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Practical food safety : contemporary issues and future directions

Author: Rajeev Bhat; Vicente M Gómez-López
Publisher: Chichester, West Sussex, UK ; Hoboken, NJ : Wiley Blackwell, 2014.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:

The past few years have witnessed an upsurge in incidences relating to food safety issues, which are all attributed to different factors.

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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Practical food safety.
Chichester, West Sussex, UK : Wiley Blackwell, 2014
(DLC) 2013047916
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Rajeev Bhat; Vicente M Gómez-López
ISBN: 9781118474600 1118474600 1118474597 9781118474594 1118474562 9781118474563
OCLC Number: 864299594
Description: xxii, 609 pages ; 26 cm
Contents: List of Contributors xv Foreword xix Preface xxi 1 Food Safety: A Global Perspective 1 Karl R. Matthews 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 National and global food safety events 2 1.3 Foodborne illness outbreaks: imports and exports 3 1.4 Regulations impacting food safety 4 1.5 China s food safety growing pains 6 1.6 Food safety and product testing 7 1.7 Fresh fruits and vegetables safety 7 1.8 Conclusions and future outlook 8 References 8 2 Food Safety: Consumer Perceptions and Practices 11 Anne Wilcock and Brita Ball 2.1 Introduction 11 2.2 Novel technologies and issues 13 2.2.1 Irradiation 14 2.2.2 Genetic modification 15 2.2.3 Nanotechnology 16 2.2.4 Hormone use in food animals 17 2.2.5 Organic foods 19 2.2.6 Deliberate and accidental contamination 19 2.3 Consumer attitudes, knowledge and behavior 21 2.3.1 Types of food safety issues 21 2.3.2 Knowledge versus behavior 22 2.3.3 Influence of consumer demographics 23 2.3.4 Knowledge and behavior 23 2.4 Conclusion and outlook 24 References 25 3 Educating for Food Safety 31 Angela M. Fraser and Cortney Miller 3.1 Introduction 31 3.2 Food safety education targeting food handlers 33 3.3 Effective food safety education interventions 38 3.3.1 Intervention design 38 3.3.2 Instructional strategies 41 3.3.3 Learner assessment 43 3.3.4 Training in languages other than English 44 3.4 Future outlook 45 Acknowledgements 45 References 46 4 Food Safety Training in Food Services 49 Caroline Opolski Medeiros, Suzi Barletto Cavalli, and Elisabete Salay 4.1 Introduction 49 4.2 Legislation about training 50 4.2.1 European Union 50 4.2.2 United States 50 4.2.3 Mercosur 51 4.2.4 Brazil 51 4.3 Evaluation of the programs 51 4.4 Planning the training programs 52 4.4.1 Knowing the target public 52 4.4.2 Training themes 52 4.4.3 Training methods 53 4.4.4 Duration of training programs 58 4.4.5 Language used in training 58 4.5 Conclusions and future outlook 58 References 59 5 Product Tracing Systems 63 Jennifer McEntire and Tejas Bhatt 5.1 Introduction 63 5.2 Traceability: meaning and context 64 5.2.1 Tracebacks, traceforwards, and recalls 64 5.2.2 Traceability system attributes 65 5.3 International traceability regulations 65 5.3.1 Codex 66 5.4 Private global traceability standards 67 5.4.1 International Standards Organization (ISO) 67 5.4.2 Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) 67 5.4.3 GS1 68 5.5 Country-specific traceability requirements 68 5.5.1 Traceability in developed economies 69 5.5.2 Traceability through regulatory consolidation 72 5.5.3 Traceability through transformative events 72 5.5.4 Traceability in developing countries 73 5.6 Costs and benefits to traceability 75 5.6.1 Societal benefits 75 5.6.2 Government benefits 75 5.6.3 Industry costs and benefits 75 5.7 Challenges 76 5.7.1 Education 76 5.7.2 Technology 76 5.7.3 Commingling: a challenge to traceability 77 5.8 The role of technology in traceability 77 5.9 Steps to achieve a global, traceable supply chain 78 5.10 Summary and outlook 79 Acknowledgements 