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Modern iron making handbook

Author: R H Tupkary
Publisher: Dulles, Virginia Mercury Learning & Information, [2018]
Series: MLI handbook series.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
This book comprehensively deals with all of the key topics of iron making including blast furnace plants, operations and processes, raw materials, preparation, chemical processes, and more.
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Tupkary, R. H.
Modern iron making handbook.
Dulles, Virginia Mercury Learning & Information, [2018]
(OCoLC)1011487698
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: R H Tupkary
ISBN: 9781523114467 1523114460
OCLC Number: 1030962110
Description: 1 online resource (xvii, 492 pages)
Contents: Machine generated contents note: 1.1.Ancient Ironmaking --
1.2.Historical Ironmaking Processes --
1.3.Developments that Led to Modern Ironmaking --
Coke Furnace --
Hot Blast Generation --
Blast Furnace Gas Cleaning --
Charging Devices --
Pig Casting Machine --
1.4.Modern Ironmaking --
1.5.Alternative Methods of Iron Production --
1.6.History of the Iron and Steel Industry in the United States --
1.7.Twenty-first Century Trends (U.S. and the World) --
U.S. Production of Selected Mineral Commodities in the First Quarter 2017 --
1.8.Concluding Remarks --
2.1.Introduction --
2.2.Modern Blast Furnace --
Furnace Details --
2.3.Hot Blast Stove --
2.4.Gas Cleaning --
2.5.Raw Materials Storage and Handling --
2.6.Liquid Products Disposal --
Hot Metal Ladles --
2.7.Blast Furnace Operation and Control --
2.8.Essentials of the Blast Furnace Process --
Stack or Shaft --
Bosh --
Tuyere or Combustion Zone --
Hearth --
2.9.Efficiency of Blast Furnace --
2.10.Concluding Remarks --
Note continued: 3.1.Introduction --
3.2.Iron Ores --
World Deposits of Iron Ores --
3.3.Metallurgical Coal --
Metallurgical Coal Reserves --
3.4.Limestone and Dolomite as Flux --
3.5.Concluding Remarks --
4.1.Introduction --
4.2.Functions of Coke --
4.3.Quality Requirements of Coke --
Reactivity --
Size --
Strength and Abrasion Resistance --
Micum Test --
ASTM Tumbler Test (U.S.) --
Preparation of BF Fuel --
4.4.Preparation of Coke (India) --
Coal Ranking (U.S.) --
4.5.Modifications in Coke Making Practices --
Stamp Charging of Coke Ovens --
Economizing Coke-Charge-Mix --
Use of Waste Plastic in Coke Making --
4.6.Alternative Fuels --
4.6.Ferro-coke --
4.7.Concluding Remarks --
5.1.Introduction --
5.2.Elements of Distribution --
5.3.Factors Affecting Distribution --
Factors Affecting Distribution Inside the Furnace --
Angle and Size of the Big Bell --
Angle of Repose and Shape of Particles --
Order of Charging --
5.4.Limitations --
5.5.Concluding Remarks --
Note continued: 6.1.Introduction --
Lumps --
Coarse Fines --
Very Fine Fines --
6.2.Burden Qualities --
Physical --
Chemical --
6.3.Crushing and Sizing --
6.4.Beneficiation of the Iron Ores --
Magnetic Concentration --
Gravity Methods --
Flotation Method --
Electrostatic Separation --
Magnetic Roasting --
Washing --
Drying --
6.6.Calcining/Roasting --
6.7.Blending --
6.8.Shipping --
6.9.Products of Ore Processing --
6.10.Treatment of Iron Ores (India) --
Ore Treatment at Tata Steel --
Alumina Problem and Beneficiation --
Treatment of Goa Ores --
Kundremukh Iron Ore Project --
6.11.Agglomeration of Iron Ores --
Briquetting --
Nodulizing --
Vacuum Extrusion --
Sintering --
Pelletizing --
6.12.World Resources (2017 USGS) --
Substitutes --
6.13.Concluding Remarks --
7.1.Principle of Sintering --
7.2.Process Variables --
7.3.Sinter Quality --
7.4.Mechanism of Sintering --
7.5.Raw Material Requirements --
Size --
Fuel Content --
Moisture --
Circulating Load --
Note continued: Performance of Sintering Machine --
Economics --
7.6.Recent Trends in Sintering Practice --
7.7.Alumina Problem in Sintering --
Indian Scenario --
7.8.Concluding Remarks --
8.1.Introduction --
