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Magnesium as an alternative or adjunct to opioids for migraine and chronic pain : a review of the clinical effectiveness and guidelines

Author: Srabani Banerjee; Sarah Jones, (Research information specialist); Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health,
Publisher: Ottawa (ON) : Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, April 20, 2017.
Series: Rapid response report (Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health)
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
Migraine and chronic pain are common disorders and can result in considerable disability. 1 According to the World Health Organization, migraine is ranked 19th with respect to health disorders causing life lived with disability. The lifetime prevalence of migraine in Canada has been estimated to be 24% in women and 9% in men. Chronic pain is defined as pain that persists for greater than three months. 2 Chronic pain  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Review
Electronic books
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Srabani Banerjee; Sarah Jones, (Research information specialist); Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health,
OCLC Number: 1000915634
Description: 1 online resource (1 PDF file (32 pages)) : illustrations
Series Title: Rapid response report (Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health)
Responsibility: Srabani Banerjee, Sarah Jones.
More information:

Abstract:

Migraine and chronic pain are common disorders and can result in considerable disability. 1 According to the World Health Organization, migraine is ranked 19th with respect to health disorders causing life lived with disability. The lifetime prevalence of migraine in Canada has been estimated to be 24% in women and 9% in men. Chronic pain is defined as pain that persists for greater than three months. 2 Chronic pain is associated with a variety of disorders such as chronic low back pain, chronic complex regional pain syndrome (CPRS), fibromyalgia and neuropathy. Estimates of the prevalence of chronic pain in Canada vary between 16% and 40%.3 The variability may be due to differences in the definitions used for chronic pain, sample populations surveyed, and the survey methodologies. 3 Treatment for migraine can be divided into two broad categories: acute treatment for migraine attacks and prophylactic treatment to reduce the frequency of migraine attacks. 3,4 Treatment of any type of pain is complex and the best options for treatment still remain unresolved. Increasingly, opioids are being used for the alleviation of pain. 5 However, long term use of opioids can lead to addiction, development of tolerance, and resistance of chronic pain to opioid analgesia. In addition, it is associated with side-effects such as chronic constipation, dizziness, consciousness disorders, and cognitive impairment. 5 Hence other modalities for managing pain are needed. Magnesium plays an important physiological role and affects a number of processes. It is the fourth most abundant cation in the body,6 and is involved in regulation of protein synthesis, energy production, cell growth, and RNA and DNA synthesis. 6 Magnesium modulates ion transport by pumps, carriers and channels and can impact signal transduction. 6 Magnesium acts as a N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist and blocks the NMDA receptor, resulting in its analgesic effect. 5,6 Activation of the NMDA receptor plays a role in central sensitization and is associated with spontaneous pain and increased reaction to peripheral stimuli. 6,7 As magnesium appears to have an analgesic effect there is growing interest in investigating whether magnesium can be used as an alternative or as an adjunct to opioids for controlling pain. The purpose of this report is to review the clinical effectiveness of magnesium as an analgesic for the treatment of adult patients with migraine or chronic pain. Additionally, this report aims to review evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of magnesium as an analgesic for the treatment of adult patients with migraine or chronic pain.

