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The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean world in the age of Philip II

Author: Fernand Braudel; Sian Reynolds
Publisher: New York : Harper & Row, 1972-1973.
Series: HarperTorch, 1892/93.
Edition/Format:   Print book : Biography : English : First U.S. editionView all editions and formats
Summary:
Geographical, environmental, and economic study of the Mediterranean lands with emphasis on period 1550-1600 A.D.
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Genre/Form: History
Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Braudel, Fernand.
Mediterranean and the Mediterranean world in the age of Philip II.
New York, Harper & Row, ©1972-1973
(OCoLC)647620812
Material Type: Biography
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Fernand Braudel; Sian Reynolds
ISBN: 006010452X 9780060104528 0060104562 9780060104566 0060905662 9780060905668 0061318930 9780061318931
OCLC Number: 535320
Notes: Translation of: La Méditerranée et le monde méditerranéen à l'époque de Philippe II.
Description: 2 volumes (1375 pages) : illustrations, maps ; 24 cm.
Contents: Part One : The role of the environment --
The Peninsulas: mountains, plateaux, and plains --
Mountains come first --
Physical and human characteristics --
Defining the mountains --
Mountains, civilizations, and religions --
Mountain freedom --
The mountains' resources: an assessment --
Mountain dwellers in the towns --
Typical cases of mountain dispersion --
Mountain life : the earliest civilization of the Mediterranean? --
Plateaux, hills, and foothills --
The high plains --
A hillside civilization --
The hills --
The plains --
Water problems : malaria --
The improvement of the plains --
The example of Lombardy --
Big landowners and poor peasants --
Short term change in the plains : the Venetian Terraferma --
Long term change : the fortunes of the Roman Campagna --
The strength of the plains : Andalusia --
Transhumance and nomadism --
Transhumance --
Nomadism, an older way of life --
Transhumance in Castile --
Overall comparisons and cartography --
Dromedaries and camels : the Arab and Turk invasions --
Nomadism in the Balkans, Anatolia, and North Africa --
Cycles spanning the centuries --
The heart of the Mediterranean : seas and coasts --
The plains of the sea --
Coastal navigation --
The early days of Portuguese discovery --
The narrow seas, home of history --
The Black sea, preserve of Constantinople --
The Archipelago, Venetian and Genoese --
Between Tunisia and Sicily --
The Mediterranean channel --
The Tyrrhenian sea --
The Adriatic --
East and west of Sicily --
Two maritime worlds --
The double lesson of the Turkish and Spanish empires --
Beyond politics --
Mainland coastlines --
The peoples of the sea --
Weaknesses of the maritime regions --
The big cities --
The changing fortunes of maritime regions --
The islands --
Isolated worlds --
Precarious lives --
On the paths of general history --
Emigration from the islands --
Islands that the sea does not surround --
The peninsulas. Boundaries : the greater Mediterranean --
A Mediterranean of historical dimensions --
The Sahara, the second face of the Mediterranean --
The Sahara : near and distant boundaries --
Poverty and want --
Nomads who travel far --
Advance and infiltration from the steppe --
The gold and spice caravans --
The oases --
The geographical area of Islam --
Europe and the Mediterranean --
The isthmuses and their north-south passages --
The Russian isthmus : leading to the Black and Caspian Sea --
From the Balkans to Danzig : the Polish isthmus --
The German isthmus : an overall view --
The Alps --
The third character: the many faces of Germany --
From Genoa to Antwerp, and from Venice to Hamburg : the conditions of circulation --
Emigration and balance of trade --
The French isthmus, from Rouen to Marseilles --
Europe and the Mediterranean --
The Atlantic ocean --
Several Atlantics --
The Atlantic learns from the Mediterranean --
The Atlantic destiny in the sixteenth century --
A late decline --
The Mediterranean as a physical unit : climate and history --
The unity of the climate --
The Atlantic and the Sahara --
A homogeneous climate --
Drought : the scourge of the Mediterranean --
The seasons --
The winter standstill --
Shipping at a halt --
Winter : season of peace and plans --
The hardships of winter --
The accelerated rhythm of summer life --
The summer epidemics --
The Mediterranean climate and the East --
Seasonal rhythms and statistics --