8.2.The Pelletization Process --
8.3.Theory of Bonding --
8.4.Mechanism of Ball Formation --
Nucleii Growth Region --
Transition Period --
Ball Growth Region --
Growth by Assimilation --
Growth by Layering --
8.5.Feed Size, Shape, and Porosity --
8.6.Green Ball Production --
Disc Pelletizer --
Drum Pelletizer --
8.7.Additives --
8.8.Induration of Pellets --
Drying --
Preheating and Firing --
Firing Units --
8.9.Comparison of the Pellet Firing Machines --
8.10.Indian Pelletization Plants --
8.11.U.S. Production (Pelletization) --
8.12.Concluding Remarks --
9.1.Introduction --
9.2.Room Temperature Physical Properties --
Shatter Tests --
Tumbling and Abrasion Test --
Compression Test --
Porosity --
9.3.Reducibility --
Note continued: 9.4.Physical Behavior of Materials During Reduction at High Temperatures --
Decrepitation --
Low-Temperature Breakdown Test (L.T.B.T.) --
Reduction Degradation Index Test (R.D.I) --
Reducibility Test (R.I.) on Iron Bearing Materials --
Coke Reactivity Test (C.R.I.) and Coke Strength after Reaction (C.S.R.) --
Hot Compression Strength --
Swelling --
Softening of Materials in the Blast Furnace --
High Temperature Permeability Under Reducing Conditions and Applied Load --
9.5.Concluding Remarks --
10.1.Introduction --
10.2.The Blast Furnace Profiles --
Thermal, Physical, and Chemical Profiles --
Physical Structure --
10.3.Thermodynamic Equilibria --
Carbon-Oxygen Equilibria --
Equilibria in Fe-C-O and Fe-O-H Systems --
Elements of Stoichiometry --
10.4.Physical Chemistry of Blast Furnace Process --
Reactions in the Tuyere Zone --
Reactions in Stack --
Kinetics of Iron Oxide Reduction --
Physical Nature of Ore and Its Previous History --
Note continued: Nature and Composition of Gangue in the Charge --
Temperature and Carbon Monoxide Content of Gases --
Chemical Nature of Iron Oxide --
Pressure --
Solid-Solid Reaction --
Reactions in the Bosh --
Reactions in the Hearth --
Sulphur Reaction --
10.5.Alumina Problem --
Indian Ores --
10.6.Kinetics of Reactions in Bosh and Hearth --
10.7.Efficiency of the Blast Furnace Process --
Elements of Enthalpy Balance --
Process Zones in a Blast Furnace --
Thermal Efficiency --
10.8.Quality of Hot Metal --
Silicon Content of Hot Metal --
10.9.TiO2 Addition in Burden --
10.10.U.S. and World Events, Trends, and Issues. Source: USGS 2017 --
Recycling --
Import Sources (2012-15) --
Trends and Issues --
World Mine Production and Reserves --
10.11.Concluding Remarks --
11.1.Blast Furnace Refractories --
Stack Lining --
Hearth Lining --
Hearth Walls --
Bosh Lining --
Carbon-lined Furnaces --
11.2.Blast Furnace Structure --
11.3.Blast Furnace Cooling Arrangements --
Note continued: Shaft Coolers --
Hearth and Bosh Coolers --
Cooling of Hearth Bottom --
11.4.Tap Holes --
11.5.Cast House --
11.6.Tuyere Assembly --
11.7.Raw Material Section --
11.8.Charge Hoisting Appliances --
11.9.Top Charging System --
11.10.Blowers, Boilers, Pumps, etc --
11.11.Slag-granulation --
11.12.Instrumentation and Control --
11.13.Concluding Remarks --
12.1.Uptake, Downcomer, and Bleeder --
12.2.Dust Catcher --
12.3.Semi-Fine or Primary Cleaning --
Scrubbers or Spray Towers --
Venturi Washer --
12.4.Fine or Secondary Cleaning --
Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) --
12.5.Utilization of Blast Furnace Gas --
12.6.Hot Blast Stove --
Construction of the Stove and Its Accessories --
12.7.Concluding Remarks --
13.1.Blowing-in --
Drying --
Filling --
Lighting and Operating Until Routine Practice is Established --
13.2.Banking --
13.3.Blowing-out --
13.4.Tapping --
13.5.Fanning --
13.6.Back Drafting --
13.7.Conclusions --
14.1.Hanging --
Remedies --
Note continued: 14.2.Scaffolding --
14.3.Slip --
14.4.Chilled Hearth --
14.5.Pillaring --
14.6.Breakout --
14.7.Choking of Gas Offtake --
14.8.Flooding and Coke Ejection Through the Tap Hole --
14.9.Leaking Tuyeres, Tap Holes, and Coolers --
14.10.Channeling --
