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Modularity, antimodularity and explanation in complex systems

Author: Luca RivelliPhilippe HunemanFabio GrigentiAnouk BarberoussePierdaniele GiarettaAll authors
Publisher: 2015.
Dissertation: Thèse de doctorat : Philosophie : Paris 1 : 2015.
Thèse de doctorat : Philosophie : Università degli studi (Padoue, Italie). Dipartimento di filosofia, sociologia, pedagogia e psicologia applicata : 2015.
Edition/Format:   Computer file : Document : Thesis/dissertation : English
Summary:
Ce travail concerne principalement la notion de modularité hiérarchique et son utilisation pour expliquer la structure et le comportement dynamique des systèmes complexes au moyen de modèles modulaires hiérarchiques, ainsi qu'un concept de ma proposition, l'antimodularité, relié à la possibilité de la détection algorithmique de la modularité hiérarchique. Plus précisément, je mets en évidence la
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Genre/Form: Thèses et écrits académiques
Material Type: Document, Thesis/dissertation, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Luca Rivelli; Philippe Huneman; Fabio Grigenti; Anouk Barberousse; Pierdaniele Giaretta; Marion Clara Vorms; Olivier Sartenaer; Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne.; Università degli studi (Padoue, Italie). Dipartimento di filosofia, sociologia, pedagogia e psicologia applicata.; École doctorale Philosophie (Paris).; Institut d'histoire et de philosophie des sciences et des techniques (Paris).
OCLC Number: 1035765285
Notes: Thèse soutenue en co-tutelle.
Titre provenant de l'écran-titre.
Description: 1 online resource
Responsibility: Luca Rivelli ; sous la direction de Philippe Huneman et de Fabio Grigenti.

Abstract:

Ce travail concerne principalement la notion de modularité hiérarchique et son utilisation pour expliquer la structure et le comportement dynamique des systèmes complexes au moyen de modèles modulaires hiérarchiques, ainsi qu'un concept de ma proposition, l'antimodularité, relié à la possibilité de la détection algorithmique de la modularité hiérarchique. Plus précisément, je mets en évidence la portée pragmatique de la modularité hiérarchique sur la possibilité de l'explication scientifique des systèmes complexes, c'est-à-dire, systèmes qui, selon une description de base choisie par l'observateur, peuvent être considérés comme composés de parties élémentaires discrètes interdépendantes. Je souligne que la modularité hiérarchique est essentielle même au cours de l'expérimentation visée à découvrir la structure de ces systèmes. Mais la détection algorithmique de la modularité hiérarchique se révèle être une tâche affectée par la démontrée intraitabilité computationnelle de la recherche de la meilleure description modulaire hiérarchique, et par l'excessive cherté computationnelle même des méthodes de détection approximatives de la modularité. L'antimodularité consiste en le manque d'une description modulaire appropriée aux exigences de l'observateur, manque dû ou à l'absence de modularité dans la description basique choisie du système, ou à l'impossibilité de produire algorithmiquement une description hiérarchique valide, en raison des dimensions excessives du système à évaluer en relation à la cherté computationnelle des méthodes algorithmiques. Je souligne, de plus, que la modularité et l'antimodularité dépendent du choix pragmatique d'une spécifique description de base du système, choix fait par l'observateur sur la base de ses objectifs explicatifs. Je montre comment l'antimodularité entrave la possibilité d'appliquer au moins trois types bien connus d'explication: mécanique, déductive-nomologique et computationnelle. Un quatrième type, l'explication topologique, reste par contre indemne. Ensuite j'évalue la présence de modularité dans les systèmes biologiques, avec ses possibles conséquences, et l'éventualité d'encourir dans l'antimodularité en biologie et en autres sciences: éventualité assez probable, au moins dans la biologie des systèmes. Je me permet enfin quelques spéculations métaphysiques et historiques plutôt libres. D'un point de vue métaphysique, l'antimodularité semble suggérer une position possible, selon laquelle les espèces naturelles sont modules qui ont été détectés et, en raison de l'intraitabilité computationnelle de la détection de la meilleure description modulaire hiérarchique, il est improbable qu'ils constituent la meilleure façon possible de décrire le monde, parce que la modularité des espèces naturelles assez probablement ne reflète pas la meilleure modularité possible du monde. D'un point de vue historique, l'utilisation croissante des méthodes computationnels pour la détection de la modularité ou pour la simulation de systèmes complexes, en particulier dans certains domaines de la recherche scientifique, suggère la possibilité d'imaginer une multiplicité de disciplines scientifiques émergentes, guidées par une production croissante et auto-alimentante d'explications potentiellement inintelligibles pour les capacités cognitives humaines. Cela, à mon avis, constituerait un changement historique dans la science, qui, s'il n'a pas déjà eu lieu, pourrait bien être sur le point de se produire.