Determinism and economic life --
Has the climate changed since the sixteenth century? --
Supplementary note --
The Mediterranean as a human unit : Communications and cities --
Land routes and sea routes --
Vital communications --
Archaic means of transport --
Did land routes increase in importance towards 1600? --
The intrinsic problem of the overland route --
Two sets of evidence from Venice --
Circulation and statistics : the case of Spain --
The double problem in the long term --
Shipping : Tonnages and changing circumstances --
Big ships and little ships in the fifteenth century --
The first victories of the small ships --
In the Atlantic in the sixteenth century --
In the Mediterranean --
Urban functions --
Towns and roads --
A meeting place for different transport routes --
From roads to banking --
Urban cycle and decline --
A very incomplete typology --
Towns, witnesses to the century --
The rise in population --
Hardships old and new : Famine and the wheat problem --
Hardships old and new : epidemics --
The indispensable immigrant. Urban political crises --
The privileged banking towns --
Royal and imperial cities --
In favour of capitals --
From permanence to change --
pt. two : Collective destinies and general trends --
Economies : the measure of the century --
Distance, the first enemy --
For letter-writers: the time lost in coming and going --
The dimensions of the sea : some record crossings --
Average speeds --
Letters : a special case --
News, a luxury commodity --
Present-day comparisons --
Empires and distance --
The three missions of Claude du Bourg (1576 and 1577) --
Distance and the economy --
Fairs, the supplementary network of economic life --
Local economies --
The quadrilateral : Genoa, Milan, Venice, and Florence --
How many people? --
A world of 60 or 70 million people --
Mediterranean waste lands --
A population increase of 100 per cent? --
Levels and indices --
Reservations and conclusions --
Confirmations and suggestions --
Some certainties --
Another indicator : migration --
Is it possible to construct a model of the Mediterranean economy? --
Agriculture, the major industry --
An industrial balance sheet --
The putting-out or 'Verlag' system and the rise of urban industry --
The system prospered --
An itinerant labour force --
General and local trends --
The volume of commercial transactions --
The significance and limitations of long distance trade --
Capitalist concentrations --
The total tonnage of Mediterranean shipping --
Overland transport --
The state: the principal entrepreneur of the century --
Precious metals and the monetary economy --
Was one fifth of the population in great poverty? --
A provisional classification --
Food, a poor guide : officially rations were always adequate --
Can our calculations be checked? Economies : precious metals, money, and prices --
The Mediterranean and the Gold of the Sudan --
The flow of precious metals towards the east Sudanese gold : early history --
The Portuguese in Guinea: gold continues to arrive in the Mediterranean --
The gold trade and the general economic situation --
Sudanese gold in North Africa --
American silver --
American and Spanish treasure --
American treasure takes the road to Antwerp --
The French detour --
The great route from Barcelona to Genoa and the second cycle of American treasure --
The Mediterranean invaded by Spanish coins --
Italy, the victim of 'la moneda larga' --
The age of the Genoese --
The Piacenza fairs --
The reign of paper --
From the last state bankruptcy under Philip II to the first under Philip III --
The rise in prices --
Contemporary complaints --
Was American treasure responsible? --
Some arguments for and against American responsibility wages --
Income from land --
Banks and inflation --
The 'industrialists' --
States and the price rise --
The dwindling of American treasure --
Devalued currency and false currency --
Three ages of metal --
Economies : trade and transport --
The pepper trade --
Mediterranean revenge : the prosperity of the Red Sea after 1550 --
Routes taken by the Levant trade --
The revival of the Portuguese pepper trade --
Portuguese pepper : deals and projects --
Portuguese pepper is offered to Venice --
The Welser and Fugger contract : 1586-1591 --
The survival of the Levantine spice routes --
Possible explanations --
Equilibrium and crisis in the Mediterranean gain trade --
The cereals --
Some rules of the grain trade --
The grain trade and the shipping routes. Ports and countries that exported grain --
