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Molecular biotechnology : principles and applications of recombinant DNA

Author: Bernard R Glick; Cheryl L Patten
Publisher: Washington, DC : ASM Press, [2017]
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : Fifth editionView all editions and formats

A unique, adaptable textbook for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses emphasizing particular aspects of modern biotechnology. - Allows instructors to easily tailor the content to courses  Read more...


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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Bernard R Glick; Cheryl L Patten
ISBN: 9781555819361 1555819362
OCLC Number: 1022576189
Description: xviii, 740 pàgines : il·lustracions ; 29 cm
Contents: The Development of Molecular Biotechnology 1Emergence of Molecular Biotechnology 1Recombinant DNA Technology 3Commercialization of Molecular Biotechnology 4Concerns and Consequences 7SUMMARY9REFERENCES 9REVIEWQUESTIONS10Fundamental Technologies 11Molecular Cloning 11Preparation of DNA for Cloning 11Insertion of Target DNA into a Plasmid Vector 16Transformation and Selection of Cloned DNA in a Bacterial Host 20Cloning Eukaryotic Genes 24Recombinational Cloning 28Genomic Libraries 30Genome Engineering usingCRISPR Technology 32Polymerase Chain Reaction 35Amplification of DNA by PCR 36Cloning PCR Products 39Quantitative PCR 39Chemical Synthesis of DNA 42Synthesis of Oligonucleotides 42Assembling Oligonucleotides into Genes 48Gene Synthesis by PCR 50DNA Sequencing Technologies 50Dideoxynucleotide Procedure 53Pyrosequencing 55Sequencing using Reversible Chain Terminators 57Sequencing by Single Molecule Synthesis 57 Sequencing Whole Genomes 59Preparation of Genomic DNA Sequencing Libraries 60High-Throughput Next-Generation Sequencing Strategies 61Genome Sequence Assembly 63Sequencing Metagenomes 64Genomics 64Transcriptomics 67Proteomics 72Metabolomics 85SUMMARY87REFERENCES 89REVIEWQUESTIONS91Production of Recombinant Proteins 93Protein Production in Prokaryotic Hosts 93Regulation of Transcription 94Increasing Translation Efficiency 98Increasing Protein Stability 102Increasing Protein Secretion 106Facilitating Protein Purification 110DNA Integration into the Host Chromosome 115Heterologous Protein Production in Eukaryotic Cells 120Posttranslational Modification of Eukaryotic Proteins 120GeneralFeatures of Eukaryotic Expression Systems 122Yeast Expression Systems 124Baculovirus-Insect Cell Expression Systems 136Mammalian Cell Expression Systems 143Protein Engineering 153Directed Mutagenesis 154Random Mutagenesis 158Examples of Protein Engineering 162SUMMARY171REFERENCES 173REVIEWQUESTIONS175Molecular Diagnostics 177Immunological Approaches to Detect Protein Biomarkers 178Antibodies 178Agglutination 183Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays 183Protein Arrays to Detect Polygenic Diseases 189Immunoassays for Protein Conformation-Specific Disorders 191DNA-Based Diagnostic Approaches 193Hybridization Probes 193PCR-Based Detection Methods 200DNA Microarrays 208Whole Genome Sequencing to Assess Genetic Disease Risk 214Detecting RNA Signatures of Disease 215Detection of Disease-Associated Changes in Gene ExpressionUsing Microarrays 215Detection of RNA Signatures of Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria 216Detection of miRNA Signatures of Cancers 217Biofluorescent and Bioluminescent Systems 219Fluorescent Proteins219Luciferase 221Microbial Biosensors 222SUMMARY224REFERENCES 225REVIEWQUESTIONS227Protein Therapeutics 229Pharmaceuticals 230Human Interferons 231Human Growth Hormone 235Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha 