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The Norton introduction to philosophy

Author: Gideon A Rosen; Alex Byrne; Joshua Cohen; Seana Valentine Shiffrin
Publisher: New York : W.W. Norton & Company, [2018]
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : Second editionView all editions and formats
Summary:

Philosophy made accessible for introductory students.

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Genre/Form: Textbooks
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Gideon A Rosen; Alex Byrne; Joshua Cohen; Seana Valentine Shiffrin
ISBN: 9780393624427 0393624420
OCLC Number: 1020701924
Description: liv, 1175 pages ; 24 cm
Contents: pt. I. Philosophy of religion --
1. Does God exist? --
The ontological argument, from 'Proslogion' / Anslem of Canterbury --
The five ways, from 'Summa theologica' / Thomas Aquinas --
The argument from design, from 'Natural theology' / William Paley --
The argument from cosmological fine-tuning / Roger White --
Analyzing the arguments --
2. Is it reasonable to believe without evidence? --
Introduction --
The wager, from 'Pensées' / Blaise Pascal --
Pascal's ultimate gamble / Alan Hájek --
The will to believe / William James --
Is belief in God properly basic? / Alvin Plantinga --
Analyzing the arguments --
pt. II. Epistemology --
3. What is knowledge? --
Introduction --
Meno / Plato --
Is justified true belief knowledge? / Edmund Gettier --
Evidence one does not possess, from 'Thought' / Gilbert Harman --
The inescapability of Gettier problems / Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski --
Knowledge and belief / Timothy Williamson --
Analyzing the arguments --
4. How can we know about what we have not observed? --
Introduction --
Sceptical doubts concerning the operations of the understanding, and sceptical solution of these doubts, from 'An enquiry concerning human understanding, sections IV-V / David Hume --
The "justification" of induction, from 'Introduction to logical theory' / P.F. Strawson --
The problem of induction, from 'Replies to my critics / Karl Popper --
The new riddle of induction, from 'Fact, fiction, and forecast' / Nelson Goodman --
The inference to the best explanation / Gilbert Harman --
Analyzing the arguments --
5. How can we know what causes what? --
Introduction --
Of the idea of necessary connexion, from 'An enquiry concerning human understanding / David Hume --
The visual experience of causation / Susanna Siegel --
The method of difference, from 'System of logic / John Stuart Mill --
Causation and correlation / Ned Hall --
Analyzing the arguments --
6. How can you know your own mind, or the mind of another person? --
Introduction --
The analogical inference to other minds / Alec Hyslop and Frank Cameron Jackson --
Wittgenstein and other minds, from 'Wittgenstein on rules and private language' / Saul Kripke --
Man seen from the outside, from 'The world of perception' / Maurice Merleau-Ponty --
Introspection, from 'A materialism theory of the mind' --
Self-knowledge, from 'The concept of mind' / Gilbert Ryle --
Skepticism about the internal world / Alex Byrne --
Analyzing the arguments --
7. How can we know about the external world? --
Introduction --
Meditation I: what can be called into doubt, from 'Meditations on first philosophy' / René Descartes --
Of scepticism with regard to the senses / David Hume --
Proof of an external world / George Edward Moore --
Contextualism / Stewart Cohen --
Skepticism and inference to the best explanation / Jonathan Vogel --
Ignorance of things in themselves / Rae Langton --
Analyzing the arguments --
pt. III. Metaphysics and the philosophy of mind --
8. Is mind material? --
Introduction --
Meditation II: the nature of the human mind, and how it is better known than the body, and meditation VI : ... the real distinction between mind and body, from 'Meditations on first philosophy' / René Descartes --
Descartes' myth, from 'The concept of mind' / Gilbert Ryle --
Sensations and brain processes / J.J.C. Smart --
The nature of mental states / Hilary Putnam --
Can computers think?, from 'Minds, brains, and science' / John Searle --
Analyzing the arguments --
9. What is consciousness? --
Introduction --
What is it like to be a bat? / Thomas Nagel --
Epiphenomenal qualia / Frank Jackson --
Postscript on qualia / Frank Jackson --
Are mental states irreducible to neurobiological states?, from 'Neurophilosophy' / Patricia Smith Churchland --
The hard problem of consciousness / David Chalmers --
The puzzle of transparency / Michael Tye --
Analyzing the arguments --
10. What is color? --
Introduction --