This work is mainly concerned with the notion of hierarchical modularity and its use in explaining structure and dynamical behavior of complex systems by means of hierarchical modular models, as well as with a concept of my proposal, antimodularity, tied to the possibility of the algorithmic detection of hierarchical modularity. Specifically, I highlight the pragmatic bearing of hierarchical modularity on the possibility of scientific explanation of complex systems, that is, systems which, according to a chosen basic description, can be considered as composed of elementary, discrete, interrelated parts. I stress that hierarchical modularity is also required by the experimentation aimed to discover the structure of such systems. Algorithmic detection of hierarchical modularity turns out to be a task plagued by the demonstrated computational intractability of the search for the best hierarchical modular description, and by the high computational expensiveness of even approximated detection methods. Antimodularity consists in the lack of a modular description fitting the needs of the observer, a lack due either to absence of modularity in the system's chosen basic description, or to the impossibility, due to the excessive size of the system under assessment in relation to the computational cost of algorithmic methods, to algorithmically produce a valid hierarchical description. I stress that modularity and antimodularity depend on the pragmatic choice of a given basic description of the system, a choice made by the observer based on explanatory goals. I show how antimodularity hinders the possibility of applying at least three well-known types of explanation: mechanistic, deductive-nomological and computational. A fourth type, topological explanation, remains unaffected. I then assess the presence of modularity in biological systems, and evaluate the possible consequences, and the likelihood, of incurring in antimodularity in biology and other sciences, concluding that this eventuality is quite likely, at least in systems biology. I finally indulge in some metaphysical and historical speculations: metaphysically, antimodularity seems to suggest a possible position according to which natural kinds are detected modules, and as such, due to the computational hardness of the detection of the best hierarchical modular description, they are unlikely to be the best possible way to describe the world, because the modularity of natural kinds quite probably does not reflect the best possible modularity of the world. From an historical point of view, the growing use of computational methods for modularity detection or simulation of complex systems, especially in certain areas of scientific research, hints at the envisioning of a multiplicity of emerging scientific disciplines guided by a self- sustained, growing production of possibly human-unintelligible explanations. This, I suggest, would constitute an historical change in science, which, if has not already occurred, could well be on the verge of happening.

Questo lavoro riguarda principalmente il concetto di modularità gerarchica e il suo impiego nello spiegare la struttura e il comportamento dinamico di sistemi complessi mediante modelli modulari gerarchici, nonché un concetto di mia proposta, l'antimodularità, legato alla possibilità del rilevamento algoritmico di modularità gerarchica. Nello specifico, evidenzio la portata pragmatica della modularità gerarchica sulla possibilità di spiegazione scientifica dei sistemi complessi, cioè sistemi che, secondo una descrizione di base scelta dall'osservatore, possono essere considerati come composti da parti elementari discrete interrelate. Sottolineo che la modularità gerarchica è essenziale anche nel corso della sperimentazione volta a scoprire la struttura di tali sistemi. Il rilevamento algoritmico della modularità gerarchica si rivela essere un compito affetto dalla dimostrata intrattabilità computazionale della ricerca della migliore descrizione modulare gerarchica, e affetto dal comunque elevato costo computazionale anche dei metodi di rilevamento approssimati della modularità. L'antimodularità consiste nella mancanza di una descrizione modulare adatta alle esigenze dell'osservatore, mancanza dovuta o all'assenza di modularità nella descrizione di base del sistema scelta dall'osservatore, o all'impossibilità di produrre algoritmicamente una sua descrizione gerarchica valida, per le dimensioni eccessive del sistema da valutare in rapporto al costo computazionale dei metodi algoritmici. Sottolineo che modularità e antimodularità dipendono dalla scelta pragmatica di una certa descrizione di base del sistema, scelta fatta dall'osservatore sulla base di obiettivi esplicativi. Mostro poi come l'antimodularità ostacoli la possibilità di applicare almeno tre tipi noti di spiegazione: meccanicistica, deduttivo- nomologica e computazionale. Un quarto tipo di spiegazione, la spiegazione topologica, rimane sostanzialmente immune dalle conseguenze dell'antimodularità. Valuto quindi la presenza di modularità nei sistemi biologici, e le sue possibili conseguenze, nonché l'eventualità di incorrere nell'antimodularità in biologia e in altre scienze, concludendo che questa eventualità è abbastanza