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\n\n

Primary Entity<\/h3>\n
<http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/1000915634<\/a>> # Magnesium as an alternative or adjunct to opioids for migraine and chronic pain : a review of the clinical effectiveness and guidelines<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:MediaObject<\/a>, schema:CreativeWork<\/a>, schema:Book<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:oclcnum<\/a> \"1000915634<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:placeOfPublication<\/a> <http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/vocabulary\/countries\/onc<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/migraine_disorders_drug_therapy<\/a>> ; # Migraine Disorders--drug therapy<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/health<\/a>> ; # Health<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/political_planning<\/a>> ; # Political planning<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Place\/canada<\/a>> ; # Canada.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/medicine<\/a>> ; # Medicine<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/clinical_medicine<\/a>> ; # Clinical medicine<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/health_care<\/a>> ; # Health care<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/health_sciences<\/a>> ; # Health sciences<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/evidence_based_medicine<\/a>> ; # Evidence-based medicine<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/analgesics_opioid_adverse_effects<\/a>> ; # Analgesics, Opioid--adverse effects<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/clinical_trial<\/a>> ; # Clinical trial<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/analgesic<\/a>> ; # Analgesic<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/political_planning_canada<\/a>> ; # Political planning--Canada<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/headache<\/a>> ; # Headache<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/meta_analysis<\/a>> ; # Meta-analysis<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/chronic_pain_drug_therapy<\/a>> ; # Chronic Pain--drug therapy<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/comparative_effectiveness_research<\/a>> ; # Comparative Effectiveness Research<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/magnesium_therapeutic_use<\/a>> ; # Magnesium--therapeutic use<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:author<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Person\/jones_sarah_research_information_specialist<\/a>> ; # (Research information specialist) Sarah Jones<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:author<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Person\/banerjee_srabani<\/a>> ; # Srabani Banerjee<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:bookFormat<\/a> schema:EBook<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Organization\/canadian_agency_for_drugs_and_technologies_in_health<\/a>> ; # Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health,<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:datePublished<\/a> \"2017<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"Migraine and chronic pain are common disorders and can result in considerable disability. 1 According to the World Health Organization, migraine is ranked 19th with respect to health disorders causing life lived with disability. The lifetime prevalence of migraine in Canada has been estimated to be 24% in women and 9% in men. Chronic pain is defined as pain that persists for greater than three months. 2 Chronic pain is associated with a variety of disorders such as chronic low back pain, chronic complex regional pain syndrome (CPRS), fibromyalgia and neuropathy. Estimates of the prevalence of chronic pain in Canada vary between 16% and 40%.3 The variability may be due to differences in the definitions used for chronic pain, sample populations surveyed, and the survey methodologies. 3 Treatment for migraine can be divided into two broad categories: acute treatment for migraine attacks and prophylactic treatment to reduce the frequency of migraine attacks. 3,4 Treatment of any type of pain is complex and the best options for treatment still remain unresolved. Increasingly, opioids are being used for the alleviation of pain. 5 However, long term use of opioids can lead to addiction, development of tolerance, and resistance of chronic pain to opioid analgesia. In addition, it is associated with side-effects such as chronic constipation, dizziness, consciousness disorders, and cognitive impairment. 5 Hence other modalities for managing pain are needed. Magnesium plays an important physiological role and affects a number of processes. It is the fourth most abundant cation in the body,6 and is involved in regulation of protein synthesis, energy production, cell growth, and RNA and DNA synthesis. 6 Magnesium modulates ion transport by pumps, carriers and channels and can impact signal transduction. 6 Magnesium acts as a N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist and blocks the NMDA receptor, resulting in its analgesic effect. 5,6 Activation of the NMDA receptor plays a role in central sensitization and is associated with spontaneous pain and increased reaction to peripheral stimuli. 6,7 As magnesium appears to have an analgesic effect there is growing interest in investigating whether magnesium can be used as an alternative or as an adjunct to opioids for controlling pain. The purpose of this report is to review the clinical effectiveness of magnesium as an analgesic for the treatment of adult patients with migraine or chronic pain. Additionally, this report aims to review evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of magnesium as an analgesic for the treatment of adult patients with migraine or chronic pain.<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:exampleOfWork<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/id\/4415082069<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:genre<\/a> \"Review<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:genre<\/a> \"Electronic books<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:inLanguage<\/a> \"en<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isPartOf<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/issn\/1922-8147<\/a>> ; # CADTH rapid response report: summary with critical appraisal,<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isPartOf<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/issn\/1922-8139<\/a>> ; # Rapid response report (Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health)<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Magnesium as an alternative or adjunct to opioids for migraine and chronic pain : a review of the clinical effectiveness and guidelines<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:productID<\/a> \"1000915634<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:url<\/a> <https:\/\/www.cadth.ca\/sites\/default\/files\/pdf\/htis\/2017\/RC0873%20Magnesium%20for%20Pain%20Final.pdf<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:url<\/a> <http:\/\/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\/books\/NBK475794\/<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:url<\/a> <http:\/\/books.scholarsportal.info\/viewdoc.html?id=\/ebooks\/ebooks0\/gibson_cppc-chrc\/2017-10-02\/8\/10089715<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:url<\/a> <https:\/\/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\/books\/NBK475794<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:url<\/a> <https:\/\/www.deslibris.ca\/ID\/10089715<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nwdrs:describedby<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/1000915634<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n\n

Related Entities<\/h3>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Organization\/canadian_agency_for_drugs_and_technologies_in_health<\/a>> # Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health,<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Organization<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health,<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Person\/banerjee_srabani<\/a>> # Srabani Banerjee<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Banerjee<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Srabani<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Srabani Banerjee<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Person\/jones_sarah_research_information_specialist<\/a>> # (Research information specialist) Sarah Jones<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Jones<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Sarah<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"(Research information specialist) Sarah Jones<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Place\/canada<\/a>> # Canada.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Canada.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/analgesic<\/a>> # Analgesic<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Analgesic<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/analgesics_opioid_adverse_effects<\/a>> # Analgesics, Opioid--adverse effects<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Analgesics, Opioid--adverse effects<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/chronic_pain_drug_therapy<\/a>> # Chronic Pain--drug therapy<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Chronic Pain--drug therapy<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/clinical_medicine<\/a>> # Clinical medicine<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Clinical medicine<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/clinical_trial<\/a>> # Clinical trial<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Clinical trial<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/comparative_effectiveness_research<\/a>> # Comparative Effectiveness Research<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Comparative Effectiveness Research<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/evidence_based_medicine<\/a>> # Evidence-based medicine<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Evidence-based medicine<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/headache<\/a>> # Headache<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Headache<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/health<\/a>> # Health<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Health<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/health_care<\/a>> # Health care<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Health care<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/health_sciences<\/a>> # Health sciences<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Health sciences<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/magnesium_therapeutic_use<\/a>> # Magnesium--therapeutic use<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Magnesium--therapeutic use<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/medicine<\/a>> # Medicine<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Medicine<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/meta_analysis<\/a>> # Meta-analysis<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Meta-analysis<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/migraine_disorders_drug_therapy<\/a>> # Migraine Disorders--drug therapy<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Migraine Disorders--drug therapy<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/political_planning<\/a>> # Political planning<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Political planning<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/4415082069#Topic\/political_planning_canada<\/a>> # Political planning--Canada<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Political planning--Canada<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
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<http:\/\/worldcat.org\/issn\/1922-8139<\/a>> # Rapid response report (Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health)<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nbgn:PublicationSeries<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:hasPart<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/1000915634<\/a>> ; # Magnesium as an alternative or adjunct to opioids for migraine and chronic pain : a review of the clinical effectiveness and guidelines<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:issn<\/a> \"1922-8139<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Rapid response report (Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health)<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
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