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Neuroscience : exploring the brain

Author: Mark F Bear; Barry W Connors; Michael A Paradiso
Publisher: Philadelphia ; Baltimore ; New York : Wolters Kluwer, cop. 2016.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 4th editionView all editions and formats
Summary:
"Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain surveys the organization and function of the human nervous system. We present material at the cutting edge of neuroscience in a way that is accessible to both science and nonscience students alike. The level of the material is comparable to an introductory college text in general biology. The book is divided into four parts: Part I, Foundations; Part II, Sensory and Motor Systems;  Read more...
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Mark F Bear; Barry W Connors; Michael A Paradiso
ISBN: 9781451109542 1451109547
OCLC Number: 912805757
Notes: Contient également un code d'accès pour des ressources en ligne.
Description: 1 vol. (xlii-975 p.) : ill. en noir et en coul., couv. ill. en coul. ; 28 cm
Contents: Pt. I. Foundations --
1. Neuroscience : past, present, and future --
The origins of neuroscience --
Views of the brain in ancient Greece --
Views of the brain during the Roman Empire --
Views of the brain from the Renaissance to the Nineteenth Century --
Nineteenth-Century views of the brain --
Neuroscience today --
Levels of analysis --
Molecular --
Cellular --
Systems --
Behavioral --
Cognitive --
Neuroscientists --
The scientific process --
Use of animals in neuroscience research --
Animal welfare --
Animal rights --
The cost of ignorance : nervous system disorders --
2. Neurons and glia --
The Neuron doctrine --
The Golgi stain --
Cajal's contribution --
The prototypical neuron --
The soma --
The nucleus --
Neuronal genes, genetic variation, and genetic engineering --
Endoplasmic reticulum --
Golgi apparatus --
The mitochondrion --
The neuronal membrane --
The cytoskeleton --
The axon --
Dendrites --
Classifying neurons --
Neuronal structure --
Gene expression --
Glia --
Astrocytes --
Meylinating glia --
Other non-neuronal cells --
3. The neuronal membrane at rest --
The cast of chemicals --
Cytosol and extracellular fluid --
The phospholipid membrane --
Protein --
The movement of ions --
Diffusion --
Electricity --
The ionic basis of the membrane potential --
4. The action potential --
Properties of the action potential --
The action potential, in theory --
Membrane currents and conductances --
The action potential, in reality --
The voltage-gated sodium channel --
Action potential conduction --
Conduction velocity --
Myelin and saltatory conduction --
Action potentials, axons, and dendrites --
5. Synaptic transmission --
Electrical synapses --
Chemical synapses --
Principles of chemical synaptic transmission --
Neurotransmitters --
Principles of synaptic integration --
Neuropharmacology --
6. Neurotransmitter systems --
Transmitter release --
Synaptic mimicry --
Receptors --
Ligand-binding --
Neurotransmitter chemistry --
cholinergic neurons --
Catecholaminergic neurons --
Serotonergic neurons --
Amino acidergic neurons --
Other neurotransmitter candidates and intercellular messengers --
Transmitter-gated channels --
G-protein-coupled receptors and effectors --
Divergence and convergence in neurotransmitter systems --
7. The structure of the nervous system --
Gross organization of the mammalian nervous system --
The central nervous system --
The peripheral nervous system --
The cranial nerves --
The meninges --
The ventricular system --
Understanding CNS structure through development --
Neural tube --
Three primary brain vesicles --
Differentiation of the forebrain --
Midbrain --
Hindbrain --
spinal cord --
Special features of the human CNS --
A guide to the cerebral cortex --
Appendix : an illustrated guide to human neuroanatomy Pt. II. Sensory and motor systems --
8. The chemical senses --
Taste --
Basic tastes --
Organs of taste --
Taste receptor cells --
Mechanisms of taste transduction --
Central taste pathways --
Neural coding of taste --
Smell --
The organs of smell --
Olfactory receptor neurons --
Central olfactory pathways --
Spatial and temporal representations of olfactory information --
9. The eye --
Properties of light --
Light --
Optics --
The structure of the eye --
Gross anatomy of the eye --
Cross-sectional anatomy of the eye --
Image formation by the eye --
Refraction by the cornea --
Accommodation by the lens --
The Pupillary light reflex --
The visual field --
Visual acuity --
Microscopic anatomy of the retina --
Photoreceptor structure --
Phototransduction --
Rods --
cones --