probabile, almeno in biologia dei sistemi. Infine, mi permetto alcune speculazioni metafisiche e storiche piuttosto libere. Dal punto di vista metafisico, l'antimodularità sembra suggerire una posizione possibile secondo cui i generi naturali sono moduli che sono stati rilevati, e in quanto tali, a causa dell'intrattabilità computazionale del rilevamento della migliore descrizione modulare gerarchica, è improbabile che essi siano il miglior modo possibile per descrivere il mondo, perché la modularità dei generi naturali molto probabilmente non rispecchia la migliore modularità possibile del mondo. Da un punto di vista storico, il crescente utilizzo di metodi computazionali per il rilevamento della modularità o per la simulazione di sistemi complessi, in particolare in alcuni settori della ricerca scientifica, suggerisce la possibilità di immaginare una molteplicità di discipline scientifiche emergenti, guidate dalla produzione di spiegazioni potenzialmente inintelligibili dal punto di vista cognitivo umano, produzione che potrebbe iniziare ad autoalimentarsi, portando potenzialmente ad una crescita inarrestabile. Suggerisco che questo scenario cos- tituirebbe un cambiamento epocale nel campo della scienza, che, se non è già avvenuto, potrebbe benissimo essere sul punto di realizzarsi.

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Dipartimento di filosofia, sociologia, pedagogia e psicologia applicata.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Person\/vorms_marion_clara_1979<\/a>> ; # Marion Clara Vorms<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Organization\/ecole_doctorale_philosophie_paris<\/a>> ; # \u00C9cole doctorale Philosophie (Paris).<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Organization\/universite_paris_1_pantheon_sorbonne<\/a>> ; # Universit\u00E9 Paris 1 Panth\u00E9on-Sorbonne.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Person\/huneman_philippe_1970<\/a>> ; # Philippe Huneman<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:datePublished<\/a> \"2015<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"Ce travail concerne principalement la notion de modularit\u00E9 hi\u00E9rarchique et son utilisation pour expliquer la structure et le comportement dynamique des syst\u00E8mes complexes au moyen de mod\u00E8les modulaires hi\u00E9rarchiques, ainsi qu\'un concept de ma proposition, l\'antimodularit\u00E9, reli\u00E9 \u00E0 la possibilit\u00E9 de la d\u00E9tection algorithmique de la modularit\u00E9 hi\u00E9rarchique. Plus pr\u00E9cis\u00E9ment, je mets en \u00E9vidence la port\u00E9e pragmatique de la modularit\u00E9 hi\u00E9rarchique sur la possibilit\u00E9 de l\'explication scientifique des syst\u00E8mes complexes, c\'est-\u00E0-dire, syst\u00E8mes qui, selon une description de base choisie par l\'observateur, peuvent \u00EAtre consid\u00E9r\u00E9s comme compos\u00E9s de parties \u00E9l\u00E9mentaires discr\u00E8tes interd\u00E9pendantes. Je souligne que la modularit\u00E9 hi\u00E9rarchique est essentielle m\u00EAme au cours de l\'exp\u00E9rimentation vis\u00E9e \u00E0 d\u00E9couvrir la structure de ces syst\u00E8mes. Mais la d\u00E9tection algorithmique de la modularit\u00E9 hi\u00E9rarchique se r\u00E9v\u00E8le \u00EAtre une t\u00E2che affect\u00E9e par la d\u00E9montr\u00E9e intraitabilit\u00E9 computationnelle de la recherche de la meilleure description modulaire hi\u00E9rarchique, et par l\'excessive chert\u00E9 computationnelle m\u00EAme des m\u00E9thodes de d\u00E9tection approximatives de la modularit\u00E9. L\'antimodularit\u00E9 consiste en le manque d\'une description modulaire appropri\u00E9e aux exigences de l\'observateur, manque d\u00FB ou \u00E0 l\'absence de modularit\u00E9 dans la description basique choisie du syst\u00E8me, ou \u00E0 l\'impossibilit\u00E9 de produire algorithmiquement une description hi\u00E9rarchique valide, en raison des dimensions excessives du syst\u00E8me \u00E0 \u00E9valuer en relation \u00E0 la chert\u00E9 computationnelle des m\u00E9thodes algorithmiques. Je souligne, de plus, que la modularit\u00E9 et l\'antimodularit\u00E9 d\u00E9pendent du choix pragmatique d\'une sp\u00E9cifique description de base du syst\u00E8me, choix fait par l\'observateur sur la base de ses objectifs explicatifs. Je montre comment l\'antimodularit\u00E9 entrave la possibilit\u00E9 d\'appliquer au moins trois types bien connus d\'explication: m\u00E9canique, d\u00E9ductive-nomologique et computationnelle. Un quatri\u00E8me type, l\'explication topologique, reste par contre indemne. Ensuite j\'\u00E9value la pr\u00E9sence de modularit\u00E9 dans les syst\u00E8mes biologiques, avec ses possibles cons\u00E9quences, et l\'\u00E9ventualit\u00E9 d\'encourir dans l\'antimodularit\u00E9 en biologie et en autres sciences: \u00E9ventualit\u00E9 assez probable, au moins dans la biologie des syst\u00E8mes. Je me permet enfin quelques sp\u00E9culations m\u00E9taphysiques et historiques plut\u00F4t libres. D\'un point de vue m\u00E9taphysique, l\'antimodularit\u00E9 semble sugg\u00E9rer une position possible, selon laquelle les esp\u00E8ces naturelles sont modules qui ont \u00E9t\u00E9 d\u00E9tect\u00E9s et, en raison de l\'intraitabilit\u00E9 computationnelle de la d\u00E9tection de la meilleure description modulaire