14.11.Salamander Formation --
14.12.Concluding Remarks --
15.1.Introduction --
15.2.Composition of Pig Iron --
15.3.Slag Composition --
Slag Volume --
How to Calculate the Slag Volume? --
Disposal of Slag --
15.4.Production of Ferro-Manganese --
15.5.The Sulfur Problem --
15.6.Basic Burdening of Blast Furnace and External Desiliconization --
15.7.Acid Burdening of Blast Furnace and External De sulfurization --
Indian Practice of Acid Burdening --
15.8.Disposal of Metal --
15.9.Concluding Remarks --
16.1.Introduction --
16.2.Burden Distribution --
16.3.Burden Trajectory and Profiles --
16.4.Burden Distribution Patterns --
16.5.Blast Furnace Performance --
16.6.Effect of Sizing --
Note continued: 16.7.Use of Agglomerate as Burden --
Sinter --
Pellets --
16.8.Sinter vs. Pellets --
16.9.Agglomerate vs. Natural Lumpy Ore --
16.10.Sizing of Coke and Its Quality --
16.11.Flux Quality --
16.12.Concluding Remarks --
17.1.Introduction --
17.2.Large-Capacity Blast Furnaces --
17.3.Coke Quality --
17.4.Burden Preparation --
17.5.Improved Distribution of Charge --
Stock-line Armor --
17.6.High Top Pressure --
17.7.Charging Devices for High Top Pressure --
Tops with Only Bells --
Paul-Wurth/CRM Top --
NKK's Four Bell Top --
Tops with Bells and Valve Seals --
Bell Construction and Operation --
Top with Only Valve Seals (No Bells) --
Gimble Top Distributor --
17.8.Higher Blast Temperature and Driving Rate --
17.9.Oxygen Enrichment of Blast --
17.10.Humidification of Blast --
17.11.Fuel Injection --
Pulverized Coal Injection --
17.12.Lime Injection --
17.13.Pre-reduced Ore as Burden --
17.14.Injection of Reducing Gas at the Bottom of the Stack --
Note continued: 17.15.Utilization of Plant Iron-Bearing Wastes --
17.16.Concluding Remarks --
18.1.Introduction --
18.2.Process Variables --
Variety of Operational Variables --
18.3.Probes for Measuring the Process Variables --
18.4.BF Operational Models --
18.5.Process Control Strategies --
Overall Control Strategy --
18.6.Central Working Index --
18.7.Advantages of Process Control --
18.8.Concluding Remarks --
19.1.Introduction --
19.2.The Low-Shaft Furnace --
19.3.Mini-Blast Furnaces (MBFs) --
Special Features of MBF --
Modern MBFs --
Chinese MBF --
First MBF in India --
Charcoal Blast Furnace --
19.4.Concluding Remarks --
20.1.General --
20.2.Historical --
India --
20.3.The Submerged Arc Furnace Plant --
20.4.Operation --
20.5.Smelting Practice --
20.6.Modern Trends --
20.7.Special Features --
20.8.Irregularities in Operations --
20.9.Concluding Remarks --
21.1.Introduction --
21.2.Physical Chemistry of DR Processes --
21.3.Sponge Ironmaking Processes --
Note continued: HyL Process --
21.4.Midrex Process --
Other Gaseous Reduction Processes --
Gas-based Processes --
21.5.Fluidized Bed Processes --
21.6.Coal-Based DR Processes --
General Design Features --
Raw Materials --
Product --
Ring Formation in a Rotary Kiln --
Coal-based Process Designs --
Process Control --
21.7.Coal-Based Shaft Furnaces --
21.8.Gasified Coal-Based Processes --
21.9.Sponge Iron Production in India --
21.10.Metallurgical Properties of Sponge Iron --
21.11.Use of Sponge Iron --
21.12.Concluding Remarks --
22.1.Introduction --
22.2.Classification of SR Processes --
22.3.Thermo-chemical Model --
22.4.Vertical Shaft Furnace Processes --
Corex Process --
Sumitomo SC Process --
Kawasaki Process (SR) --
Finex Process --
Technored Process --
22.5.Electrical Processes --
INRED Process --
ELRED Process --
COMBISMELT Process --
Plasmasmelt Process --
Fastmelt Process --
22.6.Converter Processes --
Krupp-COIN Process --
PCIG Process --
HI-Smelt Process --
Note continued: Reactor Steelmaking Process --
AISI-HyL Direct Steelmaking --
22.7.Bath Smelting Processes --
Romelt (Earlier FLPR) Process --
DIOS (Direct Iron Ore Smelting Process) --
22.8.Rotary Hearth Furnace Processes (RHF) --
IT mk3 Process --
22.9.TUPKARY-SR Process --
22.10.Concluding Remarks.