Dark and light adaptation --
Calcium's role --
Local adaptation of dark, light, and color --
Retinal processing and output --
Receptive field --
Bipolar cell receptive fields --
Ganglion cell receptive fields --
Ganglion cell photoreceptors --
Parallel processing --
10. The central visual system --
The retinofugal projection --
The optic nerve, optic chiasm, and optic tract --
Right and left visual hemifields --
Targets of the optic tract --
The lateral geniculate nucleus --
Anatomy of the striate cortex --
Retinotopy --
Cytochrome oxidase blobs --
Physiology of the striate cortex --
Receptive fields --
Parallel pathways and cortical modules --
Beyond the striate cortex --
The dorsal stream --
The ventral stream --
From single neurons to perception --
11. The auditory and vestibular systems --
The nature of sound --
The structure of the auditory system --
The middle ear --
Ossicles --
The attenuation reflex --
The inner ear --
anatomy of the cochlea --
Hair cells and the axons of the auditory nerve --
Central auditory processes --
Auditory pathway --
Encoding sound intensity and frequency --
Stimulus frequency, tonotopy, and phase locking --
Mechanism of sound localization --
Horizontal plane --
Vertical plane --
Auditory cortex --
Neuronal response properties --
Effects of auditory cortical lesions and ablation --
The vestibular system --
The vestibular labyrinth --
The otolith organs --
The semicircular canals --
Central vestibular pathways and vestibular reflexes --
Vestibular pathology --
12. The somatic sensory system --
Touch --
Mechanoreceptors of the skin --
Vibration and the pacinian corpuscle --
Mechanosensitive ion channels --
Primary afferent axons --
The spinal cord --
The dorsal column-medial lemniscal pathway --
The trigeminal touch pathway --
Somatosensory cortex --
Pain --
Nociceptors and the transduction of painful stimuli --
Hyperalgesia and inflammation --
Itch --
Primary afferents and spinal mechanisms --
Ascending pain pathways --
The spinothalamic pain pathway --
The trigeminal pain pathway --
The thalamus and cortex --
The regulation of pain --
Temperature --
Thermoreceptors --
The temperature pathway --
13. Spinal control of movement --
The somatic motor system --
The lower motor neuron --
Alpha motor neurons --
Types of motor units --
Excitation-contraction coupling --
Muscle fiber structure --
Spinal control of motor units --
Proprioception from muscle spindles --
Gamma motor neurons --
Proprioception from golgi tendon organs --
Spinal interneurons --
The generation of spinal motor programs for walking --
14. Brain control of movement --
Descending spinal tracts --
The lateral pathways --
The ventromedial pathways --
The planning of movement by the cerebral cortex --
Motor cortex --
Posterior parietal and prefrontal cortex --
Neuronal correlates of motor planning --
Mirror neurons --
The basal ganglia --
Basal ganglia disorders --
The initiation of movement by primary motor cortex --
The cerebellum --
The motor loop through the lateral cerebellum Pt. III. The brain and behavior --
15. Chemical control of the brain and behavior --
The secretory hypothalamus --
Homeostasis --
Pathways to the pituitary --
The autonomic nervous system --
ANS circuits --
Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions --
The enteric division --
Neurotransmitters and the pharmacology of autonomic function --
Preganglionic neurotransmitters --
Postganglionic neurotransmitters --
The diffuse modulatory systems of the brain --
The serotonergic raphe nuclei --
The dopaminergic substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area --
The cholinergic basal forebrain and brain stem complexes --
Drugs and the diffuse modulatory systems --
Hallucinogens --
Stimulants --
16. Motivation --
The hypothalamus, homeostasis, and motivated behavior --
The long-term regulation of feeding behavior --
energy balance --
Hormonal and hypothalamic regulation of body fat and feeding --
The short-term regulation of feeding behavior --
Appetite, eating digestion, and satiety --
Ghrelin --
Gastric distension --
Cholecystokinin --
Insulin --
Why do we eat? --
Reinforcement and reward --
The role of dopamine in motivation --
Serotonin, food, and mood --
Other motivated behaviors --
Drinking --
Temperature regulation --
17. Sex and the brain --
Sex and gender --
The genetics of sex --
Sex chromosome abnormalities --
Sexual development and differentiation --
The hormonal control of sex --
Principal male and female hormones --
Control of sex hormones by the pituitary and hypothalamus --
The neural basis of sexual behaviors --
Reproductive organs and their control --
Mammalian mating strategies --