hi\u00E9rarchique, il est improbable qu\'ils constituent la meilleure fa\u00E7on possible de d\u00E9crire le monde, parce que la modularit\u00E9 des esp\u00E8ces naturelles assez probablement ne refl\u00E8te pas la meilleure modularit\u00E9 possible du monde. D\'un point de vue historique, l\'utilisation croissante des m\u00E9thodes computationnels pour la d\u00E9tection de la modularit\u00E9 ou pour la simulation de syst\u00E8mes complexes, en particulier dans certains domaines de la recherche scientifique, sugg\u00E8re la possibilit\u00E9 d\'imaginer une multiplicit\u00E9 de disciplines scientifiques \u00E9mergentes, guid\u00E9es par une production croissante et auto-alimentante d\'explications potentiellement inintelligibles pour les capacit\u00E9s cognitives humaines. Cela, \u00E0 mon avis, constituerait un changement historique dans la science, qui, s\'il n\'a pas d\u00E9j\u00E0 eu lieu, pourrait bien \u00EAtre sur le point de se produire.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"This work is mainly concerned with the notion of hierarchical modularity and its use in explaining structure and dynamical behavior of complex systems by means of hierarchical modular models, as well as with a concept of my proposal, antimodularity, tied to the possibility of the algorithmic detection of hierarchical modularity. Specifically, I highlight the pragmatic bearing of hierarchical modularity on the possibility of scientific explanation of complex systems, that is, systems which, according to a chosen basic description, can be considered as composed of elementary, discrete, interrelated parts. I stress that hierarchical modularity is also required by the experimentation aimed to discover the structure of such systems. Algorithmic detection of hierarchical modularity turns out to be a task plagued by the demonstrated computational intractability of the search for the best hierarchical modular description, and by the high computational expensiveness of even approximated detection methods. Antimodularity consists in the lack of a modular description fitting the needs of the observer, a lack due either to absence of modularity in the system\'s chosen basic description, or to the impossibility, due to the excessive size of the system under assessment in relation to the computational cost of algorithmic methods, to algorithmically produce a valid hierarchical description. I stress that modularity and antimodularity depend on the pragmatic choice of a given basic description of the system, a choice made by the observer based on explanatory goals. I show how antimodularity hinders the possibility of applying at least three well-known types of explanation: mechanistic, deductive-nomological and computational. A fourth type, topological explanation, remains unaffected. I then assess the presence of modularity in biological systems, and evaluate the possible consequences, and the likelihood, of incurring in antimodularity in biology and other sciences, concluding that this eventuality is quite likely, at least in systems biology. I finally indulge in some metaphysical and historical speculations: metaphysically, antimodularity seems to suggest a possible position according to which natural kinds are detected modules, and as such, due to the computational hardness of the detection of the best hierarchical modular description, they are unlikely to be the best possible way to describe the world, because the modularity of natural kinds quite probably does not reflect the best possible modularity of the world. From an historical point of view, the growing use of computational methods for modularity detection or simulation of complex systems, especially in certain areas of scientific research, hints at the envisioning of a multiplicity of emerging scientific disciplines guided by a self- sustained, growing production of possibly human-unintelligible explanations. This, I suggest, would constitute an historical change in science, which, if has not already occurred, could well be on the verge of happening.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"Questo lavoro riguarda principalmente il concetto di modularit\u00E0 gerarchica e il suo impiego nello spiegare la struttura e il comportamento dinamico di sistemi complessi mediante modelli modulari gerarchici, nonch\u00E9 un concetto di mia proposta, l\'antimodularit\u00E0, legato alla possibilit\u00E0 del rilevamento algoritmico di modularit\u00E0 gerarchica. Nello specifico, evidenzio la portata pragmatica della modularit\u00E0 gerarchica sulla possibilit\u00E0 di spiegazione scientifica dei sistemi complessi, cio\u00E8 sistemi che, secondo una descrizione di base scelta dall\'osservatore, possono essere considerati come composti da parti elementari discrete interrelate. Sottolineo che la modularit\u00E0 gerarchica \u00E8 essenziale anche nel corso della sperimentazione volta a scoprire la struttura di tali sistemi. Il rilevamento algoritmico della modularit\u00E0 gerarchica si rivela essere un compito affetto dalla dimostrata intrattabilit\u00E0 computazionale della ricerca della migliore descrizione modulare gerarchica, e affetto dal comunque elevato costo computazionale anche dei metodi di rilevamento approssimati della