The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean world in the age of Philip II (Book, 1976) []
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The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean world in the age of Philip II

Author: Fernand Braudel
Publisher: New York : Harper & Row, 1976, ©1972.
Series: Harper colophon books, CN566.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 1st Harper Torchbook edView all editions and formats

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Genre/Form: History
Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Braudel, Fernand.
Mediterranean and the Mediterranean world in the age of Philip II.
New York : Harper & Row, 1976, ©1972
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Fernand Braudel
ISBN: 0060905662 9780060905668 0060905670 9780060905675 0601318930 9780601318933 0601318935
OCLC Number: 4686257
Notes: Translation of La Méditerranée et le monde méditerranéen à l'époque de Philippe II.
Description: 2 volumes : illustrations ; 21 cm.
Contents: Pt. One : The role of the environment --
The Peninsulas: mountains, plateaux, and plains --
Mountains come first --
Physical and human characteristics --
Defining the mountains --
Mountains, civilizations, and religions --
Mountain freedom --
The mountains' resources: an assessment --
Mountain dwellers in the towns --
Typical cases of mountain dispersion --
Mountain life : the earliest civilization of the Mediterranean? --
Plateaux, hills, and foothills --
The high plains --
A hillside civilization --
The hills --
The plains --
Water problems : malaria --
The improvement of the plains --
The example of Lombardy --
Big landowners and poor peasants --
Short term change in the plains : the Venetian Terraferma --
Long term change : the fortunes of the Roman Campagna --
The strength of the plains : Andalusia --
Transhumance and nomadism --
Transhumance --
Nomadism, an order way of life --
Transchumance in Castile --
Overall comparisons and cartography --
Dromedaries and camels : the Arab and Turk invasions --
Nomadism in the Balkans, Anatolia, and North Africa --
Cycles spanning the centuries --
The heart of the Mediterranean : seas and coasts --
The plains of the sea --
Costal navigation --
The early days of Portuguese discovery --
The narrow seas, home of history --
The Black sea, preserve of Constantinople --
The Archipelago, Venetian and Genoese --
Between Tunisia and Sicily --
The Mediterranean channel --
The Tyrrhenian sea --
The Adriatic --
East and west of Sicily --
Two maritime worlds --
The double lesson of the Turkish and Spanish empires --
Beyond politics --
Mainland coastlines --
The peoples of the sea --
Weaknesses of the maritime regions --
The big cities --
The changing fortunes of maritime regions --
The islands --
Isolated worlds --
Precarious lives --
On the paths of general history --
Emigration from the islands --
Islands that the sea does not surround --
The peninsulas. Boundaries : the greater Mediterranean --
A Mediterranean of historical dimensions --
The Sahara, the second face of the Mediterranean --
The Sahara : near and distant boundaries --
Poverty and want --
Nomads who travel far --
Advance and infiltration from the steppe --
The gold and spice caravans --
The oases --
The geographical area of Islam --
Europe and the Mediterranean --
The isthmuses and their north-south passages --
The Russian isthmus : leading to the Black and Caspian Sea --
From the Balkans to Danzig : the Polish isthmus --
The German isthmus : an overall view --
The Alps --
The third character: the many faces of Germany --
From Genoa to Antwerp, and from Venice to Hamburg : the conditions of circulation --
Emigration and balance of trade --
The French isthmus, from Rouen to Marseilles --
Europe and the Mediterranean --
The Atlantic ocean --
Several Atlantics --
The Atlantic learns from the Mediterranean --
The Atlantic destiny in the sixteeth century --
A late decline --
The Mediterranean as a physical unit : climate and history --
The unity of the climate --
The Atlantic and the Sahara --
A homogeneous climate --
Drought : the scourge of the Mediterranean --
The seasons --
The winter standstill --
Shipping at a halt --
Winter : season of peace and plans --
The hardships of winter --
The accelerated rhythm of summer life --
The summer epidemics --
The Mediterranean climate and the East --
Seasonal rhythms and statistics --
Determinism and economic life --
Has the climate changed since the sixteenth century? --
Supplementary note --
The Mediterranean as a human unit : Communications and cities --
Land routes and sea routes --
Vital communications --
Archaic means of transport --
Did land routes increase in importance towards 1600? --
The intrinsic problem of the overland route --
Two sets of evidence from Venice --
Circulation and statistics : the case of Spain --
The double problem in the long term --
Shipping : Tonnages and changing circumstances --
Big ships and little ships in the fifteenth century --
The first victories of the small ships --
In the Atlantic in the sixteenth century --