The neurochemistry of reproductive behavior --
Love, bonding and the human brain --
Why and how male and female brains differ --
Sexual dimorphisms of the central nervous system --
Sexual dimorphisms of cognition --
Sex hormones, the brain, and behavior --
Direct genetic effects on behavior and sexual differentiation of the brain --
The activational effects of sex hormones --
Brain changes associated with maternal and paternal behavior --
Estrogen effects on neuron function, memory, and disease --
18. Brain mechanisms of emotion --
Early theories and neural representations --
The James-Lange Theory --
The Cannon-Bard Theory --
Implications of unconscious emotion --
The limbic system --
Broca's limbic lobe --
The Papez circuit --
Emotion theories and neural representations --
Basic emotion theories --
Dimensional emotion theories --
What is an emotion? --
Fear and the amygdala --
The Klüver-Bucy Syndrome --
Anatomy of the amygdala --
Effects of amygdala stimulation and lesions --
A neural circuit for learned fear --
Anger and aggression --
The amygdala and aggression --
Neural components of anger and aggression beyond the amygdala --
Anger, aggression, and the hypothalamus --
The midbrain and aggression --
Serotonergic regulation of anger and aggression --
19. Brain rhythms and sleep --
The electroencephalogram --
Recording brain waves --
EEG rhythms --
Mechanisms and meanings of brain rhythms --
Synchronous rhythms --
Seizures of epilepsy --
Sleep --
The functional states of the brain --
The sleep cycle --
Why do we sleep? --
Functions of dreaming and REM sleep --
Neural mechanisms of sleep --
Wakefulness and the ascending reticular activating system --
Falling asleep and the non-REM state --
Mechanism of REM sleep --
Sleep-promoting factors --
Gene expression during sleeping and waking --
Circadian rhythms --
Biological clocks --
The suprachiasmatic nucleus : a brain clock --
20. Language --
What is language? --
Human sound and speech production --
Language in animals --
Language acquisition --
Genes involved in language --
FOXP2 and verbal dyspraxia --
Genetic factors in specific language impairment and dyslexia --
The discovery of specialized language areas in the brain --
Broca's Area and Wernicke's Area --
Language insights from the study of aphasia --
Broca's aphasia --
Wernicke's aphasia --
The Wernicke-Geschwind model of language and aphasia --
Conduction aphasia --
Aphasia in bilinguals and deaf people --
Asymmetrical language processing the two cerebral hemispheres --
Language processing split-brain humans --
Left hemisphere language dominance --
Language functions of the right hemisphere --
anatomical asymmetry and language --
Language studies using brain stimulation and human brain imaging --
21. The resting brain, attention, and consciousness --
Resting state brain activity --
The brain's default mode network --
Attention --
Behavioral consequences of attention --
Physiological effects of attention --
Brain circuits for the control of attention --
The pulvinar --
The frontal eye fields, eye movements, and attention --
Salience and priority maps --
A priority map in the parietal lobe --
The frontoparietal attention network --
22. Mental illness --
Mental illness and the brain --
Psychosocial approaches to mental illness --
Biological approaches to mental illness --
Anxiety disorders --
Panic disorder --
Agoraphobia --
Other disorders characterized by increased anxiety --
Post-traumatic stress disorder --
Obsessive-compulsive disorder --
Biological bases of anxiety disorders --
Treatments of anxiety disorders --
Psychotherapy --
Anxiolytic medications --
Affective disorders --
Major depression --
Bipolar disorder --
Biological bases of affective disorders --
The monoamine hypothesis --
The diathesis-stress hypothesis --
Anterior cingulate cortex dysfunction --
Treatments for affective disorders --
Electroconvulsive therapy --
Psychotherapy --
Antidepressants --
Lithium --
Deep brain stimulation --
Schizophrenia --
Biological bases of schizophrenia --
Genes and the environment --
The dopamine hypothesis --
The glutamate hypothesis --
Treatments for schizophrenia Pt. IV. The changing brain --
23. Wiring the brain --
The genesis of neurons --
Cell proliferation --
Cell migration --
Cell differentiation --
Differentiation of cortical areas --
The genesis of connections --
The growing axon --
Axon guidance --
Synapse formation --
The elimination of cells and synapses --
Cell death --
Changes in synaptic capacity --
Activity-dependent synaptic rearrangement --
Synaptic segregation --
Synaptic convergence --
Synaptic competition --
Modulatory influences --
Elementary mechanisms of cortical synaptic plasticity --
