Publ.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Place\/africa<\/a>> # Africa<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Africa<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Place\/asia<\/a>> # Asia<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Asia<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Place\/europe<\/a>> # Europe<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Europe<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Place\/the_hague<\/a>> # The Hague<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"The Hague<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Series\/international_studies_in_human_rights<\/a>> # International studies in human rights ;<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nbgn:PublicationSeries<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:hasPart<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/463945639<\/a>> ; # Human rights : universality and diversity<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"International studies in human rights ;<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/belief_systems<\/a>> # Belief systems<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Belief systems<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/children<\/a>> # Children<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Children<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/civil_and_political_rights<\/a>> # Civil and political rights<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Civil and political rights<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/collective_rights<\/a>> # Collective rights<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Collective rights<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/cultural_relativism<\/a>> # Cultural relativism<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Cultural relativism<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/culture<\/a>> # Culture<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Culture<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/development<\/a>> # Development<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Development<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/economic_social_and_cultural_rights<\/a>> # Economic, social and cultural rights<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Economic, social and cultural rights<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/history<\/a>> # History<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"History<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/human_rights_social_aspects<\/a>> # Human rights--Social aspects<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Human rights--Social aspects<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/international_law<\/a>> # International law<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"International law<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/regional_human_rights_protection_systems<\/a>> # Regional human rights protection systems<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Regional human rights protection systems<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Topic\/women<\/a>> # Women<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Women<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/authorities\/classification\/K3240<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/vocabulary\/countries\/ne<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\ndcterms:identifier<\/a> \"ne<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/885057<\/a>> # Cultural relativism<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Cultural relativism<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/963330<\/a>> # Human rights--Social aspects<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Human rights--Social aspects<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/233171101<\/a>> # Eva Brems<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Brems<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Eva<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Eva Brems<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9789041116185<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:ProductModel<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"9041116184<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"9789041116185<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/463945639<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \ngenont:InformationResource<\/a>, genont:ContentTypeGenericResource<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/463945639<\/a>> ; # Human rights : universality and diversity<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:dateModified<\/a> \"2020-01-23<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nvoid:inDataset<\/a> <http:\/\/purl.oclc.org\/dataset\/WorldCat<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/463945639#PublicationEvent\/the_hague_martinus_nijhoff_publ_2001<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:PublicationEvent<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:location<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Place\/the_hague<\/a>> ; # The Hague<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:organizer<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/192191959#Agent\/martinus_nijhoff_publ<\/a>> ; # Martinus Nijhoff Publ.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:startDate<\/a> \"2001<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n\n

Content-negotiable representations<\/p>\n