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Leibniz : determinist, theist, idealist

Author: Robert Merrihew Adams
Publisher: New York : Oxford University Press, 1998, 1994.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : English : Pbk. rpt. ed., 1998View all editions and formats
Summary:
Legendary since his own time as a universal genius, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) contributed significantly to almost every branch of learning. One of the creators of modern mathematics, and probably the most sophisticated logician between the Middle Ages and Frege, as well as a pioneer of ecumenical theology, he also wrote extensively on such diverse subjects as history, geology, and physics. But the part  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Adams, Robert Merrihew.
Leibniz.
New York : Oxford University Press, 1998, 1994
(DLC) 93010248
(OCoLC)27814913
Named Person: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Freiherr von; Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Freiherr von
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Robert Merrihew Adams
ISBN: 0585278288 9780585278285
OCLC Number: 45733477
Description: 1 online resource (xi, 448 pages)
Contents: I. Determinism: Contingency and Identity. Leibniz's theories of contingency. The logic of counterfactual non-identity. The metaphysics of counterfactual nonidentity --
II. Theism: God and being. The Ens perfectissimum. The ontological argument. Existence and essence. The root of possibility. Presumption of possibility --
III. Idealism: Monads and bodies. Leibniz's phenomenalism. Corporeal substance. Form and matter in Leibniz's middle years. Primary matter. Primitive and derivative forces.
Responsibility: Robert Merrihew Adams.

Abstract:

Legendary since his own time as a universal genius, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) contributed significantly to almost every branch of learning. One of the creators of modern mathematics, and probably the most sophisticated logician between the Middle Ages and Frege, as well as a pioneer of ecumenical theology, he also wrote extensively on such diverse subjects as history, geology, and physics. But the part of his work that is most studied today is his writings in metaphysics, which have been the focus of particularly lively philosophical discussion in the last twenty years or so. The writings contain one of the great classic systems of modern philosophy, but the system must be pieced together from a vast and miscellaneous array of manuscripts, letters, articles, and books, in a way that makes especially strenuous demands on scholarship. This book presents an in-depth interpretation of three important parts of Leibniz's metaphysics, thoroughly grounded in the texts as well as in philosophical analysis and critique. The three areas discussed are the metaphysical part of Leibniz's philosophy of logic, his essentially theological treatment of the central issues of ontology, and his theory of substance (the famous theory of monads).

Table of Contents:

by artama (WorldCat user on 2007-03-26)

