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Ottoman Notables and Participatory Politics : Tanzimat Reform in Tokat, 1839-1876.

Author: John Bragg
Publisher: Hoboken : Taylor and Francis, 2014.
Series: SOAS/Routledge studies on the Middle East.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
Focussing on events in the Anatolian town of Tokat during the final two decades of the great Ottoman legal and administrative reforms known as the Tanzimat (1839-76), this book applies elements of social networking theory to analyze and assess the establishment of local governments across the Middle East. The author's key finding is that the state's efforts to centralize authority succeeded only when and where  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
History
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Bragg, John.
Ottoman Notables and Participatory Politics : Tanzimat Reform in Tokat, 1839-1876.
Hoboken : Taylor and Francis, ©2014
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: John Bragg
ISBN: 9781317701446 1317701445
OCLC Number: 877772166
Description: 1 online resource (304 pages)
Contents: Cover; Half Title; Title Page; Copyright Page; Dedication; Table of Contents; List of illustrations; Preface; Acknowledgements; List of abbreviations; Introduction; 1 Tokat's Tanzimat-era notables in service to the state; 2 Relations among Tokat's notables and bureaucrats; 3 The litigation tactics of notables at Tokat's şer'î court; 4 Lending in Tokat and notable social networks; 5 Patterns of investment in Tokat's land and agriculture; 6 Patterns of investment in Tokat's industry; 7 Non-Muslim leaders in Tokat; Conclusion; Appendices; Glossaries; Bibliography; Index.
Series Title: SOAS/Routledge studies on the Middle East.

Abstract:

Focussing on events in the Anatolian town of Tokat during the final two decades of the great Ottoman legal and administrative reforms known as the Tanzimat (1839-76), this book applies elements of social networking theory to analyze and assess the establishment of local governments across the Middle East. The author's key finding is that the state's efforts to centralize authority succeeded only when and where locals acted as the primary agents of change. Independent notables, such as the military a'yân, demanded wealth and state offices in exchange for meting out reform measur.

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Primary Entity<\/h3>\n
<http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/877772166<\/a>> # Ottoman Notables and Participatory Politics : Tanzimat Reform in Tokat, 1839-1876.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Book<\/a>, schema:MediaObject<\/a>, schema:CreativeWork<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:oclcnum<\/a> \"877772166<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:placeOfPublication<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Place\/hoboken<\/a>> ; # Hoboken<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/political_participation_turkey_tokat_tokat_ili_history_19th_century<\/a>> ; # Political participation--Turkey--Tokat (Tokat \u0130li)--History--19th century<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/civic_leaders_turkey_tokat_tokat_ili_history_19th_century<\/a>> ; # Civic leaders--Turkey--Tokat (Tokat \u0130li)--History--19th century<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Event\/1800_1899<\/a>> ; # 1800-1899<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/social_networks_economic_aspects<\/a>> ; # Social networks--Economic aspects<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/history_middle_east_general<\/a>> ; # HISTORY--Middle East--General<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/dewey.info\/class\/956.56\/<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/social_change_turkey_tokat_tokat_ili_history_19th_century<\/a>> ; # Social change--Turkey--Tokat (Tokat \u0130li)--History--19th century<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/civic_leaders<\/a>> ; # Civic leaders<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/social_change<\/a>> ; # Social change<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/social_networks_economic_aspects_turkey_tokat_tokat_ili_history_19th_century<\/a>> ; # Social networks--Economic aspects--Turkey--Tokat (Tokat \u0130li)--History--19th century<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/employees<\/a>> ; # Employees<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/social_networks_political_aspects_turkey_tokat_tokat_ili_history_19th_century<\/a>> ; # Social networks--Political aspects--Turkey--Tokat (Tokat \u0130li)--History--19th century<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/social_classes<\/a>> ; # Social classes<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/political_participation<\/a>> ; # Political participation<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Place\/tokat_tokat_ili_turkey<\/a>> ; # Tokat (Tokat \u0130li, Turkey)<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Place\/turkey<\/a>> ; # Turkey.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/social_networks_political_aspects<\/a>> ; # Social networks--Political aspects<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/social_classes_turkey_tokat_tokat_ili_history_19th_century<\/a>> ; # Social classes--Turkey--Tokat (Tokat \u0130li)--History--19th century<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Place\/turkey_tokat_tokat_ili<\/a>> ; # Turkey--Tokat (Tokat \u0130li)<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:bookFormat<\/a> schema:EBook<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:creator<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Person\/bragg_john<\/a>> ; # John Bragg<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:datePublished<\/a> \"2014<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"Focussing on events in the Anatolian town of Tokat during the final two decades of the great Ottoman legal and administrative reforms known as the Tanzimat (1839-76), this book applies elements of social networking theory to analyze and assess the establishment of local governments across the Middle East. The author\'s key finding is that the state\'s efforts to centralize authority succeeded only when and where locals acted as the primary agents of change. Independent notables, such as the military a\'y\u00E2n, demanded wealth and state offices in exchange for meting out reform measur.<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"Cover; Half Title; Title Page; Copyright Page; Dedication; Table of Contents; List of illustrations; Preface; Acknowledgements; List of abbreviations; Introduction; 1 Tokat\'s Tanzimat-era notables in service to the state; 2 Relations among Tokat\'s notables and bureaucrats; 3 The litigation tactics of notables at Tokat\'s \u015Fer\'\u00EE court; 4 Lending in Tokat and notable social networks; 5 Patterns of investment in Tokat\'s land and agriculture; 6 Patterns of investment in Tokat\'s industry; 7 Non-Muslim leaders in Tokat; Conclusion; Appendices; Glossaries; Bibliography; Index.<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:exampleOfWork<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/id\/1873380150<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:genre<\/a> \"Electronic books<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:genre<\/a> \"History<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:inLanguage<\/a> \"en<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isPartOf<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Series\/soas_routledge_studies_on_the_middle_east<\/a>> ; # SOAS\/Routledge studies on the Middle East.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isSimilarTo<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#CreativeWork\/ottoman_notables_and_participatory_politics_tanzimat_reform_in_tokat_1839_1876<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Ottoman Notables and Participatory Politics : Tanzimat Reform in Tokat, 1839-1876.<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:productID<\/a> \"877772166<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:publication<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/877772166#PublicationEvent\/hoboken_taylor_and_francis_2014<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:publisher<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Agent\/taylor_and_francis<\/a>> ; # Taylor and Francis<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:url<\/a> <https:\/\/public.ebookcentral.proquest.com\/choice\/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=1675934<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:url<\/a> <https:\/\/search.ebscohost.com\/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=760736<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:url<\/a> <http:\/\/www.vlebooks.com\/vleweb\/product\/openreader?id=none&isbn=9781317701446<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:workExample<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9781317701446<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nwdrs:describedby<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/877772166<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n\n

