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Oral history interview with Martin Schwarzschild, 1977 March 10, June 3, December 16 and 1979 July 19.

Author: Martin Schwarzschild; Spencer R Weart
Edition/Format:   Archival material : Microfilm : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
Life of his father, Karl Schwarzschild; father's scientific relationships in Göttingen (Felix Klein, David Hilbert); move to Potsdam, 1909; relations with Potsdam and Berlin scientists (Albert Einstein, Karl Sommerfeld); father's Jewish background concealed. M. Schwarzschild's youth in Göttingen and Berlin; early education, interest in astronomy and mathematics. Undergraduate at Göttingen Universität (Hans  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Oral histories
Interviews
Sound recordings
Transcripts
History
Named Person: Walter Baade; Hans A Bethe; Bart J Bok; Hermann Bondi; S Chandrasekhar; Richard Courant; Robert H Dicke; Arthur Stanley Eddington, Sir; Albert Einstein; Enrico Fermi; Ejnar Hertzsprung; David Hilbert; Fred Hoyle; Edwin Hubble; Milton L Humason; Gerard P Kuiper; Rudolph Leo Bernhard Minkowski; Jan Hendrik Oort; Ernst Julius Öpik; Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin; I I Rabi; Svein Rosseland; Henry Norris Russell; Allan Sandage; K Schwarzschild; Harlow Shapley; Lyman Spitzer; James A Van Allen; John Von Neumann; Fred L Whipple; Ludwig Franz Benedikt Biermann; Bob Danielson; Richard Härm; Otto Heckmann; Geoffrey Keller; Hans Kienle; Felix Klein; Otto Neugebauer; Robert Richardson; Jan Schildt; Barbara Schwarzschild; Martin Schwarzschild; Karl Sommerfeld; Rupert Wildt; Walter Baade; Hans A Bethe; Bart J Bok; Hermann Bondi; S Chandrasekhar; Richard Courant; Robert H Dicke; Arthur Stanley Eddington, Sir; Albert Einstein; Enrico Fermi; Ejnar Hertzsprung; David Hilbert; Fred Hoyle; Edwin Hubble; Milton L Humason; Gerard P Kuiper; Jan Hendrik Oort; Ernst Julius Öpik; Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin; I I Rabi; Svein Rosseland; Henry Norris Russell; Allan Sandage; K Schwarzschild; Harlow Shapley; Lyman Spitzer; James A Van Allen; John Von Neumann; Fred L Whipple
Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Archival Material, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Martin Schwarzschild; Spencer R Weart
OCLC Number: 960170945
Notes: Interview conducted by Spencer Weart on March 10, June 3, December 16, 1977, and July 19, 1979 at Princeton University.
Advance notice of two business days required to use audio or video tapes.
Interview conducted as part of the Sources for History of Modern Astrophysics (SHMA) project.
Reproduction Notes: 10" microfilm reel. Bethesda, Md. : Cutting Corp., 2003. Original recording remastered onto 15 10" reels.
Description: Transcript: 201 pages audio recording: 17 cassettes or 2 5 in. reels

Abstract:

Life of his father, Karl Schwarzschild; father's scientific relationships in Göttingen (Felix Klein, David Hilbert); move to Potsdam, 1909; relations with Potsdam and Berlin scientists (Albert Einstein, Karl Sommerfeld); father's Jewish background concealed. M. Schwarzschild's youth in Göttingen and Berlin; early education, interest in astronomy and mathematics. Undergraduate at Göttingen Universität (Hans Kienle, Richard Courant, Neugebauer), 1930-1933; graduate work at Gottingen Observatory, 1933-1935; his reaction to Nazism. Introduction to astrophysics (Arthur Eddington), interest in stellar interiors and stellar evolution; contacts with other astronomers from Gottingen Observatory (Otto Heckmann, Kienle, Rupert Wildt); comments on general relativity; interest in pulsating stars; leaves Göttingen, 1936. Postdoctorate at Oslo (Svein Rosseland); Jan Oort, Ejnar Hertzsprung; mechanical analog computer for computations in astrophysics and celestial mechanics; comments on development of theory of stellar interiors, 1939-1950. To Harvard College Observatory (Harlow Shapley), 1938; C. Payne-Gaposchkin, Bart Bok; comparison of European and American observational style, social scene; Barbara Schwarzschild's difficulties as female astronomer; contacts with S. Chandrasekhar and other astronomers. Tour of the United States; visits Mt. Wilson Observatory (Wilhelm Baade, Rudolph Minkowski, Edwin Hubble, Milton Humason), 1940; Shapley's relationship with Mt. Wilson staff. Harvard (Fred Whipple), 1938-1941; Shapley as a leader; astronomy summer school at Harvard; work on Cepheid variables in M3 (Bok, Chandrasekhar); overall impact on Schwarzschild of Harvard period. Columbia University (Jan Schildt, I.I. Rabi), 1940-1942; difficulties there; origin and funding of Thomas Watson Astronomical Computing Center; discussion of cosmology in the late 1930s; contacts with physicists (Enrico Fermi). In U.S. Army, 1941-1945; enters as private, teaches math to recruits; refuses invitation to Los Alamos; transferred to Aberdeen Proving Ground, dissatisfaction there; to officers training school, does bombing