Preface vii-viii Introduction 3-6 Part I. Determinism: Contingency and Identity Ch. 1. Leibniz's Theories of Contingency 9 1.1. Leibniz's First Main Solution 10 1.1.1 On the Brink of the Precipice 10 1.1.2 Things Possible in Their Own Nature 12 1.1.3 Hypothetical Necessity 16 1.1.4 The Reality of Choice 20 1.1.5 Moral Necessity 21 1.2. Leibniz's Second Main Solution 22 1.2.1 The Contingency of Which World Is Best 23 1.2.2 Necessity, Demonstrability, and Infinite Analysis 25 1.2.3 Contingent Connections among Possibles as Such 30 1.2.4 Reasons That Incline without Necessitating 34 1.2.5 Is 'God Chooses What Is Best' Contingent? 36 1.2.6 An Exception for Existence? 42 1.3. Leibniz and Possible Worlds Semantics 46 1.4. On Leibniz's Sincerity 50 Ch. 2. The Logic of Counterfactual Non-identity 53 2.1. Problems of Transworld Identity 53 2.2. The Conceptual Containment Theory of Truth 57 2.3. Actuality in the Conceptual Containment Theory 63 2.4. An Anti-Semantical Theory of Truth 65 2.5. Why Did Leibniz Hold the Conceptual Containment Theory? 67 2.6. Conceptual Containment and Transworld Identity 71 Ch. 3. The Metaphysics of Counterfactual Nonidentity 75 3.1. Substance and Law 77 3.2. Substance and Miracle 81 3.2.1 The Kingdom of Nature and the Kingdom of Grace 82 3.2.2 "Essence" and "Nature" 85 3.2.2.1 Substantial Form as "Nature" 87 3.2.2.2 Substantial Form as "Essence" 89 3.2.3 "Miracles of the First Rank": Creation, Conservation, Incarnation, Annihilation 94 3.2.4 The Modal Issue 99 3.3. Perception and Relations 102 3.4. Conclusions 106 Appendix [to Ch. 3]: 'A Priori' and 'A Posteriori' 109-10 Part II. Theism: God and Being Ch. 4. The Ens Perfectissimum 113 4.1. Absolute Qualities as "Requirements" of Things 115 4.2. Sensible Qualities, Knowledge, and Perfection 119 4.3. Is Leibniz's Conception of God Spinozistic? 123 4.3.1 Leibniz's Views in 1676 123 4.3.2 Leibniz's Later Views 130 Ch. 5. The Ontological Argument 135 5.1. The Incomplete Proof 136 5.2. Proof of Possibility 141 5.2.1 The First Stage of the Proof 142 5.2.2 The Second Stage of the Proof: One Version 148 5.2.3 The Second Stage: Another Version 151 Ch. 6. Existence and Essence 157 6.1. Is Existence an Essential Quality of God? 158 6.2. Defining Existence 164 6.3. Existence Irreducible 170 Ch. 7. The Root of Possibility 177 7.1. The Proof of the Existence of God from the Reality of Eternal Truths 177 7.2. Leibniz's Theory Examined 184 7.2.1 Circularity or Self-Existence? 184 7.2.2 God and the Epistemology of Logic and Mathematics 186 7.2.3 Truth and Divine Understanding 189 Ch. 8. Presumption of Possibility 192 8.1. Jurisprudence and Pragmatism in Theology 194 8.2. Jurisprudence and the Logic of Probability 198 8.3. A Proof for the Presumption of Possibility 202 8.4. Presuming the Possibility of Beings as Such 206 8.5. Objections Considered 209-13 Part III. Idealism: Monads and Bodies Ch. 9. Leibniz's Phenomenalism 217 9.1. Phenomena 219 9.1.1 What Are Phenomena? 219 9.1.2 Leibniz and Berkeley 224 9.1.3 The Phenomenality of Physical Qualities 228 9.1.3.1 Shape 229 9.1.3.2 Continuity 232 9.2. Esse Is Percipi 235 9.3. Aggregates 241 9.3.1 Aggregates of What? 241 9.3.2 The Ontological Status of Aggregates 244 9.3.3 The Principle of Aggregation 247 9.3.4 Space 253 9.4. The Reality of Phenomena 255 Ch. 10. Corporeal Substance 262 10.1. Bodies and Corporeal Substances 262 10.2. The Structure of a Corporeal Substance: Alternative Interpretations 265 10.2.1 The Two-Substance Conception 265 10.2.2 One-Substance Conceptions 267 10.2.3 Complete and Incomplete Substances 269 10.3. The Structure of a Corporeal Substance: Some Texts 274 10.3.1 The Fardella Memo (1690) 274 10.3.2 Bernoulli's Questions 277 10.3.3 To De Volder (Draft), June 1703 282 10.3.4 To De Volder, January 1700 283 10.4. Monadic Domination 285 10.4.1 Directness of Mutual Expression 286 10.4.2 Domination and Organic Functions 289 10.5. Principles of Unity 291 10.5.1 The Middle Years 292 10.5.2 From Tournemine to the Theodicy 295 10.5.3 Letters to Des Bosses (1712-16) 299 10.5.4 Conclusions 303 Ch. 11. Form and Matter in Leibniz's Middle Years 308 11.1. Form 309 11.1.1 Form as Force 309 11.1.2 Form as Law 314 11.1.3 Form as Soul 316 11.1.4 Leibniz and Cudworth 320 11.2. Matter 324 11.2.1 The Analysis of Extension 326 11.2.1.1 Survey of Objections to This Interpretation 328 11.2.1.2 The Enduring Interest of This Argument 332 11.2.2 Infinite Divisibilty 333 11.3. Realism 338 Ch. 12. Primary Matter 341 12.1. Three Senses of 'Matter' in a Letter to Arnauld 341 12.1.1 Cartesian Matter 342 12.1.2 Secondary Matter 345 12.1.3 Primary Matter 347 12.2. Matter and the Eucharist 349 12.2.1 To Pellison (January 1692) 349 12.2.2 Leibniz's Solution to the Problem of Multipresence 353 12.2.3 "On Transubstantiation" (1670) 358 12.3. Bernoulli's Questions 361 12.4. The Debate about Thinking Matter 364 12.4.1 The Impossibility of Purely Material Substance 366 12.4.2 The Argument from the Mechanical Nature of Matter 367 12.4.3 The Argument from the Simplicity of Thinking Substance 369 12.4.4 The Argument from the Passivity of Matter 369 12.5. Conclusions 375 Ch. 13. Primitive and Derivative Forces 378 13.1. The "Mixed" Character of Derivative Forces 378 13.1.1 How Are Physical and Intramonadic Forces Related? 378 13.1.2 Can the Problem Be Solved? 382 13.1.3 Issues from the Later Years 386 13.2. Primary Matter and Quantity 393-9 Bibliography 401 Index of Leibniz Texts Cited 411 General Index 423-33

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