24. Memory systems --
Types of memory and amnesia --
Declarative and nondeclarative memory --
Procedural memory --
Declarative memory --
Amnesia --
Working memory --
The prefrontal cortex and working memory --
Area LIP and working memory --
Declarative memory --
The neocortex and declarative memory --
Hebb and the cell assembly --
Studies implicating the medial temporal lobes --
Temporal lobe amnesia --
Temporal lobectomy and amnesia --
An animal model of human amnesia --
Memory functions of the hippocampal system --
Hippocampal lesions --
Spatial memory, place cells, and grid cells --
Hippocampal functions beyond spatial memory --
Consolidating memories and retaining engrams --
Procedural memory --
The striatum and procedural memory in rodents --
Habit learning in humans and nonhuman primates --
25. Molecular mechanisms of learning and memory --
Memory acquisition --
Cellular reports of memory formation --
Distributed memory storage --
Strengthening synapses --
Anatomy of the hippocampus --
Weakening synapses --
LTP, LTD, and memory --
Synaptic homeostasis --
Metaplasticity --
Synaptic scaling --
Memory consolidation --
Persistently active protein kinases --
Protein synthesis and memory consolidation --
synaptic tagging and capture --
CREB and memory --
Structural plasticity and memory.
Responsibility: Mark F. Bear ... Barry W. Connors ... Michael A. Paradiso ...

Abstract:

"Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain surveys the organization and function of the human nervous system. We present material at the cutting edge of neuroscience in a way that is accessible to both science and nonscience students alike. The level of the material is comparable to an introductory college text in general biology. The book is divided into four parts: Part I, Foundations; Part II, Sensory and Motor Systems; Part III, The Brain and Behavior; and Part IV, The Changing Brain. We begin Part I by introducing the modern field of neuroscience and tracing some of its historical antecedents. Then we take a close look at the structure and function of individual neurons, how they communicate chemically, and how these building blocks are arranged to form a nervous system. In Part II, we go inside the brain to examine the structure and function of the systems that serve the senses and command voluntary movements. In Part III, we explore the neurobiology of human behavior, including motivation, sex, emotion, sleep, language, attention, and mental illness. Finally, in Part IV, we look at how the environment modifies the brain, both during development and in adult learning and memory"--Résumé de l'éditeur.

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   schema:author <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/5982717#Person/connors_barry_w> ; # Barry W. Connors
   schema:author <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/5982717#Person/paradiso_michael_a> ; # Michael A. Paradiso
   schema:bookEdition "4th edition." ;
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   schema:datePublished "2016" ;
   schema:description "Pt. II. Sensory and motor systems -- 8. The chemical senses -- Taste -- Basic tastes -- Organs of taste -- Taste receptor cells -- Mechanisms of taste transduction -- Central taste pathways -- Neural coding of taste -- Smell -- The organs of smell -- Olfactory receptor neurons -- Central olfactory pathways -- Spatial and temporal representations of olfactory information -- 9. The eye -- Properties of light -- Light -- Optics -- The structure of the eye -- Gross anatomy of the eye -- Cross-sectional anatomy of the eye -- Image formation by the eye -- Refraction by the cornea -- Accommodation by the lens -- The Pupillary light reflex -- The visual field -- Visual acuity -- Microscopic anatomy of the retina -- Photoreceptor structure -- Phototransduction -- Rods -- cones -- Dark and light adaptation -- Calcium's role -- Local adaptation of dark, light, and color -- Retinal processing and output -- Receptive field -- Bipolar cell receptive fields -- Ganglion cell receptive fields -- Ganglion cell photoreceptors -- Parallel processing -- 10. The central visual system -- The retinofugal projection -- The optic nerve, optic chiasm, and optic tract -- Right and left visual hemifields -- Targets of the optic tract -- The lateral geniculate nucleus -- Anatomy of the striate cortex -- Retinotopy -- Cytochrome oxidase blobs -- Physiology of the striate cortex -- Receptive fields -- Parallel pathways and cortical modules -- Beyond the striate cortex -- The dorsal stream -- The ventral stream -- From single neurons to perception -- 11. The auditory and vestibular systems -- The nature