Related Entities<\/h3>\n
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<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Agent\/taylor_and_francis<\/a>> # Taylor and Francis<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nbgn:Agent<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Taylor and Francis<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Event\/1800_1899<\/a>> # 1800-1899<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Event<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"1800-1899<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Person\/bragg_john<\/a>> # John Bragg<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Bragg<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"John<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"John Bragg<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Place\/hoboken<\/a>> # Hoboken<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Hoboken<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Place\/tokat_tokat_ili_turkey<\/a>> # Tokat (Tokat \u0130li, Turkey)<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Tokat (Tokat \u0130li, Turkey)<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Place\/turkey<\/a>> # Turkey.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Turkey.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Turkey<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
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<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/civic_leaders<\/a>> # Civic leaders<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Civic leaders<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/civic_leaders_turkey_tokat_tokat_ili_history_19th_century<\/a>> # Civic leaders--Turkey--Tokat (Tokat \u0130li)--History--19th century<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Civic leaders--Turkey--Tokat (Tokat \u0130li)--History--19th century<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/employees<\/a>> # Employees<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Employees<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/history_middle_east_general<\/a>> # HISTORY--Middle East--General<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"HISTORY--Middle East--General<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/political_participation<\/a>> # Political participation<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Political participation<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
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<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/social_change<\/a>> # Social change<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Social change<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
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<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/social_classes<\/a>> # Social classes<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Social classes<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/social_classes_turkey_tokat_tokat_ili_history_19th_century<\/a>> # Social classes--Turkey--Tokat (Tokat \u0130li)--History--19th century<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Social classes--Turkey--Tokat (Tokat \u0130li)--History--19th century<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/social_networks_economic_aspects<\/a>> # Social networks--Economic aspects<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Social networks--Economic aspects<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/social_networks_economic_aspects_turkey_tokat_tokat_ili_history_19th_century<\/a>> # Social networks--Economic aspects--Turkey--Tokat (Tokat \u0130li)--History--19th century<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Social networks--Economic aspects--Turkey--Tokat (Tokat \u0130li)--History--19th century<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/social_networks_political_aspects<\/a>> # Social networks--Political aspects<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Social networks--Political aspects<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Topic\/social_networks_political_aspects_turkey_tokat_tokat_ili_history_19th_century<\/a>> # Social networks--Political aspects--Turkey--Tokat (Tokat \u0130li)--History--19th century<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Social networks--Political aspects--Turkey--Tokat (Tokat \u0130li)--History--19th century<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#CreativeWork\/ottoman_notables_and_participatory_politics_tanzimat_reform_in_tokat_1839_1876<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:CreativeWork<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nrdfs:label<\/a> \"Ottoman Notables and Participatory Politics : Tanzimat Reform in Tokat, 1839-1876.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"Print version:<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isSimilarTo<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/877772166<\/a>> ; # Ottoman Notables and Participatory Politics : Tanzimat Reform in Tokat, 1839-1876.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9781317701446<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:ProductModel<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"1317701445<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"9781317701446<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/877772166<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \ngenont:InformationResource<\/a>, genont:ContentTypeGenericResource<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/877772166<\/a>> ; # Ottoman Notables and Participatory Politics : Tanzimat Reform in Tokat, 1839-1876.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:dateModified<\/a> \"2019-12-08<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nvoid:inDataset<\/a> <http:\/\/purl.oclc.org\/dataset\/WorldCat<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/877772166#PublicationEvent\/hoboken_taylor_and_francis_2014<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:PublicationEvent<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:location<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Place\/hoboken<\/a>> ; # Hoboken<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:organizer<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1873380150#Agent\/taylor_and_francis<\/a>> ; # Taylor and Francis<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:startDate<\/a> \"2014<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n\n

Content-negotiable representations<\/p>\n