Eastern grain --
Equilibrium, crisis, and vicissitudes in the grain trade --
The first crises : northern grain at Lisbon and Seville --
The Turkish wheat boom : 1548-1564 --
Eating home-produced bread : Italy's situation between 1564 and 1590 --
The last crisis : imports from the north after 1500 --
Sicily : still the grain store of the Mediterranean --
On grain cries --
Trade and transport : The sailing ships of the Atlantic --
Before 1550 : the first arrivals --
Basque, Biscayan, and even Galician ships --
The Portuguese --
Normans and Bretons --
Flemish ships --
The first English sailing ships --
The period of prosperity (1511-1534) --
From 1550 to 1573 : the Mediterranean left to Mediterranean ships --
The return of the English in 1572-1573 --
Anglo-Turkish negotiations : 1578-1583 --
The success of English shipping --
The situation at the end of the century --
The arrival of the Hansards and the Dutch --
From grain to spices : The Dutch conquer the Mediterranean --
How the Dutch took Seville after 1570 without firing a shot --
New Christians in the Mediterranean. Volume I. Part One. The role of the environment --
I. The Peninsulas: mountains, plateaux, and plains. 1. Mountains come first ; 2. Plateaux, hills, and foothills ; 3. The plains ; 4. Transhumance and nomadism --
II. The heart of the Mediterranean : seas and coasts. 1. The plains of the sea ; 2. Mainland coastlines ; 3. The islands --
III. Boundaries : the greater Mediterranean : a Mediterranean of historical dimensions. 1. The Sahara, the second face of the Mediterranean ; 2. Europe and the Mediterranean ; 3. The Atlantic ocean --
IV. The Mediterranean as a physical unit : climate and history. 1. The unity of the climate ; 2. The seasons ; 3. Has the climate changed since the sixteenth century? --
V. The Mediterranean as a human unit : communications and cities. 1. Land routes and sea routes ; 2. Shipping : tonnages and changing circumstances ; 3. Urban functions ; 4. Towns, witnesses to the century --
Part two : Collective destinies and general trends --
I. Economies : the measure of the century. 1. Distance, the first enemy ; 2. How many people? ; 3. Is it possible to construct a model of the Mediterranean economy? --
II. Economies: precious metals, money, and prices. 1. The Mediterranean and the Gold of the Sudan ; 2. American silver ; 3. The rise in prices --
III. Economies : trade and transport. 1. The pepper trade ; 2. Equilibrium and crisis in the Mediterranean gain trade ; 3. Trade and transport : the sailing ships of the Atlantic. i. Before 1550 : the first arrivals ; ii. From 1550 to 1573 : the Mediterranean left to Mediterranean ships. Volume II. Part two. Collective destinies and general trends (continued) --
IV. Empires. 1. The origin of empires ; 2. The state: resources and weaknesses --
V. Societies. 1. Noble reaction ; 2. The defection of the bourgeoisie ; 3. Poverty and banditry --
VI. Civilizations. 1. Mobility and stability of civilizations ; 2. Overlapping civilizations ; 3. One civilization against the rest: the destiny of the Jews ; 4. The spread of civilization --
VII. The forms of war. 1. Formal war: naval squadrons and fortified frontiers ; 2. Piracy: a substitute for declared war --
VIII. By way of conclusion: conjuncture and conjunctures --
Part three. Events, politics and people --
I. 1550-1559: War and peace in Europe. 1. The origins of the war ; 2. War in the Mediterranean and outside the Mediterranean ; 3. The return of war: initiative still comes from the North ; 4. Spain in mid-century --
II. The last six years of Turkish supremacy: 1559-1565. 1. War against the Turk: a Spanish folly? ; 2. Spain's recovery ; 3. Malta: a trial of strength (18th May-8th September, 1565) --
III. Origins of the Holy League: 1566-1570. 1. Netherlands or Mediterranean? ; 2. The War of Granada: a turning point --
IV. Lepanto. 1. The battle of 7th October, 1571 ; 2. 1572: a dramatic year ; 3. Venice's "betrayal" and the two captures of Tunis 1573-1574 --
V. Turco-Spanish peace treaties: 1577-1584. 1. Margliani's peace mission: 1578-1581 ; 2. War leaves the centre of the Mediterranean --
VI. Out of the limelight: the Mediterranean after 1580. 1. Problems and difficulties for the Turks ; 2. From the French Civil Wars to open war with Spain: 1589-1598 ; 3. The end of naval war --
Conclusion.
Series Title: HarperTorch, 1892/93.
Other Titles: Méditerranée et le monde méditerranéen à l'époque de Philippe II.
Responsibility: Fernand Braudel ; translated from French by Siân Reynolds.