modularit\u00E0. L\'antimodularit\u00E0 consiste nella mancanza di una descrizione modulare adatta alle esigenze dell\'osservatore, mancanza dovuta o all\'assenza di modularit\u00E0 nella descrizione di base del sistema scelta dall\'osservatore, o all\'impossibilit\u00E0 di produrre algoritmicamente una sua descrizione gerarchica valida, per le dimensioni eccessive del sistema da valutare in rapporto al costo computazionale dei metodi algoritmici. Sottolineo che modularit\u00E0 e antimodularit\u00E0 dipendono dalla scelta pragmatica di una certa descrizione di base del sistema, scelta fatta dall\'osservatore sulla base di obiettivi esplicativi. Mostro poi come l\'antimodularit\u00E0 ostacoli la possibilit\u00E0 di applicare almeno tre tipi noti di spiegazione: meccanicistica, deduttivo- nomologica e computazionale. Un quarto tipo di spiegazione, la spiegazione topologica, rimane sostanzialmente immune dalle conseguenze dell\'antimodularit\u00E0. Valuto quindi la presenza di modularit\u00E0 nei sistemi biologici, e le sue possibili conseguenze, nonch\u00E9 l\'eventualit\u00E0 di incorrere nell\'antimodularit\u00E0 in biologia e in altre scienze, concludendo che questa eventualit\u00E0 \u00E8 abbastanza probabile, almeno in biologia dei sistemi. Infine, mi permetto alcune speculazioni metafisiche e storiche piuttosto libere. Dal punto di vista metafisico, l\'antimodularit\u00E0 sembra suggerire una posizione possibile secondo cui i generi naturali sono moduli che sono stati rilevati, e in quanto tali, a causa dell\'intrattabilit\u00E0 computazionale del rilevamento della migliore descrizione modulare gerarchica, \u00E8 improbabile che essi siano il miglior modo possibile per descrivere il mondo, perch\u00E9 la modularit\u00E0 dei generi naturali molto probabilmente non rispecchia la migliore modularit\u00E0 possibile del mondo. Da un punto di vista storico, il crescente utilizzo di metodi computazionali per il rilevamento della modularit\u00E0 o per la simulazione di sistemi complessi, in particolare in alcuni settori della ricerca scientifica, suggerisce la possibilit\u00E0 di immaginare una molteplicit\u00E0 di discipline scientifiche emergenti, guidate dalla produzione di spiegazioni potenzialmente inintelligibili dal punto di vista cognitivo umano, produzione che potrebbe iniziare ad autoalimentarsi, portando potenzialmente ad una crescita inarrestabile. Suggerisco che questo scenario cos- tituirebbe un cambiamento epocale nel campo della scienza, che, se non \u00E8 gi\u00E0 avvenuto, potrebbe benissimo essere sul punto di realizzarsi.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:exampleOfWork<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/id\/5124047686<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:genre<\/a> \"Th\u00E8ses et \u00E9crits acad\u00E9miques<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:inLanguage<\/a> \"en<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Modularity, antimodularity and explanation in complex systems<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:productID<\/a> \"1035765285<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:url<\/a> <https:\/\/ecm.univ-paris1.fr\/nuxeo\/site\/esupversions\/0a09f42c-6178-47d1-9453-8da1591433ba<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:url<\/a> <http:\/\/www.theses.fr\/2015PA010529\/document<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:url<\/a> <https:\/\/tel.archives-ouvertes.fr\/tel-01793458<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:url<\/a> <http:\/\/www.theses.fr\/2015PA010529\/abes<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nwdrs:describedby<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/1035765285<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n\n

Related Entities<\/h3>\n
<http:\/\/dewey.info\/class\/100\/<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/dewey.info\/class\/510\/<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Organization\/ecole_doctorale_philosophie_paris<\/a>> # \u00C9cole doctorale Philosophie (Paris).<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Organization<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"\u00C9cole doctorale Philosophie (Paris).<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Organization\/institut_d_histoire_et_de_philosophie_des_sciences_et_des_techniques_paris<\/a>> # Institut d\'histoire et de philosophie des sciences et des techniques (Paris).<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Organization<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Institut d\'histoire et de philosophie des sciences et des techniques (Paris).<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Organization\/universita_degli_studi_padoue_italie_dipartimento_di_filosofia_sociologia_pedagogia_e_psicologia_applicata<\/a>> # Universit\u00E0 degli studi (Padoue, Italie). Dipartimento di filosofia, sociologia, pedagogia e psicologia applicata.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Organization<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Universit\u00E0 degli studi (Padoue, Italie). Dipartimento di filosofia, sociologia, pedagogia e psicologia applicata.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Organization\/universite_paris_1_pantheon_sorbonne<\/a>> # Universit\u00E9 Paris 1 Panth\u00E9on-Sorbonne.