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Nuclear and radiochemistry

Author: József Kónya; Noémi M Nagy
Publisher: Amsterdam, Netherlands ; Cambridge, MA, United States : Elsevier, [2018]
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : Second edition
Summary:
Nuclear and Radiochemistry, Second Edition, is a comprehensive and thorough reference that features the latest developments in the field, especially in radionuclide production, nuclear medicine and the application of natural radiotracers. Drawing on 40 years of experience in teaching and research, this revised edition explains the basic principles and applications of the primary areas of nuclear and radiochemistry.  Read more...
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: József Kónya; Noémi M Nagy
ISBN: 9780128136430 012813643X
OCLC Number: 1032316254
Description: xvi, 464 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Contents: Note continued: 12.2.1. Comparison of Methods for In Vitro Measurement of Concentrations --
12.2.2. Measurement of Tracers and Contrast Materials Inside the Organism by External Detectors --
12.2.3. Production of Artificial Radionuclides --
12.2.4. How Do You Choose Radiotracers for Medical Applications? --
12.2.5. Types of Electromagnetic Radiation --
12.2.6. Most Common Radionuclides in Nuclear Medicine --
12.2.7. Theranostics --
12.3. In Vitro Diagnostics with Radioisotopes --
12.3.1. Basic Reaction of Immunoassays --
12.3.2. Immunometric ("Sandwich") Assay --
12.4. Radionuclide Imaging --
12.4.1. Parts of a Gamma Camera --
12.4.2. Digital Gamma Cameras --
12.4.3. Methods for Emission Imaging --
12.4.4. Computer-Aided Processing of Nuclear Medical Images --
12.5. Some Examples of Gamma Camera Imaging Procedures --
12.5.1. Thyroid Scintigraphy --
12.5.2. Tumor Imaging --
12.5.3. Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy --
12.5.4. SPECT Imaging of Epilepsy --
12.6. Positron Emission Tomography --
12.6.1. The PET Camera --
12.6.2. 18 F-FDG PET Studies with PET-CT --
12.6.3. Research Studies Using PET --
12.6.4. Imaging Myocardial Metabolism --
Further Reading --
ch. 13 Environmental Radioactivity --
13.1. Natural Radioactive Isotopes --
13.2. Radioactive Isotopes of Anthropogenic Origin --
13.3. Occurrence of Radioactive Isotopes in the Environment --
13.3.1. Radioactivity in the Atmosphere --
13.3.2. Radioactivity in the Hydrosphere --
13.3.3. Radioactivity in the Lithosphere --
13.3.4. Radioactive Isotopes in Living Organisms --
13.4. Biological Effects of Radiation --
13.4.1. Dose Units --
13.4.2. Mechanism of Biological Effects --
13.4.3. The Natural Background of Radiation --
13.4.4. Effects of Radiation on Living Organisms --
Further Reading --
ch. 14 Detection and Measurement of Radioactivity --
14.1. Gas-Filled Tubes --
14.2. Scintillation Detectors --
14.2.1. Scintillator Materials --
14.2.2. Photomultipliers --
14.3. Semiconductor Detectors --
14.4. Electric Circuits Connected to Detectors --
14.5. Track and Other Detectors --
14.5.1. Cloud Chambers and Bubble Chambers --
14.5.2. Autoradiography --
14.5.3. Solid-State Detectors --
14.5.4. Chemical Dosimeters --
14.5.5. Detection of Neutrons by Nuclear Reactions --
14.6. Absolute Measurement of Decomposition --
14.7. Statistics of Radioactive Decay --
14.7.1. Statistical Error of Radioactivity Measurement --
14.7.2. Correction of Background Radioactivity --
Further Reading. Machine generated contents note: ch. 1 Introduction --
Further Reading --
ch. 2 Basic Concepts --
2.1. Atomic Nuclei --
2.1.1. Components of Nuclei --
2.2. Forces in the Nucleus --