of sound -- The structure of the auditory system -- The middle ear -- Ossicles -- The attenuation reflex -- The inner ear -- anatomy of the cochlea -- Hair cells and the axons of the auditory nerve -- Central auditory processes -- Auditory pathway -- Encoding sound intensity and frequency -- Stimulus frequency, tonotopy, and phase locking -- Mechanism of sound localization -- Horizontal plane -- Vertical plane -- Auditory cortex -- Neuronal response properties -- Effects of auditory cortical lesions and ablation -- The vestibular system -- The vestibular labyrinth -- The otolith organs -- The semicircular canals -- Central vestibular pathways and vestibular reflexes -- Vestibular pathology -- 12. The somatic sensory system -- Touch -- Mechanoreceptors of the skin -- Vibration and the pacinian corpuscle -- Mechanosensitive ion channels -- Primary afferent axons -- The spinal cord -- The dorsal column-medial lemniscal pathway -- The trigeminal touch pathway -- Somatosensory cortex -- Pain -- Nociceptors and the transduction of painful stimuli -- Hyperalgesia and inflammation -- Itch -- Primary afferents and spinal mechanisms -- Ascending pain pathways -- The spinothalamic pain pathway -- The trigeminal pain pathway -- The thalamus and cortex -- The regulation of pain -- Temperature -- Thermoreceptors -- The temperature pathway -- 13. Spinal control of movement -- The somatic motor system -- The lower motor neuron -- Alpha motor neurons -- Types of motor units -- Excitation-contraction coupling -- Muscle fiber structure -- Spinal control of motor units -- Proprioception from muscle spindles -- Gamma motor neurons -- Proprioception from golgi tendon organs -- Spinal interneurons -- The generation of spinal motor programs for walking -- 14. Brain control of movement -- Descending spinal tracts -- The lateral pathways -- The ventromedial pathways -- The planning of movement by the cerebral cortex -- Motor cortex -- Posterior parietal and prefrontal cortex -- Neuronal correlates of motor planning -- Mirror neurons -- The basal ganglia -- Basal ganglia disorders -- The initiation of movement by primary motor cortex -- The cerebellum -- The motor loop through the lateral cerebellum" ;
   schema:description "Pt. I. Foundations -- 1. Neuroscience : past, present, and future -- The origins of neuroscience -- Views of the brain in ancient Greece -- Views of the brain during the Roman Empire -- Views of the brain from the Renaissance to the Nineteenth Century -- Nineteenth-Century views of the brain -- Neuroscience today -- Levels of analysis -- Molecular -- Cellular -- Systems -- Behavioral -- Cognitive -- Neuroscientists -- The scientific process -- Use of animals in neuroscience research -- Animal welfare -- Animal rights -- The cost of ignorance : nervous system disorders -- 2. Neurons and glia -- The Neuron doctrine -- The Golgi stain -- Cajal's contribution -- The prototypical neuron -- The soma -- The nucleus -- Neuronal genes, genetic variation, and genetic engineering -- Endoplasmic reticulum -- Golgi apparatus -- The mitochondrion -- The neuronal membrane -- The cytoskeleton -- The axon -- Dendrites -- Classifying neurons -- Neuronal structure -- Gene expression -- Glia -- Astrocytes -- Meylinating glia -- Other non-neuronal cells -- 3. The neuronal membrane at rest -- The cast of chemicals -- Cytosol and extracellular fluid -- The phospholipid membrane -- Protein -- The movement of ions -- Diffusion -- Electricity -- The ionic basis of the membrane potential -- 4. The action potential -- Properties of the action potential -- The action potential, in theory -- Membrane currents and conductances -- The action potential, in reality -- The voltage-gated sodium channel -- Action potential conduction -- Conduction velocity -- Myelin and saltatory conduction -- Action potentials, axons, and dendrites -- 5. Synaptic transmission -- Electrical synapses -- Chemical synapses -- Principles of chemical synaptic transmission -- Neurotransmitters -- Principles of synaptic integration -- Neuropharmacology -- 6. Neurotransmitter systems -- Transmitter release -- Synaptic mimicry -- Receptors -- Ligand-binding -- Neurotransmitter chemistry -- cholinergic neurons -- Catecholaminergic neurons -- Serotonergic neurons -- Amino acidergic neurons -- Other neurotransmitter candidates and intercellular messengers -- Transmitter-gated channels -- G-protein-coupled receptors and effectors -- Divergence and convergence in neurotransmitter systems -- 7. The structure of the nervous system -- Gross organization of the mammalian nervous system -- The central nervous system -- The peripheral nervous system -- The cranial nerves -- The meninges -- The ventricular system -- Understanding CNS structure through development -- Neural tube -- Three primary brain vesicles -- Differentiation of the forebrain -- Midbrain -- Hindbrain -- spinal cord -- Special features of the human CNS -- A guide to the cerebral cortex -- Appendix : an illustrated guide to human neuroanatomy" ;