79 References 79 6 Linking Local Suppliers to Global Food Markets: A Critical Analysis of Food Safety Issues in Developing Countries 83 Sapna A. Narula and Neeraj Dangi 6.1 Introduction 84 6.2 The rise of global supply chains 85 6.3 Global trade opportunities for developing countries 85 6.4 Food safety issues: traceability, certification, labelling and phytosanitary 86 6.4.1 Traceability and certification 86 6.4.2 Labelling 87 6.4.3 Phytosanitary issues 88 6.5 Role of public standards 88 6.5.1 Codex Alimentarius 89 6.5.2 Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) 89 6.5.3 Food safety initiatives: Philippines 89 6.5.4 Strengthening food safety initiatives: India 90 6.6 Role of private standards in food supply chains 90 6.7 Challenges faced by developing countries in food safety implementation 92 6.7.1 Development of cold chains in India 92 6.8 Conclusions and future outlook 93 References 96 7 Achieving Quality Chemical Measurements in Foods 99 Yiu-chung Wong and Michael Walker 7.1 Introduction 100 7.2 Quality assurance in food analysis 101 7.2.1 Method validation 101 7.2.2 Control chart 107 7.2.3 Traceability 108 7.2.4 Measurement uncertainty 110 7.2.5 Laboratory accreditation 111 7.3 Metrology in chemistry 111 7.3.1 Assigned values in PT programmes 114 7.3.2 PT on melamine in milk 115 7.3.3 PT on cypermethrin in green tea 117 7.3.4 Insights from the two described PT 120 7.4 Conclusions and future outlook 120 Acknowledgements 120 References 121 8 Protection of the Agri-Food Chain by Chemical Analysis: The European Context 125 Michael Walker and Yiu-chung Wong 8.1 Introduction 125 8.2 European food and feed law 127 8.3 Chemical contaminants 128 8.3.1 Mycotoxins 129 8.3.2 Aluminium in noodles 135 8.3.3 Veterinary residues: Nitrofurans 137 8.3.4 Non-regulated contaminants 138 8.4 Resolution of disputed chemical results 139 8.5 Conclusions and future outlook 140 Acknowledgements 140 References 140 9 Pesticide Residues in Food: Health Implications for Children and Women 145 Muhammad Atif Randhawa, Salim-ur-Rehman, Faqir Muhammad Anjum and Javaid Aziz Awan 9.1 Introduction 145 9.2 Pesticides 146 9.2.1 Definition of pesticide 146 9.2.2 History of pesticide production and application 146 9.2.3 Worldwide production and consumption of pesticides 146 9.2.4 Benefits and risks of pesticide application 147 9.3 Pathway of pesticide residues in the food chain 147 9.3.1 Pesticide residues in soil and groundwater 147 9.3.2 Plant uptake of pesticide residues 149 9.3.3 Pesticide residues in feed and food 149 9.3.4 Pesticide residues in livestock/animal tissues 149 9.4 Pesticide residue dissipation during processing 150 9.4.1 Dissipation of pesticide residues by washing with water 150 9.4.2 Dissipation of pesticide residues by dipping in chemical solutions 150 9.4.3 Dissipation of pesticide residues by heat treatment 150 9.4.4 Dissipation of pesticide residues by low-temperature storage 153 9.5 Pesticide residues in food and food products 153 9.5.1 Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables 153 9.5.2 Pesticide residues in milk 155 9.5.3 Pesticide residues in organic foods 155 9.6 Pesticide residues in humans 155 9.6.1 Pathways of pesticide residues in women 156 9.6.2 Pathways of pesticide residues in children 157 9.7 Health repercussions 157 9.8 Measures to combat pesticide exposure 159 References 160 10 The Need for a Closer Look at Pesticide Toxicity during GMO Assessment 167 Robin Mesnage and Gilles-Eric Seralini 10.1 Purpose, aim and scope 168 10.2 A silent pandemic 168 10.2.1 First observations on animal and human reproduction 168 10.2.2 Endocrine and nervous disruptions due to the aromatic structure of pesticides 169 10.3 Link between pesticides and agricultural GMOs 171 10.4 Focus on Roundup toxicity in GMOs 172 10.4.1 Adjuvants: glyphosate is not the major toxicant in Roundup 172 10.4.2 Glyphosate action in non-target