analysis for Italian campaign. Work relating to stellar interiors and evolution, 1938-1946; nuclear energy source ideas (Hans Bethe, Fermi); Eddington, Gerard Kuiper, Chandrasekhar, G. Keller; German astronomers during World War II (Ludwig Biermann). Discussion of wife's career and her role in his career. Early ideas about red giants (Öpik, Herman Bondi, Fred Hoyle), 1946-1950. Work on acoustic wave energy transport (R. Richardson, Gold); work on chemical composition differences in stellar populations. To Princeton University (Spitzer, H.N. Russell), 1947; Project Matterhorn (start of bomb and fusion projects); relationship with Russell. Stellar evolution work in the 1950s; computer work (John Von Neumann, Richard Härm), mid-1950s; collaboration with Allan Sandage evolving a stellar model, 1952; computing towards red giants; observational cluster work, 1951; ages, metallicity, and the Big Bang; beginnings of "astrophysical" cosmology. Evolution theory after late 1950s; effect of computers on theoretical progress; relation of evolution theory to cosmology; general comments on his work in stellar evolution; interactions with Robert Dicke; views on cosmology, general relativity. Need for better solar convection work leads to use of balloons (James Van Allen); post-Sputnik funding; on cooperation with industry and engineers; Stratoscope II (Bob Danielson, Spitzer). Years advising the National Science Foundation, President's Science Advisory Committee, 1959-1976, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Von Neumann), to 1969; The International Astronomical Union, 1964-1970; American Asronomical Society, 1967-1973. Informal advisor to various observatories: Kitt Peak National Observatory, Mt. Wilson-Palomar Observatories, Carnegie Southern Observatory. Recent work on galactic structure. Reflects on importance of ethical standards; his feelings about religion and nature.

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   schema:description "Life of his father, Karl Schwarzschild; father's scientific relationships in Göttingen (Felix Klein, David Hilbert); move to Potsdam, 1909; relations with Potsdam and Berlin scientists (Albert Einstein, Karl Sommerfeld); father's Jewish background concealed. M. Schwarzschild's youth in Göttingen and Berlin; early education, interest in astronomy and mathematics. Undergraduate at Göttingen Universität (Hans Kienle, Richard Courant, Neugebauer), 1930-1933; graduate work at Gottingen Observatory, 1933-1935; his reaction to Nazism. Introduction to astrophysics (Arthur Eddington), interest in stellar interiors and stellar evolution; contacts with other astronomers from Gottingen Observatory (Otto Heckmann, Kienle, Rupert Wildt); comments on general relativity; interest in pulsating stars; leaves Göttingen, 1936. Postdoctorate at Oslo (Svein Rosseland); Jan Oort, Ejnar Hertzsprung; mechanical analog computer for computations in astrophysics and celestial mechanics; comments on development of theory of stellar interiors, 1939-1950. To Harvard College Observatory (Harlow Shapley), 1938; C. Payne-Gaposchkin, Bart Bok; comparison of European and American observational style, social scene; Barbara Schwarzschild's difficulties as female astronomer; contacts with S. Chandrasekhar and other astronomers. Tour of the United States; visits Mt. Wilson Observatory (Wilhelm Baade, Rudolph Minkowski, Edwin Hubble, Milton Humason), 1940; Shapley's relationship with Mt. Wilson staff. Harvard (Fred Whipple), 1938-1941; Shapley as a leader; astronomy summer school at Harvard; work on Cepheid variables in M3 (Bok, Chandrasekhar); overall impact on Schwarzschild of Harvard period. Columbia University (Jan Schildt, I.I. Rabi), 1940-1942; difficulties there; origin and funding of Thomas Watson Astronomical Computing Center; discussion of cosmology in the late 1930s; contacts with physicists (Enrico Fermi). In U.S. Army, 1941-1945; enters as private, teaches math to recruits; refuses invitation to Los Alamos; transferred to Aberdeen Proving Ground, dissatisfaction there; to officers training school, does bombing analysis for Italian campaign. Work relating to stellar interiors and evolution, 1938-1946; nuclear energy source ideas (Hans Bethe, Fermi); Eddington, Gerard Kuiper, Chandrasekhar, G. Keller; German astronomers during World War II (Ludwig Biermann). Discussion of wife's career and her role in his career. Early ideas about red giants (Öpik, Herman Bondi, Fred Hoyle), 1946-1950. Work on acoustic wave energy transport (R. Richardson, Gold); work on chemical composition differences in stellar populations. To Princeton University (Spitzer, H.N. Russell), 1947; Project Matterhorn (start of bomb and fusion projects); relationship with Russell. Stellar evolution work in the 1950s; computer work (John Von Neumann, Richard Härm), mid-1950s; collaboration with Allan Sandage evolving a stellar model, 1952; computing towards red giants; observational cluster work, 