2.3. Other Properties of Nuclei --
2.4. Elementary or Composite Particles --
2.5. Models of Nuclei --
2.5.1. The Liquid-Drop Model --
2.5.2. The Shell Model --
2.5.3. Unified and Collective Models --
Further Reading --
ch. 3 Isotopes --
3.1. Isotopic Effects --
3.1.1. Physical Isotope Effects --
3.1.2. Spectroscopic Isotope Effects --
3.1.3. Phase Equilibrium Isotope Effects --
3.1.4. Isotope Effects in the Kinetics of Chemical Reactions --
3.1.5. The Isotope Effect in a Chemical Equilibrium --
3.1.6. Biological Isotope Effects --
3.2. Separation of Isotopes --
3.3. Isotope Composition in Nature --
3.4. Study of Geological Formations and Processes by Stable Isotope Ratios --
3.4.1. Study of the Temperature and Age of Geological Formations --
3.4.2. Study of the Hydrological Process by Measuring the Ratio of Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotopes --
3.4.3. Changes in the Isotope Ratio of Nitrogen --
3.4.4. Isotope Ratios of Carbon --
3.4.5. Stable Isotope Ratios in Ecological Studies --
Further Reading --
ch. 4 Radioactive Decay --
4.1. Kinetics of Radioactive Decay --
4.1.1. Statistics of Simple Radioactive Decay --
4.1.2. Activity and Intensity --
4.1.3. Decay of Independent (Mixed) Nuclei --
4.1.4. Branching Decay --
4.1.5. Kinetics of Successive Decay --
4.1.6. Radioactive Equilibria --
4.2. Radioactive Decay Series --
4.3. Radioactive Dating --
4.3.1. Radioactive Dating by Lead Isotope Ratios --
4.3.2. Dating of Sediments by 210Pb Radioactivity --
4.3.3. Radioactive Dating by Helium Concentration --
4.3.4. Radioactive Dating by Fission of Uranium --
4.3.5. Radioactive Dating by Argon Concentration --
4.3.6. Radioactive Dating by 87Rb-87Sr, Parent-Daughter Pairs --
4.3.7. Radiocarbon Dating --
4.4. Mechanism of Radioactive Decay --
4.4.1. Alpha Decay --
4.4.2. Beta Decays --
4.4.3. Electron Capture --
4.4.4. Proton and Neutron Decay --
4.4.5. Spontaneous Fission --
4.4.6. Isomeric Transition (IT) --
4.4.7. Exotic Decay --
Further Reading --
ch. 5 Interaction of Radiation With Matter --
5.1. Basic Concepts --
5.2. Interaction of Alpha Particles With Matter --
5.2.1. Energy Loss of Alpha Particles --
5.2.2. Backscattering of Alpha Particles --
5.3. Interaction of Beta Radiation With Matter --
5.3.1. Interaction of Beta Particles With Orbital Electrons and the Nuclear Field --
5.3.2. Cherenkov Radiation --
5.3.3. Annihilation of Positrons --
5.3.4. Absorption of Beta Radiation --
5.3.5. Self-Absorption of Beta Radiation --
5.3.6. Backscattering of Beta Radiation --
5.4. Interaction of Gamma Radiation With Matter --
5.4.1. Rayleigh Scattering --
5.4.2. Thomson Scattering --
5.4.3. Compton Scattering --
5.4.4. The Photoelectric Effect --
5.4.5. Pair Formation --
5.4.6. Total Absorption of Gamma Radiation --
5.4.7. Resonance Absorption of Nuclei and the Mossbauer Effect --
5.5. Interaction of Neutrons With Matter --
5.5.1. Discovery of Neutrons --
5.5.2. Production of Neutrons --
5.5.3. Interaction of Neutrons With Matter --
Further Reading --
ch. 6 Nuclear Reactions --
6.1. Kinetics of Nuclear Reactions --
6.2. Classification of Nuclear Reactions --
6.2.1. Nuclear Reactions With Neutrons --
6.2.2. Nuclear Reactions With Gamma Photons --
6.2.3. Nuclear Reactions With Charged Particles --
6.2.4. Thermonuclear Reactions --
6.2.5. Nucleogenesis: The Production of Elements in the Universe --
6.2.6. Production of Transuranium Elements --
6.3. General Scheme of Radionuclide Production by Nuclear Reactions and Radioactive Decay --
6.4. Chemical Effects of Nuclear Reactions --
Further Reading --
