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Methods in soil biology

Author: Franz Schinner
Publisher: Berlin ; New York : Springer, ©1996.
Series: Springer lab manual.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:

This text introduces a number of methods for the analysis of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and sulphur cycles. It focuses further on the determination of the number and biomass of micro-organisms,  Read more...

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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Franz Schinner
ISBN: 3540590552 9783540590552
OCLC Number: 123282130
Description: xvii, 426 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm.
Contents: I Methods in Soil Microbiology.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Soil Sampling and Sample Preparation.- 2.1 Soil Sampling.- 2.2 Sample Preparation.- 3 Bacterial Biomass.- 3.1 Counting by Fluorescence Microscopy.- 3.2 Plate Count Technique.- 3.3 Physiological Groups by Most Probable Number Method.- 3.4 Denitrifiers by MPN Method.- 3.5 Nitrifiers by MPN Method.- 3.6 Free-living Aerobic and Microaerophilic Nitrogen Fixers by MPN Method.- 3.7 Identification and Quantification with Monoclonal Antibodies.- 4 Indirect Estimation of Microbial Biomass.- 4.1 Fungal Biomass by Ergosterol Content.- 4.2 Biomass-C by Fumigation-Incubation Technique.- 4.3 Biomass-C by Fumigation-Extraction Technique.- 4.4 Biomass-N by Fumigation-Extraction Technique.- 4.5 Ninhydrin-Reactive N by Fumigation-Extraction Technique.- 4.6 Biomass-P by Fumigation-Extraction Technique.- 4.7 Substrate-Induced Respiration.- 4.8 Substrate-Induced Heat Output.- 4.9 Mathematical Analysis of Respiration Curves.- 5 Community Structure of Soil Microorganisms.- 5.1 Fatty Acid Patterns of Microbial Phospholipids and Lipopolysaccharides.- 6 Soil Respiration.- 6.1 Soil Respiration by Titration.- 6.2 Soil Respiration by Infrared Gas Analysis.- 6.3 Basal Respiration by a Syringe Micromethod.- 6.4 Soil Respiration by Oxygen Uptake.- 7 Dynamics of Soil Organic Matter.- 7.1 In Situ Studies of Litter Decomposition.- 7.2 Humification.- 7.3 Soil Organic Matter Turnover by Carbon-Stable Isotopes.- 8 Non-Symbiontic Nitrogen Fixation.- 8.1 Nitrogenase Activity by Acetylene Reduction.- 8.2 Microbial Ethylene Production.- 8.3 Nitrogenase Activity by 15N2-Fixation.- 9 Nitrogen Mineralization.- 9.1 In Situ Studies of N-Mineralization.- 9.2 N-Mineralization Under Aerobic Conditions.- 9.3 N-Mineralization Under Waterlogged Conditions.- 10 Nitrification and Denitrification.- 10.1 Potential Nitrification.- 10.2 Nitrification During Long-Term Incubation.- 10.3 Actual and Potential Denitrification Rates by Acetylene-Inhibition Technique.- 10.4 In Situ Quantification of Total Denitrification Losses by Acetylene-Inhibition Technique.- 11 Enzymes Involved in Nitrogen Metabolism.- 11.1 Protease Activity.- 11.2 Arginine Deaminase Activity.- 11.3 Urease Activity by Colorimetric Technique.- 11.4 Urease Activity by Distillation Technique.- 11.5 Nitrate Reductase Activity.- 11.6 Denitrification Enzyme Activity.- 12 Enzymes Involved in Carbon Metabolism.- 12.1 CM-Cellulase Activity.- 12.2 Xylanase Activity.- 12.3 Invertase Activity.- 12.4 ss-Glucosidase Activity.- 12.5 Chitinase Activity.