1951; ages, metallicity, and the Big Bang; beginnings of "astrophysical" cosmology. Evolution theory after late 1950s; effect of computers on theoretical progress; relation of evolution theory to cosmology; general comments on his work in stellar evolution; interactions with Robert Dicke; views on cosmology, general relativity. Need for better solar convection work leads to use of balloons (James Van Allen); post-Sputnik funding; on cooperation with industry and engineers; Stratoscope II (Bob Danielson, Spitzer). Years advising the National Science Foundation, President's Science Advisory Committee, 1959-1976, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Von Neumann), to 1969; The International Astronomical Union, 1964-1970; American Asronomical Society, 1967-1973. Informal advisor to various observatories: Kitt Peak National Observatory, Mt. Wilson-Palomar Observatories, Carnegie Southern Observatory. Recent work on galactic structure. Reflects on importance of ethical standards; his feelings about religion and nature."@en ;
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   schema:name "Walter Baade" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/bethe_hans_a_hans_albrecht_1906_2005> # Hans Albrecht Bethe
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1906" ;
   schema:deathDate "2005" ;
   schema:familyName "Bethe" ;
   schema:givenName "Hans Albrecht" ;
   schema:givenName "Hans A." ;
   schema:name "Hans Albrecht Bethe" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/biermann_ludwig_franz_benedikt> # Ludwig Franz Benedikt Biermann
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:familyName "Biermann" ;
   schema:givenName "Ludwig Franz Benedikt" ;
   schema:name "Ludwig Franz Benedikt Biermann" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/bok_bart_j_bart_jan_1906_1983> # Bart Jan Bok
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1906" ;
   schema:deathDate "1983" ;
   schema:familyName "Bok" ;
   schema:givenName "Bart Jan" ;
   schema:givenName "Bart J." ;
   schema:name "Bart Jan Bok" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/bondi_hermann> # Hermann Bondi
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:familyName "Bondi" ;
   schema:givenName "Hermann" ;
   schema:name "Hermann Bondi" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/chandrasekhar_s_subrahmanyan_1910_1995> # Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1910" ;
   schema:deathDate "1995" ;
   schema:familyName "Chandrasekhar" ;
   schema:givenName "Subrahmanyan" ;
   schema:givenName "S." ;
   schema:name "Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/courant_richard_1888_1972> # Richard Courant
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1888" ;
   schema:deathDate "1972" ;
   schema:familyName "Courant" ;
   schema:givenName "Richard" ;
   schema:name "Richard Courant" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/danielson_bob> # Bob Danielson
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:familyName "Danielson" ;
   schema:givenName "Bob" ;
   schema:name "Bob Danielson" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/dicke_robert_h_robert_henry> # Robert Henry Dicke
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:familyName "Dicke" ;
   schema:givenName "Robert Henry" ;
   schema:givenName "Robert H." ;
   schema:name "Robert Henry Dicke" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/eddington_arthur_stanley_sir_1882_1944> # Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1882" ;
   schema:deathDate "1944" ;
   schema:familyName "Eddington" ;
   schema:givenName "Arthur Stanley" ;
   schema:name "Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/einstein_albert_1879_1955> # Albert Einstein
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1879" ;
   schema:deathDate "1955" ;
   schema:familyName "Einstein" ;
   schema:givenName "Albert" ;
   schema:name "Albert Einstein" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/fermi_enrico_1901_1954> # Enrico Fermi
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1901" ;
   schema:deathDate "1954" ;
   schema:familyName "Fermi" ;
   schema:givenName "Enrico" ;
   schema:name "Enrico Fermi" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/harm_richard> # Richard Härm
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:familyName "Härm" ;
   schema:givenName "Richard" ;
   schema:name "Richard Härm" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/heckmann_otto> # Otto Heckmann
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:familyName "Heckmann" ;
   schema:givenName "Otto" ;
   schema:name "Otto Heckmann" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/hertzsprung_ejnar_1873_1967> # Ejnar Hertzsprung
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1873" ;
   schema:deathDate "1967" ;
   schema:familyName "Hertzsprung" ;
   schema:givenName "Ejnar" ;