ch. 7 Nuclear Energy Production --
7.1. Nuclear Power Plants --
7.1.1. The Main Parts of Nuclear Reactors --
7.1.2. Natural Nuclear Reactors --
7.1.3. The First Artificial Nuclear Reactor --
7.1.4. Types of Nuclear Reactors --
7.1.5. Environmental Impacts of Nuclear Reactors --
7.2. Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants --
7.3. Storage and Treatment of Spent Fuel and Other Radioactive Waste --
7.3.1. Storage of Low- and Intermediate-Level Nuclear Waste --
7.3.2. Treatment and Storage of High-Level Nuclear Waste --
7.4. New Trends in Nuclear Energy Production --
7.4.1. Improvement of the Fission in Nuclear Power Plants --
7.4.2. Experiments with Fusion Energy Production --
7.5. Nuclear Weapons --
Further Reading --
ch. 8 Radioactive Tracer Methods --
8.1. History of Radioactive Tracer Methods --
8.2. Basic Concepts --
8.3. Selection of Tracers --
8.4. Position of the Labeling Atom in a Molecule --
8.5. General Methods for the Preparation of Radioactive Tracers --
8.5.1. Tracers Received From Radioactive Decay Series --
8.5.2. Artificial Radioactive Tracers --
8.6. Radioactive Isotopes in Tracer Methods --
8.6.1. Tritium --
8.6.2. Carbon-14 --
8.6.3. Isotopes Used in Medical PET --
8.6.4. Sodium Isotopes --
8.6.5. Magnesium-28 --
8.6.6. Aluminum-28 --
8.6.7. Phosphorus-32 --
8.6.8. Sulfur-35 --
8.6.9. Chlorine-36 --
8.6.10. Potassium Isotopes --
8.6.11. Calcium-45 --
8.6.12. Chromium-51 --
8.6.13. Manganese-54 --
8.6.14. Iron Isotopes --
8.6.15. Cobalt-60 --
8.6.16. Nickel-63 --
8.6.17. Copper Isotopes --
8.6.18. Zinc-65 --
8.6.19. Gallium and Germanium Isotopes --
8.6.20. Arsenic isotopes --
8.6.21. Radioactive Isotopes of Selenium, Bromine, and Rare Earth Elements --
8.6.22. Bromine Isotopes --
8.6.23. Krypton-85 --
8.6.24. Rubidium-86 --
8.6.25. Strontium Isotopes --
8.6.26. Yttrium-90 --
8.6.27. Technetium-99m --
8.6.28. Rutenium, Rhodium, and Palladium Isotopes --
8.6.29. Silver Isotopes --
8.6.30. Cadmium-115m --
8.6.31. Indium Isotopes --
8.6.32. Iodine Isotopes --
8.6.33. Xenon Isotopes --
8.6.34. Cesium Isotopes --
8.6.35. Renium-186 --
8.6.36. Iridium-192 --
8.6.37. Gold-198 --
8.6.38. Mercury-203 --
8.6.39. Isotopes of Elements Heavier than Mercury --
8.6.40. Transuranium Elements --
8.7. The Main Steps of the Production of Unsealed Radioactive Preparations (Lajos Baranyai) --
8.7.1. Unsealed Radioactive Preparations Using Reactor Irradiation --
8.7.2. Unsealed Radioisotope Preparations Based on Cyclotron Irradiation --
8.7.3. Quality Control of Unsealed Radioactive Preparations --
8.8. Production of Encapsulated Radioactive Preparations (Sealed Sources) (Lajos Baranyai) --
8.8.1. The Main Steps of the Production of Sealed Radioactive Sources --
8.8.2. Quality Control of Sealed Radioactive Sources --
8.9. Facilities, Equipment, and Tools Serving for Production of Radioactive Substances (Lajos Baranyai) --
Further Reading --
ch. 9 Physicochemical Application of Radiotracer Methods --
9.1. The Thermodynamic Concept of Classification (Distribution of Radioactive and Stable Isotopes) --
9.2. Classification of Tracer Methods --
9.3. Physicochemical Applications of Tracer Methods --
9.3.1. Solubility Measurements --
9.3.2. Measurements of the Rate of Migration, Diffusion, and Self-Diffusion --
9.3.3. Isotope Exchange Reactions --
9.3.4. Study of Interfacial Reactions --
9.3.5. Coprecipitation --
9.3.6. Tracer Techniques in Electrochemistry --
Further Reading --
ch. 10 Radio- and Nuclear Analysis --
10.1. Radioactive Isotopes as Tracers --
10.1.1. The Measurement of Concentration Using Natural Radioactive Isotopes --