237Extending Protein Half-Life 238Enzymes 240DNaseI 240Alginate Lyase 242Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase 245 1-Antitrypsin 247Glycosidases 248Masking Nonhuman Epitopes 249Engineering Bacteriophages 250Targeting Mitochondria 253Lactic Acid Bacteria 255Interleukin-10 255Leptin 258An HIV Inhibitor 258Insulin 260Recombinant Antibodies 261Hybrid Human-Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies 264Human Monoclonal Antibodies 268Antibody Fragments 270Combinatorial Libraries of Antibody Fragments 274A Combinatorial Library of Full-Length Antibodies 277Shuffling CDR Sequences 278Dual-Variable-Domain Antibodies 280Anticancer Antibodies 281Antibodies Against Various Diseases 284Antiobesity Antibodies 287Enhanced Antibody Half-Life 290SUMMARY292REFERENCES 292REVIEWQUESTIONS295Nucleic Acids as Therapeutic Agents 297Targeting Specific mRNA and DNA Sequences299Antisense RNA 299Aptamers 302Ribozymes and DNAzymes 307Interfering RNA 311Zinc Finger Nucleases 315CRISPR-Cas System 317Nanozymes 318Nanoparticles 319Viral Delivery Systems 319Nonviral Delivery Systems 325Direct Injection 325Lipids 327Bacteria 328Dendrimers 331Antibodies 332Aptamers 332Transposons 334Gene Therapy 335Prodrug Activation Therapy 335Promoterless Gene Targeting 337SUMMARY338REFERENCES 339REVIEWQUESTIONS341Vaccines 343Vaccination 343Current and Future Vaccines 345Subunit Vaccines 347Herpes Simplex Virus 348Cholera 350SARS 350Staphylococcus aureus351Human Papillomavirus 353Foot-and-Mouth Virus 354Streptococcus 356Delivery 357Peptide Vaccines 359Malaria 359Genetic Immunization: DNA Vaccines 363Delivery 364Cancer 370Dental Caries 370Attenuated Vaccines 372Herpes Simplex Virus 372Cholera 374Salmonella Species 375Leishmania Species 378Vector Vaccines 378Vaccines Directed against Viruses 378Vaccines Directed against Bacteria 388Bacteria as Antigen Delivery Systems 392Monoclonal Antibody Passive Immunity 396Influenza Virus 396SUMMARY397REFERENCES 398REVIEWQUESTIONS400Industrial and Environmental Uses ofRecombinant Microorganisms 403Restriction Endonucleases 403Small Biological Molecules 405L-Ascorbic Acid 407Indigo 410Amino Acids 412Lycopene 417Antibiotics 418Biopolymers 429Microbial Degradation of Xenobiotics 434Genetic Engineering of Biodegradative Pathways 436Utilization of Starch and Sugars 445Commercial Production of Fructose and Alcohol 446Increasing Alcohol Production 448Improving Fructose Production 453Utilization of Cellulose and Hemicellulose 454Lignocellulosics 455Cellulase Genes 457Direct Conversion of Biomass to Ethanol 462Zymomonas mobilis 464Lipids from Cyanobacteria 467Hydrogen Production 468SUMMARY470REFERENCES 471REVIEWQUESTIONS474Large-Scale Production of Proteins fromRecombinant Microorganisms 475Principles of Microbial Growth 476Batch Fermentation 477Fed-Batch Fermentation 479Continuous Fermentation 480Maximizing The Efficiency of The Fermentation Process 481High-Density Cell Cultures 483Increasing Plasmid Stability 484Quiescent E. Coli Cells 485Protein Secretion 486Reducing Acetate 489Bioreactors 491Typical Large-Scale Fermentation Systems 494Two-Stage Fermentation in Tandem Airlift Reactors 495Two-Stage Fermentation in a Single Stirred-Tank Reactor 496Batch versusFed-Batch Fermentation 498Harvesting Microbial Cells 501Disrupting Microbial Cells 502Downstream Processing 504Protein Solubilization 506Utilizing an Immobilized Enzyme 507Magnetic Separation of Proteins 507Large-Scale Production of Plasmid DNA 508SUMMARY 511REFERENCES 512REVIEW QUESTIONS 51410 Genetic Engineering of Plants: Methodology 515Plant Transformation with the Ti Plasmid ofA. Tumefaciens 516Ti Plasmid-Derived Vector Systems 522Microprojectile Bombardment 