In the Mediterranean --
Urban functions --
Towns and roads --
A meeting place for different transport routes --
From roads to banking --
Urban cycle and decline --
A very incomplete typology --
Towns, witnesses to the century --
The rise in population --
Hardships old and new : Famine and the wheat problem --
Hardships old and new : epidemics --
The indispensable immigrant. Urban political crises --
The privileged banking towns --
Royal and imperial cities --
In favour of capitals --
From permanence to change --
pt. two : Collective destinies and general trends --
Economies : the measure of the century --
Distance, the first enemy --
For letter-writers: the time lost in coming and going --
The dimensions of the sea : some record crossings --
Average speeds --
Letters : a special case --
News, a luxury commodity --
Present-day comparisons --
Empires and distance --
The three missions of Claude du Bourg (1576 and 1577) --
Distance and the economy --
Fairs, the supplementary network of economic life --
Local economies --
The quadrilateral : Genoa, Milan, Venice, and Florence --
How many people? --
A world of 60 or 70 million people --
Mediterranean waste lands --
A population increase of 100 per cent? --
Levels and indices --
Reservations and conclusions --
Confirmations and suggestions --
Some certainties --
Another indicator : migration --
Is it possible to construct a model of the Mediterranean economy? --
Agriculture, the major industry --
An industrial balance sheet --
The putting-out or 'Verlag' system and the rise of urban industry --
The system prospered --
An itinerant labour force --
General and local trends --
The volume of commercial transactions --
The significance and limitations of long distance trade --
Capitalist concentrations --
The total tonnage of Mediterranean shipping --
Overland transport --
The state: the principal entrepreneur of the century --
Precious metals and the monetary economy --
Was one fifth of the population in great poverty? --
A provisional classification --
Food, a poor guide : officially rations were always adequate --
Can our calculations be checked? Economies : precious metals, money, and prices --
The Mediterraneon and the Gold of the Sudan --
The flow of precious metals towards the east Sudanese gold : early history --
The Portuguese in Guinea: gold continues to arrive in the Mediterranean --
The gold trade and the general economic situation --
Sudanese gold in North Africa --
American sliver --
American and Spanish treasure --
American treasure takes the road to Antwerp --
The French detour --
The great route from Barcelona to Genoa and the second cycle of American treasure --
The Mediterranean invaded by Spanish coins --
Italy, the victim of 'la moneda larga' --
The age of the Genoese --
The Piacenza fairs --
The reign of paper --
From the last state bankruptcy under Philip II to the first under Philip III --
The rise in prices --
Contemporary complaints --
Was American treasure responsible? --
Some arguments for and against American responsibility wages --
Income from land --
Banks and inflation --
The 'industrialists' --
States and the price rise --
The dwindling of American treasure --
Devalued currency and false currency --
Three ages of metal --
Economies : trade and transport --
The pepper trade --
Mediterranean revenge : the prosperity of the Red Sea after 1550 --
Routes taken by the Levant trade --
The revival of the Portuguese pepper trade --
Portuguese pepper : deals and projects --
Portuguese pepper is offered to Venice --
The Welser and Fugger contract : 1586-1591 --
The survival of the Levantine spice routes --
Possible explanations --
Equilibrium and crisis in the Mediterranean gain trade --
The cereals --
Some rules of the grain trade --
The grain trade and the shipping routes. Ports and countries that exported grain --
Eastern grain --
Equilibrium, crisis, and vicissitudes in the grain trade --
The first crises : northern grain at Lisbon and Seville --
The Turkish wheat boom : 1548-1564 --
Eating home-produced bread : Italy's situation between 1564 and 1590 --
The last crisis : imports from the north after 1500 --
Sicily : still the grain store of the Mediterranean --
On grain cries --
Trade and transport : The sailing ships of the Atlantic --
Before 1550 : the first arrivals --
Basque, Biscayan, and even Galician ships --
The Portuguese --
Normans and Bretons --
Flemish ships --
The first English sailing ships --
The period of prosperity (1511-1534) --
From 1550 to 1573 : the Mediterranean left to Mediterranean ships --
The return of the English in 1572-1573 --
Anglo-Turkish negotiations : 1578-1583 --
The success of English shipping --
The situation at the end of the century --
The arrival of the Hansards and the Dutch --
From grain to spices : The Dutch conquer the Mediterranean --
How the Dutch took Seville after 1570 without firing a shot --
New Christians in the Mediterranean.
Series Title: Harper colophon books, CN566.
Responsibility: Fernand Braudel ; translated from the French by Siân Reynolds.


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