   schema:name "Ejnar Hertzsprung" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/hilbert_david_1862_1943> # David Hilbert
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1862" ;
   schema:deathDate "1943" ;
   schema:familyName "Hilbert" ;
   schema:givenName "David" ;
   schema:name "David Hilbert" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/hoyle_fred_1915_2001> # Fred Hoyle
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1915" ;
   schema:deathDate "2001" ;
   schema:familyName "Hoyle" ;
   schema:givenName "Fred" ;
   schema:name "Fred Hoyle" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/hubble_edwin_1889_1953> # Edwin Hubble
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1889" ;
   schema:deathDate "1953" ;
   schema:familyName "Hubble" ;
   schema:givenName "Edwin" ;
   schema:name "Edwin Hubble" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/humason_milton_l_milton_la_salle_1891_1972> # Milton La Salle Humason
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1891" ;
   schema:deathDate "1972" ;
   schema:familyName "Humason" ;
   schema:givenName "Milton La Salle" ;
   schema:givenName "Milton L." ;
   schema:name "Milton La Salle Humason" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/keller_geoffrey> # Geoffrey Keller
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:familyName "Keller" ;
   schema:givenName "Geoffrey" ;
   schema:name "Geoffrey Keller" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/kienle_hans> # Hans Kienle
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:familyName "Kienle" ;
   schema:givenName "Hans" ;
   schema:name "Hans Kienle" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/klein_felix> # Felix Klein
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:familyName "Klein" ;
   schema:givenName "Felix" ;
   schema:name "Felix Klein" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/kuiper_gerard_p_gerard_peter_1905_1973> # Gerard Peter Kuiper
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1905" ;
   schema:deathDate "1973" ;
   schema:familyName "Kuiper" ;
   schema:givenName "Gerard Peter" ;
   schema:givenName "Gerard P." ;
   schema:name "Gerard Peter Kuiper" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/minkowski_rudolph_leo_bernhard_1895_1976> # Rudolph Leo Bernhard Minkowski
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1895" ;
   schema:deathDate "1976" ;
   schema:familyName "Minkowski" ;
   schema:givenName "Rudolph Leo Bernhard" ;
   schema:name "Rudolph Leo Bernhard Minkowski" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/neugebauer_otto> # Otto Neugebauer
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:familyName "Neugebauer" ;
   schema:givenName "Otto" ;
   schema:name "Otto Neugebauer" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/oort_jan_hendrik> # Jan Hendrik Oort
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:familyName "Oort" ;
   schema:givenName "Jan Hendrik" ;
   schema:name "Jan Hendrik Oort" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/opik_ernst_julius_1893_1985> # Ernst Julius Öpik
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1893" ;
   schema:deathDate "1985" ;
   schema:familyName "Öpik" ;
   schema:givenName "Ernst Julius" ;
   schema:name "Ernst Julius Öpik" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/payne_gaposchkin_cecilia_1900_1979> # Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1900" ;
   schema:deathDate "1979" ;
   schema:familyName "Payne-Gaposchkin" ;
   schema:givenName "Cecilia" ;
   schema:name "Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/rabi_i_i_isidor_isaac_1898_1988> # Isidor Isaac Rabi
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1898" ;
   schema:deathDate "1988" ;
   schema:familyName "Rabi" ;
   schema:givenName "Isidor Isaac" ;
   schema:givenName "I. I." ;
   schema:name "Isidor Isaac Rabi" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/richardson_robert> # Robert Richardson
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:familyName "Richardson" ;
   schema:givenName "Robert" ;
   schema:name "Robert Richardson" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/rosseland_svein_1894_1985> # Svein Rosseland
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1894" ;
   schema:deathDate "1985" ;
   schema:familyName "Rosseland" ;
   schema:givenName "Svein" ;
   schema:name "Svein Rosseland" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/russell_henry_norris_1877_1957> # Henry Norris Russell
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1877" ;
   schema:deathDate "1957" ;
   schema:familyName "Russell" ;
   schema:givenName "Henry Norris" ;
   schema:name "Henry Norris Russell" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/sandage_allan> # Allan Sandage
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:familyName "Sandage" ;
   schema:givenName "Allan" ;
   schema:name "Allan Sandage" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/schildt_jan> # Jan Schildt