10.1.2. Determination of Yield of Separation Reactions by Radioactive Tracers --
10.1.3. Solubility Measurements --
10.1.4. Radiochromatography --
10.1.5. Radiometric Titration --
10.1.6. Isotope Dilution Methods --
10.2. Radioanalytical Methods Using the Interaction of Radiation with Matter --
10.2.1. Basic Concepts --
10.2.2. Analytical Methods Using Irradiations with Neutrons --
10.2.3. Irradiation with X-Ray and Gamma Photons --
10.2.4. Irradiation with Electron and Beta Radiation --
10.2.5. Irradiation with Charged Particles --
Further Reading --
ch. 11 Industrial Application of Radioisotopes / Lajos Baranyai --
11.1. Introduction --
11.2. Tracer Investigations With Open/Unsealed Radioisotopes --
11.2.1. The Principle, Types, and Sensitivity of the Radiotracer Technique --
11.2.2. Unsealed Radionuclides Used for Labeling in Industrial Tracer Studies --
11.2.3. Exploration of Leaks --
11.2.4. Determination of Flow Rates --
11.2.5. Measuring Volume and/or Mass of Large Quantities of Substances in Closed Equipment --
11.2.6. Investigation of Homogeneity of Mixtures --
11.2.7. Characterization of Material Flow and Determination of Chemical Engineering Parameters --
11.2.8. Wear Studies --
11.2.9. Groundwater Flow Studies --
11.3. Absorption and Scattering Measurements With Sealed Radioactive Sources --
11.3.1. Principle of the Measurements --
11.3.2. Sealed Radioactive Sources Used for Measurement --
11.3.3. Level Indication of Materials in Tanks --
11.3.4. Material Thickness Determination --
11.3.5. Material Density Determination --
11.3.6. Moisture Content Determination --
11.3.7. Industrial Radiography --
11.3.8. Geological Borehole Logging With Nuclear Methods --
Further Reading --
ch. 12 An Introduction to Nuclear Medicine / Jozsef Varga --
12.1. Fields of Nuclear Medicine --
12.1.1. In Vitro Diagnostics --
12.1.2. In Vivo Diagnostics --
12.1.3. Therapy with Unsealed Radioactive Preparations --
12.2. The Role and Aspects of Applying Radiotracers in Medicine
Responsibility: József Kónya and Noémi M. Nagy, Imre Lajos Isotope Laboratory, Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, Hungary.

Abstract:

Nuclear and Radiochemistry, Second Edition, is a comprehensive and thorough reference that features the latest developments in the field, especially in radionuclide production, nuclear medicine and the application of natural radiotracers. Drawing on 40 years of experience in teaching and research, this revised edition explains the basic principles and applications of the primary areas of nuclear and radiochemistry. This new edition features completely revised chapters, in addition to 40 new illustrations plus case studies woven throughout the text. It will be helpful to students and researchers in chemistry, chemical engineering, environmental sciences and specialists working in all fields of radiochemistry. The field of nuclear and radiochemistry is wide-reaching, with results having functions and use across a variety of disciplines. Separate chapters cover each main area of recent radiochemistry. This includes nuclear medicine and chemical aspects of nuclear power plants, namely the problems of nuclear wastes and nuclear analysis (both bulk and surface analysis), with the analytical methods based on the interactions of radiation with matter. Furthermore, special attention is paid to thermodynamics of radio-isotope tracer methods, the very diluted system (carrier-free radioactive isotopes) and the principles of chemical processes with unsealed radioactive sources.

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