- 12.6 Lipase Activity by Fluorometry.- 12.7 Lipase Activity by Titration.- 13 Enzymes Involved in Phosphorus Metabolism.- 13.1 Phosphomonoesterase Activity with the Substrate Phenylphosphate.- 13.2 Phosphomonoesterase Activity with the Substrate p-Nitrophenyl Phosphate.- 13.3 Phosphodiesterase Activity.- 13.4 Phosphotriesterase Activity.- 13.5 Inorganic Pyrophosphatase Activity.- 13.6 Phospholipase-C Activity.- 14 Enzymes Involved in Sulfur Metabolism.- 14.1 Arylsulfatase Activity.- 14.2 Dimethyl Sulfoxide Reduction.- 15 Enzymes Involved in Intracellular Metabolism.- 15.1 Catalase Activity.- 15.2 Dehydrogenase Activity with the Substrate TTC.- 15.3 Dehydrogenase Activity with the Substrate INT.- 16 Adenosine Phosphates.- 16.1 Adenylates and Adenylate Energy Charge (AEC).- 16.2 ATP by TCA-Extraction Technique.- 16.3 ATP by Sulfuric Acid-Extraction Technique.- 17 Indolic and Phenolic Compounds.- 17.1 Auxins, L-Tryptophan and Related Indolic and Phenolic Catabolites.- 18 Ectomycorrhizae.- 18.1 Quantification.- 18.2 Morphological and Anatomical Characterization.- 19 Soil Algae.- 19.1 Direct Examination of Soil Algae.- 19.2 Direct Examination of Diatoms.- 19.3 Enrichment Cultures.- 19.4 Pure Cultures.- 19.5 Counting by Fluorescence Microscopy.- 19.6 Direct Counting.- 20 Ecophysiological Parameters.- II Methods in Soil Zoology.- 21 Introduction.- 22 Microfauna.- 22.1 Soil Sampling.- 22.2 Sample Preparation.- 22.3 Testate Amoebae (Testacea).- 22.4 Ciliates (Ciliophora).- 22.5 Flagellates.- 22.6 Nematodes (Nematoda).- 23 Mesofauna.- 23.1 Characteristics of Selected Representatives.- 23.2 Soil Sampling.- 23.3 Extraction of Soil Samples.- 23.4 Abundance and Biomass of Extracted Animals.- 24 Endogeic Macrofauna.- 24.1 Characteristics of Selected Representatives.- 24.2 Soil Sampling.- 24.3 Extraction of Soil Samples.- 24.4 Abundance and Biomass of Extracted Animals.- 24.5 Sampling of Earthworms.- 25 Epigeic Macrofauna.- 25.1 Characteristics of Selected Representatives.- 25.2 Pitfall Traps.- 25.3 Emerging Abundance (Ground Emergence Traps).- 25.4 Abundance of Epigeic Macro-Arthropods.- 26 Functional Activity of Soil Animals.- 27 Microbial-Faunal Interactions in Soils.- 27.1 Microcosm.- 27.2 Field-Enclosure.- 27.3 Mesocosm.- III Methods in Soil Physics and Chemistry.- 28 Methods in Soil Physics.- 28.1 Dry Matter and Water Content.- 28.2 Maximum Water-Holding Capacity.- 28.3 Particle Size Distribution.- 28.4 Aggregate Stability.- 29 Methods in Soil Chemistry.- 29.1 Acidity.- 29.2 Organic Matter by Wet Combustion.- 29.3 Organic Carbon in Soil Extracts.- 29.4 Organic Carbon by Dry Combustion.- 29.5 Dissolved Organic Carbon by Dry Combustion.- 29.6 Total Nitrogen.- 29.7 Ammonium.- 29.8 Nitrate.- 29.9 Phosphorus in Soil Extracts.- 29.10 Total, Organic, Inorganic and Plant-Available Phosphorus.- Appendix: Basic Laboratory Equipment.
Series Title: Springer lab manual.
Other Titles: Biologische Arbeitsmethoden.
Responsibility: Franz Schinner [and others] (eds.).

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"This is a useful collection of methods for soil biologists describing a wide range of the most tried and tested methods. Each chapter is written by a recognised expert and the format is clear and Read more...

 
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