species 173 10.4.3 Long-term effects of Roundup or its residues in GMOs 174 10.5 Agricultural GMOs producing Bt are new insecticidal plants 176 10.6 Side-effects of the genetic modification itself 177 10.6.1 Specific side effects of the transgene expression 177 10.6.2 Insertional mutagenesis or new unexpected/unexplainable metabolism 178 10.7 Limits and difficulties of interpretations in toxicity tests 178 10.8 The relevance of in vivo findings and length of the nutritional tests 180 10.8.1 Insufficiencies of in vitro tests 180 10.8.2 Limitations of 90-day-long tests 181 10.8.3 The need for additional tests including long-term tests 181 10.8.4 Unraveling the effects of mixtures 182 10.9 Conclusions and future outlook 183 References 183 11 What Have We Learnt from the Melamine-tainted Milk Incidents in China? 191 Miao Hong, Cui Xia, Zhu Pan, and Wu Yongning 11.1 Introduction 191 11.2 Melamine and its analogs 192 11.3 Melamine incidents 193 11.3.1 Melamine-contaminated pet food 193 11.3.2 Infant formula 193 11.4 Epidemiological studies 193 11.4.1 Emergency exposure assessment in China and WHO 194 11.4.2 Initial and later risk management responses of Chinese government 195 11.4.3 Development of detection of melamine and its analogs in food 196 11.5 Screening methods 196 11.5.1 Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 196 11.5.2 High-performance liquid chromatography 197 11.5.3 Capillary electrophoresis 197 11.6 Confirmatory methods 198 11.6.1 Gas chromatography mass spectrometry 198 11.6.2 Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry 198 11.6.3 Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry 199 11.6.4 Application of new technologies 199 11.7 Health effects and toxicology of melamine and its analogs 199 11.7.1 Health effects 199 11.7.2 Toxicology 200 11.7.3 Toxicity of melamine 200 11.7.4 Toxicity of cyanuric acid 201 11.7.5 Combined toxicity 201 11.8 Diet exposure assessment from China Total Diet Study 202 11.9 Who should be responsible for food safety in China? 203 11.9.1 Food safety is the responsibility of the food producer 203 11.9.2 Comprehensive and found legislation and regulation system 204 11.9.3 Effective supervision and risk management 205 11.9.4 Food safety is the responsibility of the consumer 206 11.10 Conclusions and future perspectives 206 References 206 12 Heavy Metals of Special Concern to Human Health and Environment 213 Sameeh A. Mansour 12.1 Introduction 213 12.2 Mercury 214 12.2.1 Occurrence, use and exposure 214 12.2.2 Health effects 215 12.2.3 Toxicology of mercury 216 12.3 Cadmium 216 12.3.1 Occurrence, use and exposure 216 12.3.2 Health effects 217 12.3.3 Cadmium toxicolgy 218 12.4 Lead 220 12.4.1 Occurrence, use and exposure 220 12.4.2 Health effects 220 12.4.3 Lead toxicology 221 12.5 Chromium 223 12.5.1 Occurrence, use and exposure 223 12.5.2 Health effects 223 12.6 Arsenic 223 12.6.1 Occurrence, exposure and dose 223 12.6.2 Health effects 224 12.7 Nickel 225 12.7.1 Occurrence, use and exposure 225 12.7.2 Health effects 225 12.8 Other essential elements 225 12.8.1 Copper 225 12.8.2 Selenium 226 12.8.3 Manganese 226 12.8.4 Molybdenum 226 12.8.5 Zinc 227 12.8.6 Cobalt 227 12.8.7 Iron 227 12.8.8 Magnesium 228 12.9 Conclusions 228 References 229 13 Monitoring and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Food 235 Sameeh A. Mansour 13.1 Introduction 235 13.2 Analytical methods 236 13.2.1 Colorimetric methods 236 13.2.2 Instrumental methods 237 13.3 Contamination levels data 237 13.3.1 Vegetables and fruits 237 13.3.2 Medicinal plants and herbs 239 13.3.3 Grains 240 13.3.4 Fish and seafood 241 13.3.5 Miscellaneous 242 13.4 Heavy metals in non-conventionally produced crops 242 13.5 Dietary health risk assessment of heavy metals through consumption of food commodities 246 13.5.1 Risk assessment 247 13.5.2 Daily dietary index 247 13.5.3 Daily intake of metals 247 13.5.4 