526Chloroplast Engineering 527Very High Level Protein Expression 529Use of Reporter Genes in Transformed Plant Cells 532Manipulation of Gene Expression in Plants 533Transient Gene Expression 533Plant Promoters 536Targeted Gene Editing 538Facilitating Protein Purification 539Protein Glycosylation 541Production of Marker-Free Transgenic Plants 542Removing Marker Genes from Nuclear DNA 543Removing Marker Genes from Chloroplast DNA 545SUMMARY 546REFERENCES 547REVIEW QUESTIONS 54911 Transgenic Plants 551Insect Resistance 551B. thuringiensis Insecticidal Toxin 551Increasing Expression of the B. thuringiensis Protoxin 555Other Strategies for Protecting Plants against Insects 558Preventing the Development of B. thuringiensis-ResistantInsects 564Targeting Aphids 569Virus Resistance 570Viral Coat Protein-Mediated Protection 570Protection by Expression of Other Genes 574Herbicide Resistance 578Fungus and Bacterium Resistance 583Salt and Drought Stress 588Fruit Ripening and Flower Wilting 592Modification of Plant Nutritional Content 594Amino Acids 594Lipids 595Vitamins 599Iron 601Gluten 602Modification of Food Plant Taste and Appearance 603Preventing Discoloration 603Starch 605Plants as Bioreactors 608Antibodies 608Poly(3-hydroxybutyric Acid) 610Eddible Vaccines 611Plant Yield 615Altering Lignin Content 615Increasing Oxygen Content 618SUMMARY619REFERENCES 620REVIEWQUESTIONS62412 Transgenic Animals 625Transgenic Mice: Methodology 626DNA Microinjection Method 627Retroviral Vector Method 629Engineered Embryonic Stem Cell Method 631Conditional Gene Inactivation with the Cre-loxPRecombination System 637Genome Editing with the CRISPR-Cas System641Gene Knockdown by RNA Interference 643Transgenic Mice: Applications 644Transgenic Disease Models: Alzheimer Disease 644Transgenic Mice as Test Systems 647Control of Transgene Expression 651Conditional Control of Cell Death 654Transgenic Livestock 656Cloning Livestock by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer 656Production of Pharmaceuticals 658Production of Donor Organs 660Disease Resistant Livestock 661Improving Milk Quality 664Improving Animal Production Traits 665Transgenic Poultry 669Transgenic Fish 673SUMMARY 676REFERENCES 676REVIEW QUESTIONS 67813 Molecular Biotechnology and Society 679Development of Guidelines for RecombinantDNA Research 680Deliberate Release of Genetically ModifiedMicroorganisms 682Environmental Concerns 682Regulations 683Regulation of Genetically Modified Foods 684Food Ingredients Produced by Genetically EngineeredMicroorganisms 684Genetically Modified Crops 687Genetically Engineered Livestock 691Societal Concerns About Genetically Modified Foods 692Alteration of Nutritional Content of Food 692Potential for Introducing Toxins or Allergens into Food 696Potential for Transferring Transgenes from Food to Humansor Intestinal Microorganisms 698Controversy About the Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods 700Impact of Genetically Engineered Crops on Biodiversity 700Who Benefits from Production of Genetically Modified Foods? 703Environmental Benefits of Genetically Modified Crops 704How do Views about Genetically Engineered OrganismsImpact Trade? 705Regulation and Safety of Medical Products ofBiotechnology 706New Biological Drugs 706Genetic and Genomic Testing 709Economic Issues 711Patenting Biotechnology 714Patenting 714Patenting in Different Countries 716Patenting Nucleic Acid Sequences 717Patenting Living Organisms 719Patenting and Fundamental Research 720SUMMARY721REFERENCES 722REVIEWQUESTIONS724Amino Acids of Proteins and Their Designations 725Index 727
Responsibility: Bernard R. Glick, Cheryl L. Patten.


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