Abstract:

Geographical, environmental, and economic study of the Mediterranean lands with emphasis on period 1550-1600 A.D.

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Primary Entity

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    schema:description "Economies : precious metals, money, and prices -- The Mediterranean and the Gold of the Sudan -- The flow of precious metals towards the east Sudanese gold : early history -- The Portuguese in Guinea: gold continues to arrive in the Mediterranean -- The gold trade and the general economic situation -- Sudanese gold in North Africa -- American silver -- American and Spanish treasure -- American treasure takes the road to Antwerp -- The French detour -- The great route from Barcelona to Genoa and the second cycle of American treasure -- The Mediterranean invaded by Spanish coins -- Italy, the victim of 'la moneda larga' -- The age of the Genoese -- The Piacenza fairs -- The reign of paper -- From the last state bankruptcy under Philip II to the first under Philip III -- The rise in prices -- Contemporary complaints -- Was American treasure responsible? -- Some arguments for and against American responsibility wages -- Income from land -- Banks and inflation -- The 'industrialists' -- States and the price rise -- The dwindling of American treasure -- Devalued currency and false currency -- Three ages of metal -- Economies : trade and transport -- The pepper trade -- Mediterranean revenge : the prosperity of the Red Sea after 1550 -- Routes taken by the Levant trade -- The revival of the Portuguese pepper trade -- Portuguese pepper : deals and projects -- Portuguese pepper is offered to Venice -- The Welser and Fugger contract : 1586-1591 -- The survival of the Levantine spice routes -- Possible explanations -- Equilibrium and crisis in the Mediterranean gain trade -- The cereals -- Some rules of the grain trade -- The grain trade and the shipping routes."@en ;
    schema:description "Boundaries : the greater Mediterranean -- A Mediterranean of historical dimensions -- The Sahara, the second face of the Mediterranean -- The Sahara : near and distant boundaries -- Poverty and want -- Nomads who travel far -- Advance and infiltration from the steppe -- The gold and spice caravans -- The oases -- The geographical area of Islam -- Europe and the Mediterranean -- The isthmuses and their north-south passages -- The Russian isthmus : leading to the Black and Caspian Sea -- From the Balkans to Danzig : the Polish isthmus -- The German isthmus : an overall view -- The Alps -- The third character: the many faces of Germany -- From Genoa to Antwerp, and from Venice to Hamburg : the conditions of circulation -- Emigration and balance of trade -- The French isthmus, from Rouen to Marseilles -- Europe and the Mediterranean -- The Atlantic ocean -- Several Atlantics -- The Atlantic learns from the Mediterranean -- The Atlantic destiny in the sixteenth century -- A late decline -- The Mediterranean as a physical unit : climate and history -- The unity of the climate -- The Atlantic and the Sahara -- A homogeneous climate -- Drought : the scourge of the Mediterranean -- The seasons -- The winter standstill -- Shipping at a halt -- Winter : season of peace and plans -- The hardships of winter -- The accelerated rhythm of summer life -- The summer epidemics -- The Mediterranean climate and the East -- Seasonal rhythms and statistics -- Determinism and economic life -- Has the climate changed since the sixteenth century? -- Supplementary note -- The Mediterranean as a human unit : Communications and cities -- Land routes and sea routes -- Vital communications -- Archaic means of transport -- Did land routes increase in