Series Title: MLI handbook series.
Responsibility: R.H. Tupkary, V.R. Tupkary.

Abstract:

This book comprehensively deals with all of the key topics of iron making including blast furnace plants, operations and processes, raw materials, preparation, chemical processes, and more.

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    schema:description "Machine generated contents note: 1.1.Ancient Ironmaking -- 1.2.Historical Ironmaking Processes -- 1.3.Developments that Led to Modern Ironmaking -- Coke Furnace -- Hot Blast Generation -- Blast Furnace Gas Cleaning -- Charging Devices -- Pig Casting Machine -- 1.4.Modern Ironmaking -- 1.5.Alternative Methods of Iron Production -- 1.6.History of the Iron and Steel Industry in the United States -- 1.7.Twenty-first Century Trends (U.S. and the World) -- U.S. Production of Selected Mineral Commodities in the First Quarter 2017 -- 1.8.Concluding Remarks -- 2.1.Introduction -- 2.2.Modern Blast Furnace -- Furnace Details -- 2.3.Hot Blast Stove -- 2.4.Gas Cleaning -- 2.5.Raw Materials Storage and Handling -- 2.6.Liquid Products Disposal -- Hot Metal Ladles -- 2.7.Blast Furnace Operation and Control -- 2.8.Essentials of the Blast Furnace Process -- Stack or Shaft -- Bosh -- Tuyere or Combustion Zone -- Hearth -- 2.9.Efficiency of Blast Furnace -- 2.10.Concluding Remarks --"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: Reactor Steelmaking Process -- AISI-HyL Direct Steelmaking -- 22.7.Bath Smelting Processes -- Romelt (Earlier FLPR) Process -- DIOS (Direct Iron Ore Smelting Process) -- 22.8.Rotary Hearth Furnace Processes (RHF) -- IT mk3 Process -- 22.9.TUPKARY-SR Process -- 22.10.Concluding Remarks."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: HyL Process -- 21.4.Midrex Process -- Other Gaseous Reduction Processes -- Gas-based Processes -- 21.5.Fluidized Bed Processes -- 21.6.Coal-Based DR Processes -- General Design Features -- Raw Materials -- Product -- Ring Formation in a Rotary Kiln -- Coal-based Process Designs -- Process Control -- 21.7.Coal-Based Shaft Furnaces -- 21.8.Gasified Coal-Based Processes -- 21.9.Sponge Iron Production in India -- 21.10.Metallurgical Properties of Sponge Iron -- 21.11.Use of Sponge Iron -- 21.12.Concluding Remarks -- 22.1.Introduction -- 22.2.Classification of SR Processes -- 22.3.Thermo-chemical Model -- 22.4.Vertical Shaft Furnace Processes -- Corex Process -- Sumitomo SC Process -- Kawasaki Process (SR) -- Finex Process -- Technored Process -- 22.5.Electrical Processes -- INRED Process -- ELRED Process -- COMBISMELT Process -- Plasmasmelt Process -- Fastmelt Process -- 22.6.Converter Processes -- Krupp-COIN Process -- PCIG Process -- HI-Smelt Process --"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 6.1.Introduction -- Lumps -- Coarse Fines -- Very Fine Fines -- 6.2.Burden Qualities -- Physical -- Chemical -- 6.3.Crushing and Sizing -- 6.4.Beneficiation of the Iron Ores -- Magnetic Concentration -- Gravity Methods -- Flotation Method -- Electrostatic Separation -- Magnetic Roasting -- Washing -- Drying -- 6.6.Calcining/Roasting -- 6.7.Blending -- 6.8.Shipping -- 6.9.Products of Ore Processing -- 6.10.Treatment of Iron Ores (India) -- Ore Treatment at Tata Steel -- Alumina Problem and Beneficiation -- Treatment of Goa Ores -- Kundremukh Iron Ore Project -- 6.11.Agglomeration of Iron Ores -- Briquetting -- Nodulizing -- Vacuum Extrusion -- Sintering -- Pelletizing -- 6.12.World Resources (2017 USGS) -- Substitutes -- 6.13.Concluding Remarks -- 7.1.Principle of Sintering -- 7.2.Process Variables -- 7.3.Sinter Quality -- 7.4.Mechanism of Sintering -- 7.5.Raw Material Requirements -- Size -- Fuel Content -- Moisture -- Circulating Load --"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 9.4.Physical Behavior of Materials During Reduction at High Temperatures -- Decrepitation -- Low-Temperature Breakdown Test (L.T.B.T.) -- Reduction Degradation Index Test (R.D.I) -- Reducibility Test (R.I.) on Iron Bearing Materials -- Coke Reactivity Test (C.R.I.) and Coke Strength after Reaction (C.S.R.) -- Hot Compression Strength -- Swelling -- Softening of Materials in the Blast Furnace -- High Temperature Permeability Under Reducing Conditions and Applied Load -- 9.5.Concluding Remarks -- 10.1.Introduction -- 10.2.The Blast Furnace Profiles -- Thermal, Physical, and Chemical Profiles -- Physical Structure -- 10.3.Thermodynamic Equilibria -- Carbon-Oxygen Equilibria -- Equilibria in Fe-C-O and Fe-O-H Systems -- Elements of Stoichiometry -- 10.4.Physical Chemistry of Blast Furnace Process -- Reactions in the Tuyere Zone -- Reactions in Stack -- Kinetics of Iron Oxide Reduction -- Physical Nature of Ore and Its Previous History --"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 16.7.Use of Agglomerate as Burden -- Sinter -- Pellets -- 16.8.Sinter vs. Pellets -- 16.9.Agglomerate vs. Natural Lumpy Ore -- 16.10.Sizing of Coke and Its Quality -- 16.11.Flux Quality -- 16.12.Concluding Remarks -- 17.1.Introduction -- 17.2.Large-Capacity Blast Furnaces -- 17.3.Coke Quality -- 17.4.Burden Preparation -- 17.5.Improved Distribution of Charge -- Stock-line Armor -- 17.6.High Top Pressure -- 17.7.Charging Devices for High Top Pressure -- Tops with Only Bells -- Paul-Wurth/CRM Top -- NKK's Four Bell Top -- Tops with Bells and Valve Seals -- Bell Construction and Operation -- Top with Only Valve Seals (No Bells) -- Gimble Top Distributor -- 17.8.Higher Blast Temperature and Driving Rate -- 17.9.Oxygen Enrichment of Blast -- 17.10.Humidification of Blast -- 17.11.Fuel Injection -- Pulverized Coal Injection -- 17.12.Lime Injection -- 17.13.Pre-reduced Ore as Burden -- 17.14.Injection of Reducing Gas at the Bottom of the Stack --"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 14.2.Scaffolding -- 14.3.Slip -- 14.4.Chilled Hearth -- 14.5.Pillaring -- 14.6.Breakout -- 14.7.Choking of Gas Offtake -- 14.8.Flooding and Coke Ejection Through the Tap Hole -- 14.9.Leaking Tuyeres, Tap Holes, and Coolers -- 14.10.Channeling -- 14.11.Salamander Formation -- 14.12.Concluding Remarks -- 15.1.Introduction -- 15.2.Composition of Pig Iron -- 15.3.Slag Composition -- Slag Volume -- How to Calculate the Slag Volume? -- Disposal of Slag -- 15.4.Production of Ferro-Manganese -- 15.5.The Sulfur Problem -- 15.6.Basic Burdening of Blast Furnace and External Desiliconization -- 15.7.Acid Burdening of Blast Furnace and External De sulfurization -- Indian Practice of Acid Burdening -- 15.8.Disposal of Metal -- 15.9.Concluding Remarks -- 16.1.Introduction -- 16.2.Burden Distribution -- 16.3.Burden Trajectory and Profiles -- 16.4.Burden Distribution Patterns -- 16.5.Blast Furnace Performance -- 16.6.Effect of Sizing --"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 3.1.Introduction -- 3.2.Iron Ores -- World Deposits of Iron Ores -- 3.3.Metallurgical Coal -- Metallurgical Coal Reserves -- 3.4.Limestone and Dolomite as Flux -- 3.5.Concluding Remarks -- 4.1.Introduction -- 4.2.Functions of Coke -- 4.3.Quality Requirements of Coke -- Reactivity -- Size -- Strength and Abrasion Resistance -- Micum Test -- ASTM Tumbler Test (U.S.) -- Preparation of BF Fuel -- 4.4.Preparation of Coke (India) -- Coal Ranking (U.S.) -- 4.5.Modifications in Coke Making Practices -- Stamp Charging of Coke Ovens -- Economizing Coke-Charge-Mix -- Use of Waste Plastic in Coke Making -- 4.6.Alternative Fuels -- 4.6.Ferro-coke -- 4.7.Concluding Remarks -- 5.1.Introduction -- 5.2.Elements of Distribution -- 5.3.Factors Affecting Distribution -- Factors Affecting Distribution Inside the Furnace -- Angle and Size of the Big Bell -- Angle of Repose and Shape of Particles -- Order of Charging -- 5.4.Limitations -- 5.5.Concluding Remarks --"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: Shaft Coolers -- Hearth and Bosh Coolers -- Cooling of Hearth Bottom -- 11.4.Tap Holes -- 11.5.Cast House -- 11.6.Tuyere Assembly -- 11.7.Raw Material Section -- 11.8.Charge Hoisting Appliances -- 11.9.Top Charging System -- 11.10.Blowers, Boilers, Pumps, etc -- 11.11.Slag-granulation -- 11.12.Instrumentation and Control -- 11.13.Concluding Remarks -- 12.1.Uptake, Downcomer, and Bleeder -- 12.2.Dust Catcher -- 12.3.Semi-Fine or Primary Cleaning -- Scrubbers or Spray Towers -- Venturi Washer -- 12.4.Fine or Secondary Cleaning -- Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) -- 12.5.Utilization of Blast Furnace Gas -- 12.6.Hot Blast Stove -- Construction of the Stove and Its Accessories -- 12.7.Concluding Remarks -- 13.1.Blowing-in -- Drying -- Filling -- Lighting and Operating Until Routine Practice is Established -- 13.2.Banking -- 13.3.Blowing-out -- 13.4.Tapping -- 13.5.Fanning -- 13.6.Back Drafting -- 13.7.Conclusions -- 14.1.Hanging -- Remedies --"@en ;
    schema:description "This book comprehensively deals with all of the key topics of iron making including blast furnace plants, operations and processes, raw materials, preparation, chemical processes, and more."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: Nature and Composition of Gangue in the Charge -- Temperature and Carbon Monoxide Content of Gases -- Chemical Nature of Iron Oxide -- Pressure -- Solid-Solid Reaction -- Reactions in the Bosh -- Reactions in the Hearth -- Sulphur Reaction -- 10.5.Alumina Problem -- Indian Ores -- 10.6.Kinetics of Reactions in Bosh and Hearth -- 10.7.Efficiency of the Blast Furnace Process -- Elements of Enthalpy Balance -- Process Zones in a Blast Furnace -- Thermal Efficiency -- 10.8.Quality of Hot Metal -- Silicon Content of Hot Metal -- 10.9.TiO2 Addition in Burden -- 10.10.U.S. and World Events, Trends, and Issues. Source: USGS 2017 -- Recycling -- Import Sources (2012-15) -- Trends and Issues -- World Mine Production and Reserves -- 10.11.Concluding Remarks -- 11.1.Blast Furnace Refractories -- Stack Lining -- Hearth Lining -- Hearth Walls -- Bosh Lining -- Carbon-lined Furnaces -- 11.2.Blast Furnace Structure -- 11.3.Blast Furnace Cooling Arrangements --"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 17.15.Utilization of Plant Iron-Bearing Wastes -- 17.16.Concluding Remarks -- 18.1.Introduction -- 18.2.Process Variables -- Variety of Operational Variables -- 18.3.Probes for Measuring the Process Variables -- 18.4.BF Operational Models -- 18.5.Process Control Strategies -- Overall Control Strategy -- 18.6.Central Working Index -- 18.7.Advantages of Process Control -- 18.8.Concluding Remarks -- 19.1.Introduction -- 19.2.The Low-Shaft Furnace -- 19.3.Mini-Blast Furnaces (MBFs) -- Special Features of MBF -- Modern MBFs -- Chinese MBF -- First MBF in India -- Charcoal Blast Furnace -- 19.4.Concluding Remarks -- 20.1.General -- 20.2.Historical -- India -- 20.3.The Submerged Arc Furnace Plant -- 20.4.Operation -- 20.5.Smelting Practice -- 20.6.Modern Trends -- 20.7.Special Features -- 20.8.Irregularities in Operations -- 20.9.Concluding Remarks -- 21.1.Introduction -- 21.2.Physical Chemistry of DR Processes -- 21.3.Sponge Ironmaking Processes --"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: Performance of Sintering Machine -- Economics -- 7.6.Recent Trends in Sintering Practice -- 7.7.Alumina Problem in Sintering -- Indian Scenario -- 7.8.Concluding Remarks -- 8.1.Introduction -- 8.2.The Pelletization Process -- 8.3.Theory of Bonding -- 8.4.Mechanism of Ball Formation -- Nucleii Growth Region -- Transition Period -- Ball Growth Region -- Growth by Assimilation -- Growth by Layering -- 8.5.Feed Size, Shape, and Porosity -- 8.6.Green Ball Production -- Disc Pelletizer -- Drum Pelletizer -- 8.7.Additives -- 8.8.Induration of Pellets -- Drying -- Preheating and Firing -- Firing Units -- 8.9.Comparison of the Pellet Firing Machines -- 8.10.Indian Pelletization Plants -- 8.11.U.S. Production (Pelletization) -- 8.12.Concluding Remarks -- 9.1.Introduction -- 9.2.Room Temperature Physical Properties -- Shatter Tests -- Tumbling and Abrasion Test -- Compression Test -- Porosity -- 9.3.Reducibility --"@en ;
    schema:exampleOfWork <http://worldcat.org/entity/work/id/4596989466> ;
    schema:genre "Electronic books"@en ;
    schema:inLanguage "en" ;
    schema:isPartOf <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/4596989466#Series/mli_handbook_series> ; # MLI handbook series.
    schema:isSimilarTo <http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1011487698> ;
    schema:name "Modern iron making handbook"@en ;
    schema:productID "1030962110" ;
    schema:url <http://0-app.knovel.com.wam.leeds.ac.uk/hotlink/toc/id:kpMIMH0001/modern-iron-making?kpromoter=marc> ;
    schema:url <http://liverpool.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://app.knovel.com/hotlink/toc/id:kpMIMH0001/modern-iron-making?kpromoter=marc> ;
    schema:url <http://app.knovel.com/hotlink/toc/id:kpMIMH0001/modern-iron-making?kpromoter=marc> ;
    schema:url <http://proxy.library.carleton.ca/login?url=http://app.knovel.com/hotlink/toc/id:kpMIMH0001/modern-iron-making?kpromoter=marc> ;
    schema:workExample <http://worldcat.org/isbn/9781523114467> ;
    wdrs:describedby <http://www.worldcat.org/title/-/oclc/1030962110> ;
    .


Related Entities

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/4596989466#Person/tupkary_r_h> # R. H. Tupkary
    a schema:Person ;
    schema:familyName "Tupkary" ;
    schema:givenName "R. H." ;
    schema:name "R. H. Tupkary" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/4596989466#Series/mli_handbook_series> # MLI handbook series.
    a bgn:PublicationSeries ;
    schema:hasPart <http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1030962110> ; # Modern iron making handbook
    schema:name "MLI handbook series." ;
    schema:name "MLI handbook series" ;
    .

<http://worldcat.org/isbn/9781523114467>
    a schema:ProductModel ;
    schema:isbn "1523114460" ;
    schema:isbn "9781523114467" ;
    .

<http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1011487698>
    a schema:CreativeWork ;
    rdfs:label "Modern iron making handbook." ;
    schema:description "Print version:" ;
    schema:isSimilarTo <http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1030962110> ; # Modern iron making handbook
    .


Content-negotiable representations

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