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Organization<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Universit\u00E9 Paris 1 Panth\u00E9on-Sorbonne.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Person\/barberousse_anouk_1969<\/a>> # Anouk Barberousse<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:birthDate<\/a> \"1969<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:deathDate<\/a> \"\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Barberousse<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Anouk<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Anouk Barberousse<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Person\/giaretta_pierdaniele<\/a>> # Pierdaniele Giaretta<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Giaretta<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Pierdaniele<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Pierdaniele Giaretta<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Person\/grigenti_fabio<\/a>> # Fabio Grigenti<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Grigenti<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Fabio<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Fabio Grigenti<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Person\/huneman_philippe_1970<\/a>> # Philippe Huneman<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:birthDate<\/a> \"1970<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:deathDate<\/a> \"\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Huneman<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Philippe<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Philippe Huneman<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Person\/rivelli_luca_1967<\/a>> # Luca Rivelli<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:birthDate<\/a> \"1967<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:deathDate<\/a> \"\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Rivelli<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Luca<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Luca Rivelli<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Person\/sartenaer_olivier<\/a>> # Olivier Sartenaer<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Sartenaer<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Olivier<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Olivier Sartenaer<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Person\/vorms_marion_clara_1979<\/a>> # Marion Clara Vorms<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:birthDate<\/a> \"1979<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:deathDate<\/a> \"\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Vorms<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Marion Clara<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Marion Clara Vorms<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Thing\/antimodularite<\/a>> # Antimodularit\u00E9<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Antimodularit\u00E9<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Thing\/antirealisme_contraint<\/a>> # Antir\u00E9alisme contraint<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Antir\u00E9alisme contraint<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Thing\/explication_mecanistique<\/a>> # Explication m\u00E9canistique<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Explication m\u00E9canistique<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Thing\/explication_scientifique<\/a>> # Explication scientifique<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Explication scientifique<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Thing\/modularite<\/a>> # Modularit\u00E9<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Modularit\u00E9<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Thing\/niveaux_de_description<\/a>> # Niveaux de description<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Niveaux de description<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Thing\/philosophie_de_la_computation<\/a>> # Philosophie de la computation<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Philosophie de la computation<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Topic\/modularite_psychologie<\/a>> # Modularit\u00E9 (psychologie)<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Modularit\u00E9 (psychologie)<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Topic\/philosophie_des_sciences<\/a>> # Philosophie des sciences<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Philosophie des sciences<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5124047686#Topic\/systemes_complexes<\/a>> # Syst\u00E8mes complexes<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Syst\u00E8mes complexes<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/vocabulary\/countries\/fr<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\ndcterms:identifier<\/a> \"fr<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/www.theses.fr\/2015PA010529\/document<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nrdfs:comment<\/a> \"Acc\u00E8s au texte int\u00E9gral<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n