   schema:description "Pt. IV. The changing brain -- 23. Wiring the brain -- The genesis of neurons -- Cell proliferation -- Cell migration -- Cell differentiation -- Differentiation of cortical areas -- The genesis of connections -- The growing axon -- Axon guidance -- Synapse formation -- The elimination of cells and synapses -- Cell death -- Changes in synaptic capacity -- Activity-dependent synaptic rearrangement -- Synaptic segregation -- Synaptic convergence -- Synaptic competition -- Modulatory influences -- Elementary mechanisms of cortical synaptic plasticity -- 24. Memory systems -- Types of memory and amnesia -- Declarative and nondeclarative memory -- Procedural memory -- Declarative memory -- Amnesia -- Working memory -- The prefrontal cortex and working memory -- Area LIP and working memory -- Declarative memory -- The neocortex and declarative memory -- Hebb and the cell assembly -- Studies implicating the medial temporal lobes -- Temporal lobe amnesia -- Temporal lobectomy and amnesia -- An animal model of human amnesia -- Memory functions of the hippocampal system -- Hippocampal lesions -- Spatial memory, place cells, and grid cells -- Hippocampal functions beyond spatial memory -- Consolidating memories and retaining engrams -- Procedural memory -- The striatum and procedural memory in rodents -- Habit learning in humans and nonhuman primates -- 25. Molecular mechanisms of learning and memory -- Memory acquisition -- Cellular reports of memory formation -- Distributed memory storage -- Strengthening synapses -- Anatomy of the hippocampus -- Weakening synapses -- LTP, LTD, and memory -- Synaptic homeostasis -- Metaplasticity -- Synaptic scaling -- Memory consolidation -- Persistently active protein kinases -- Protein synthesis and memory consolidation -- synaptic tagging and capture -- CREB and memory -- Structural plasticity and memory." ;
   schema:description ""Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain surveys the organization and function of the human nervous system. We present material at the cutting edge of neuroscience in a way that is accessible to both science and nonscience students alike. The level of the material is comparable to an introductory college text in general biology. The book is divided into four parts: Part I, Foundations; Part II, Sensory and Motor Systems; Part III, The Brain and Behavior; and Part IV, The Changing Brain. We begin Part I by introducing the modern field of neuroscience and tracing some of its historical antecedents. Then we take a close look at the structure and function of individual neurons, how they communicate chemically, and how these building blocks are arranged to form a nervous system. In Part II, we go inside the brain to examine the structure and function of the systems that serve the senses and command voluntary movements. In Part III, we explore the neurobiology of human behavior, including motivation, sex, emotion, sleep, language, attention, and mental illness. Finally, in Part IV, we look at how the environment modifies the brain, both during development and in adult learning and memory"--Résumé de l'éditeur." ;
   schema:description "Pt. III. The brain and behavior -- 15. Chemical control of the brain and behavior -- The secretory hypothalamus -- Homeostasis -- Pathways to the pituitary -- The autonomic nervous system -- ANS circuits -- Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions -- The enteric division -- Neurotransmitters and the pharmacology of autonomic function -- Preganglionic neurotransmitters -- Postganglionic neurotransmitters -- The diffuse modulatory systems of the brain -- The serotonergic raphe nuclei -- The dopaminergic substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area -- The cholinergic basal forebrain and brain stem complexes -- Drugs and the diffuse modulatory systems -- Hallucinogens -- Stimulants -- 16. Motivation -- The hypothalamus, homeostasis, and motivated behavior -- The long-term regulation of feeding behavior -- energy balance -- Hormonal and hypothalamic regulation of body fat and feeding -- The short-term regulation of feeding behavior -- Appetite, eating digestion, and satiety -- Ghrelin -- Gastric distension -- Cholecystokinin -- Insulin -- Why do we eat? -- Reinforcement and reward -- The role of dopamine in motivation -- Serotonin, food, and mood -- Other motivated behaviors -- Drinking -- Temperature regulation -- 17. Sex and the brain -- Sex and gender -- The genetics of sex -- Sex chromosome abnormalities -- Sexual development and differentiation -- The hormonal control of sex -- Principal male and female hormones -- Control of sex hormones by the pituitary and hypothalamus -- The neural basis of sexual behaviors -- Reproductive organs and their control -- Mammalian mating strategies -- The neurochemistry of reproductive behavior -- Love, bonding and the human brain -- Why and how male and female brains differ -- Sexual dimorphisms of the central nervous system -- Sexual dimorphisms of cognition -- Sex hormones, the brain, and behavior -- Direct genetic effects on behavior and sexual differentiation of the brain -- The activational effects of sex hormones -- Brain changes associated with maternal and paternal behavior -- Estrogen effects on neuron function, memory, and disease -- 18. Brain mechanisms of emotion -- Early theories and neural representations -- The James-Lange Theory -- The Cannon-Bard Theory -- Implications of unconscious emotion -- The limbic system -- Broca's limbic lobe -- The Papez circuit -- Emotion theories and neural representations -- Basic emotion theories -- Dimensional emotion theories -- What is an emotion? -- Fear and the amygdala -- The Klüver-Bucy Syndrome -- Anatomy of the amygdala -- Effects of amygdala stimulation and lesions -- A neural circuit for learned fear -- Anger and aggression -- The amygdala and aggression -- Neural components of anger and aggression beyond the amygdala -- Anger, aggression, and the hypothalamus -- The midbrain and aggression -- Serotonergic regulation of anger and aggression -- 19. Brain rhythms and sleep -- The electroencephalogram -- Recording brain waves -- EEG rhythms -- Mechanisms and meanings of brain rhythms -- Synchronous rhythms -- Seizures of epilepsy -- Sleep -- The functional states of the brain -- The sleep cycle -- Why do we sleep? -- Functions of dreaming and REM sleep -- Neural mechanisms of sleep -- Wakefulness and the ascending reticular activating system -- Falling asleep and the non-REM state -- Mechanism of REM sleep -- Sleep-promoting factors -- Gene expression during sleeping and waking -- Circadian rhythms -- Biological clocks -- The suprachiasmatic nucleus : a brain clock -- 20. Language -- What is language? -- Human sound and speech production -- Language in animals -- Language acquisition -- Genes involved in language -- FOXP2 and verbal dyspraxia -- Genetic factors in specific language impairment and dyslexia -- The discovery of specialized language areas in the brain -- Broca's Area and Wernicke's Area -- Language insights from the study of aphasia -- Broca's aphasia -- Wernicke's aphasia -- The Wernicke-Geschwind model of language and aphasia -- Conduction aphasia -- Aphasia in bilinguals and deaf people -- Asymmetrical language processing the two cerebral hemispheres -- Language processing split-brain humans -- Left hemisphere language dominance -- Language functions of the right hemisphere -- anatomical asymmetry and language -- Language studies using brain stimulation and human brain imaging -- 21. The resting brain, attention, and consciousness -- Resting state brain activity -- The brain's default mode network -- Attention -- Behavioral consequences of attention -- Physiological effects of attention -- Brain circuits for the control of attention -- The pulvinar -- The frontal eye fields, eye movements, and attention -- Salience and priority maps -- A priority map in the parietal lobe -- The frontoparietal attention network -- 22. Mental illness -- Mental illness and the brain -- Psychosocial approaches to mental illness -- Biological approaches to mental illness -- Anxiety disorders -- Panic disorder -- Agoraphobia -- Other disorders characterized by increased anxiety -- Post-traumatic stress disorder -- Obsessive-compulsive disorder -- Biological bases of anxiety disorders -- Treatments of anxiety disorders -- Psychotherapy -- Anxiolytic medications -- Affective disorders -- Major depression -- Bipolar disorder -- Biological bases of affective disorders -- The monoamine hypothesis -- The diathesis-stress hypothesis -- Anterior cingulate cortex dysfunction -- Treatments for affective disorders -- Electroconvulsive therapy -- Psychotherapy -- Antidepressants -- Lithium -- Deep brain stimulation -- Schizophrenia -- Biological bases of schizophrenia -- Genes and the environment -- The dopamine hypothesis -- The glutamate hypothesis -- Treatments for schizophrenia" ;
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