Some further considerations concering our simple ideas, from 'An essay concerning human understanding' / John Locke --
The secondary qualities, from 'A materialist theory of mind' / D.M. Armstrong --
Are "scientific" objects coloured? / C.L. Hardin --
Secondary qualities, from 'The subjective view' / Colin McGinn --
Analyzing the arguments --
11. What is there? --
Introduction --
Fiction and metaphysics / Peter Van Inwagen --
Numbers and other immaterial objects / Gideon Rosen --
A thing and its matter / Stephen Yablo --
Science and metaphysics / Tim Maudlin --
Analyzing the arguments --
12. What is personal identity? --
Introduction --
Of identity and diversity, from 'An essay concerning human understanding' / John Locke --
The dualist theory, from 'Personal identity' / Richard Swinburne --
Personal identity, from 'Reasons and persons' / Derek Parfit --
The self and the future / Bernard Williams --
Analyzing the arguments --
pt IV. From metaphysics to ethics --
13. Do we possess free will? --
Introduction --
Free will / Galen Strawson --
Human freedom and the self / Roderick Chisholm --
Freedom and necessity / A.J. Ayer --
Alternate possibilities and moral responsibility / Harry Frankfurt --
Asymmetrical freedom / Susan Wolf --
Freedom and resentment / P.F. Strawson --
Analyzing the arguments --
14. Is morality objective? --
Introduction --
The subjectivity of values, from 'Ethics: inventing right and wrong' / J.L. Mackie --
Moral subjectivism / R. Jay Wallace --
Ethics, from 'The last word' / Thomas Nagel --
Moral relativism / Philippa Foot --
Does anything really matter or did we just evolve to think so? / Sharon Street --
Analyzing the arguments --
pt. V. Ethics and political philosophy --
15. Why do what is right? --
Introduction --
The republic / Plato --
Why ought we do what is right? / Judith Jarvis Thomson --
Of the passions and of morals, from 'Treatise of human nature, books II and III' ; Why utility pleases, from 'An enquiry concerning the principles of morals' / David Hume --
Groundwork of the metaphysics of morals / Immanuel Kant --
Analyzing the arguments --
16. How do we reason about what is right? --
Introduction --
Utilitarianism / John Stuart Mill --
Groundwork of the metaphysics of morals / Immanuel Kant --
Contractualism and utilitarianism / Thomas M. Scanlon --
Virtue ethics / Rosalind Hursthouse --
A theory of justice / John Rawls --
Is it reasonable to "rely on institutions" in ethics? / Elizabeth Harman --
On the genealogy of morals, beyond good and evil, and the gay science / Friedrich Nietzsche --
Analyzing the arguments --
17. Do your intentions matter? --
Introduction --
Of justice and injustice, from "A treatise of human nature' / David Hume --
Mr. Truman's degree / G.E.M. Anscombe --
When do intentions matter to permissibility? / Thomas M. Scanlon --
Impermissibility and wrongness / Barbara Herman --
Analyzing the arguments --
18. What is the right thing to do? --
Introduction --
Famine, affluence, and morality / Peter Singer --
The moral perplexities of famine and world hunger / Onora O'Neill --
A defense of abortion / Judith Jarvis Thomson --
Why abortion is immoral / Don Marquis --
War and massacre / Thomas Nagel --
On the killing of civilians in wartime, from 'The law of peoples' / John Rawls --
Analyzing the arguments --
19. How can the state be justified? --
Introduction --
Politics / Aristotle --
Leviathan / Thomas Hobbes --
The social contract / Jean-Jacques Rousseau --
Rights-based justifications for the state / A. John Simmons --
The utilitarian justification of the state / David Lyons --
Analyzing the arguments --
20. What is the value of liberty? --
Introduction --
A letter concering toleration / John Locke --
On liberty / John Stuart Mill --
Morals and the criminal law / Patrick Devlin --
Elements of a theory of human rights / Amartya Sen --
Analyzing the arguments --
21. Does justice require equality? --
Introduction --
Two principles of justice, from 'A theory of justice' / John Rawls --
Equality as a moral ideal / Harry Frankfurt --
Political equality / Martha Nussbaum --
Equality as a basic demand of justice / Johnathan Wolff --
Distributive justice, from 'Anarchy, state, and utopia' / Robert Nozick --
Analyzing the arguments --
A brief guide to logic and argumentation --
Some guidelines for writing philosophy papers --
Glossary --
Credits --
Name index.
Responsibility: Gideon Rosen, Princeton University ; Alex Byrne, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ; Joshua Cohen, Apple University ; Elizabeth Harman, Princeton University ; Seana Valentine Shiffrin, University of California, Los Angeles.

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