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:familyName "Schildt" ;
   schema:givenName "Jan" ;
   schema:name "Jan Schildt" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/schwarzschild_barbara> # Barbara Schwarzschild
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:familyName "Schwarzschild" ;
   schema:givenName "Barbara" ;
   schema:name "Barbara Schwarzschild" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/schwarzschild_k_karl_1873_1916> # Karl Schwarzschild
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1873" ;
   schema:deathDate "1916" ;
   schema:familyName "Schwarzschild" ;
   schema:givenName "Karl" ;
   schema:givenName "K." ;
   schema:name "Karl Schwarzschild" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/schwarzschild_martin> # Martin Schwarzschild
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:familyName "Schwarzschild" ;
   schema:givenName "Martin" ;
   schema:name "Martin Schwarzschild" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/shapley_harlow_1885_1972> # Harlow Shapley
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1885" ;
   schema:deathDate "1972" ;
   schema:familyName "Shapley" ;
   schema:givenName "Harlow" ;
   schema:name "Harlow Shapley" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/sommerfeld_karl> # Karl Sommerfeld
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:familyName "Sommerfeld" ;
   schema:givenName "Karl" ;
   schema:name "Karl Sommerfeld" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/spitzer_lyman_1914_1997> # Lyman Spitzer
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1914" ;
   schema:deathDate "1997" ;
   schema:familyName "Spitzer" ;
   schema:givenName "Lyman" ;
   schema:name "Lyman Spitzer" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/van_allen_james_a_james_alfred_1914_2006> # James Alfred Van Allen
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1914" ;
   schema:deathDate "2006" ;
   schema:familyName "Van Allen" ;
   schema:givenName "James Alfred" ;
   schema:givenName "James A." ;
   schema:name "James Alfred Van Allen" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/von_neumann_john_1903_1957> # John Von Neumann
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1903" ;
   schema:deathDate "1957" ;
   schema:familyName "Von Neumann" ;
   schema:givenName "John" ;
   schema:name "John Von Neumann" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/weart_spencer_r_1942> # Spencer R. Weart
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1942" ;
   schema:familyName "Weart" ;
   schema:givenName "Spencer R." ;
   schema:name "Spencer R. Weart" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/whipple_fred_l_fred_lawrence_1906_2004> # Fred Lawrence Whipple
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:birthDate "1906" ;
   schema:deathDate "2004" ;
   schema:familyName "Whipple" ;
   schema:givenName "Fred Lawrence" ;
   schema:givenName "Fred L." ;
   schema:name "Fred Lawrence Whipple" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Person/wildt_rupert> # Rupert Wildt
    a schema:Person ;
   schema:familyName "Wildt" ;
   schema:givenName "Rupert" ;
   schema:name "Rupert Wildt" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Topic/astronomy_study_and_teaching> # Astronomy--Study and teaching
    a schema:Intangible ;
   schema:name "Astronomy--Study and teaching"@en ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Topic/astrophysics_history> # Astrophysics--History
    a schema:Intangible ;
   schema:name "Astrophysics--History"@en ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Topic/balloons_in_astronomy> # Balloons in astronomy
    a schema:Intangible ;
   schema:name "Balloons in astronomy"@en ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Topic/celestial_mechanics> # Celestial mechanics
    a schema:Intangible ;
   schema:name "Celestial mechanics"@en ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Topic/computers_technological_innovations> # Computers--Technological innovations
    a schema:Intangible ;
   schema:name "Computers--Technological innovations"@en ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Topic/electronic_analog_computers> # Electronic analog computers
    a schema:Intangible ;
   schema:name "Electronic analog computers"@en ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Topic/national_socialism_germany> # National socialism--Germany
    a schema:Intangible ;
   schema:name "National socialism--Germany"@en ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Topic/relativity_physics> # Relativity (Physics)
    a schema:Intangible ;
   schema:name "Relativity (Physics)"@en ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1907620772#Topic/world_war_1939_1945_science> # World War, 1939-1945--Science
    a schema:Intangible ;
   schema:name "World War, 1939-1945--Science"@en ;
    .


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