importance towards 1600? -- The intrinsic problem of the overland route -- Two sets of evidence from Venice -- Circulation and statistics : the case of Spain -- The double problem in the long term -- Shipping : Tonnages and changing circumstances -- Big ships and little ships in the fifteenth century -- The first victories of the small ships -- In the Atlantic in the sixteenth century -- In the Mediterranean -- Urban functions -- Towns and roads -- A meeting place for different transport routes -- From roads to banking -- Urban cycle and decline -- A very incomplete typology -- Towns, witnesses to the century -- The rise in population -- Hardships old and new : Famine and the wheat problem -- Hardships old and new : epidemics -- The indispensable immigrant."@en ;
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    schema:description "Geographical, environmental, and economic study of the Mediterranean lands with emphasis on period 1550-1600 A.D."@en ;
    schema:description "Volume II. Part two. Collective destinies and general trends (continued) -- IV. Empires. 1. The origin of empires ; 2. The state: resources and weaknesses -- V. Societies. 1. Noble reaction ; 2. The defection of the bourgeoisie ; 3. Poverty and banditry -- VI. Civilizations. 1. Mobility and stability of civilizations ; 2. Overlapping civilizations ; 3. One civilization against the rest: the destiny of the Jews ; 4. The spread of civilization -- VII. The forms of war. 1. Formal war: naval squadrons and fortified frontiers ; 2. Piracy: a substitute for declared war -- VIII. By way of conclusion: conjuncture and conjunctures -- Part three. Events, politics and people -- I. 1550-1559: War and peace in Europe. 1. The origins of the war ; 2. War in the Mediterranean and outside the Mediterranean ; 3. The return of war: initiative still comes from the North ; 4. Spain in mid-century -- II. The last six years of Turkish supremacy: 1559-1565. 1. War against the Turk: a Spanish folly? ; 2. Spain's recovery ; 3. Malta: a trial of strength (18th May-8th September, 1565) -- III. Origins of the Holy League: 1566-1570. 1. Netherlands or Mediterranean? ; 2. The War of Granada: a turning point -- IV. Lepanto. 1. The battle of 7th October, 1571 ; 2. 1572: a dramatic year ; 3. Venice's "betrayal" and the two captures of Tunis 1573-1574 -- V. Turco-Spanish peace treaties: 1577-1584. 1. Margliani's peace mission: 1578-1581 ; 2. War leaves the centre of the Mediterranean -- VI. Out of the limelight: the Mediterranean after 1580. 1. Problems and difficulties for the Turks ; 2. From the French Civil Wars to open war with Spain: 1589-1598 ; 3. The end of naval war -- Conclusion."@en ;
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    schema:isbn "9780060905668" ;
    .

<http://worldcat.org/isbn/9780061318931>
    a schema:ProductModel ;
    schema:isbn "0061318930" ;
    schema:isbn "9780061318931" ;
    .

<http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/647620812>
    a schema:CreativeWork ;
    rdfs:label "Mediterranean and the Mediterranean world in the age of Philip II." ;
    schema:description "Online version:" ;
    schema:isSimilarTo <http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/535320> ; # The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean world in the age of Philip II
    .

<http://www.worldcat.org/title/-/oclc/535320#CreativeWork/unidentifiedOriginalWork> # Méditerranée et le monde méditerranéen à l'époque de Philippe II.
    a schema:CreativeWork ;
    schema:inLanguage "fr" ;
    schema:name "Méditerranée et le monde méditerranéen à l'époque de Philippe II." ;
    .


Content-negotiable representations

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