Health risk index 247 13.6 Conclusions 252 References 253 14 Heavy Metal Contamination as a Global Problem and the Need for Prevention/Reduction Measurements 257 Sameeh A. Mansour 14.1 Introduction 257 14.2 Pathway of heavy metals through the food chain 258 14.2.1 Transfer of heavy metals from soil to vegetables 259 14.2.2 Heavy metal transfer through irrigation water 260 14.2.3 Heavy metals transfer and accumulation in fish 261 14.2.4 Heavy metal deposition from air 263 14.3 Multiple environmental factors affecting accumulation of heavy metals in food and impact on human health 265 14.4 Comparative levels of heavy metals in vegetables and fruits from different countries 268 14.5 Removal of heavy metal contamination 271 14.5.1 Vegetable/fruit decontamination 271 14.5.2 Wastewater treatment 271 14.5.3 Plant- and animal-derived materials 271 14.5.4 Soil remediation 272 14.5.5 Soil bioremediation 273 14.5.6 Soil remediation by metal phytoextraction 273 14.6 Prevention and reduction of metal contamination in food 274 14.7 Recent technologies for removal of heavy metal contaminants 275 14.8 Conclusion 275 References 275 15 Radionuclides in Food: Past, Present and Future 281 Rajeev Bhat and Vicente M. Gomez-Lopez 15.1 Introduction 282 15.2 Radionuclides in nature 282 15.3 Historical background of radioactivity 284 15.3.1 Most recent large-scale radiation release 284 15.4 Radionuclides and the food chain 286 15.5 Measurement of radionuclides in food 289 15.6 210Po and 210Pb (polonium and lead) in food 292 15.7 Uranium, thorium and radium 294 15.8 Other radionuclides in food 297 15.9 Minimizing internal exposure by ingestion after long-scale radiation releases 298 15.10 Conclusions and future outlook 298 References 299 16 Antinutrients and Toxicity in Plant-based Foods: Cereals and Pulses 311 Salim-ur-Rehman, Javaid Aziz Awan, Faqir Muhammad Anjum, and Muhammad Atif Randhawa 16.1 Introduction 312 16.2 Toxicity 313 16.2.1 Accidental toxicity 313 16.2.2 Toxic compounds in legumes and cereal grains 313 16.3 Plant-derived allergens 313 16.3.1 Haemagglutinins, trypsin and protease inhibitors 314 16.3.2 Goitrogens 315 16.3.3 Cyanogens 315 16.3.4 Lathyrogens 316 16.3.5 Lignins and lignans 317 16.3.6 Phytate 318 16.3.7 Amylase inhibitors 318 16.3.8 Plant phenolics 319 16.3.9 Saponins 322 16.3.10 Raffinose 322 16.3.11 Other antinutrients 322 16.4 Mechanisms of antinutritional factors 323 16.5 Prevention and detoxification 324 16.5.1 Soaking in water 325 16.5.2 Boiling/steeping/steaming 325 16.5.3 Germination and malting 326 16.5.4 Fermentation 326 16.6 Health repercussions 326 16.7 Conclusions and future outlook 328 References 330 17 N anotechnology Tools to Achieve Food Safety 341 Jesus Fernando Ayala-Zavala, Gustavo Adolfo Gonzalez-Aguilar, Maria Roberta Ansorena, Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla, and Laura de la Rosa 17.1 Introduction 341 17.2 Types of nanotechnological devices 342 17.2.1 Nanosystems to release antimicrobial compounds 343 17.2.2 Immobilization of antimicrobial compounds using nanocomposite materials 344 17.3 Food safety monitoring systems 345 17.3.1 Microbial growth nanosensors 345 17.3.2 Toxin sensors 348 17.3.3 Food traceability systems 348 17.4 Safety regulations regarding food-applied nanotechnology 349 17.5 Conclusions and outlook 350 References 350 18 Photonic Methods for Pathogen Inactivation 355 Vicente M. Gomez-Lopez and Rajeev Bhat 18.1 Introduction 355 18.1.1 Dosimetry 356 18.2 Comparison of CW UV and PL treatment 356 18.2.1 Advantages and disadvantages of CW UV light 356 18.2.2 Advantages and disadvantages of PL compared to CW UV light 357 18.2.3 Inactivation of microorganisms and viruses in vitro 358 18.3 Microbial inactivation mechanism 358 18.3.1 Continuous UV light 358 18.3.2 Pulsed light 359 18.4 Sublethal injury, acquired resistance and sensitization 360 18.5 Kinetics of microbial inactivation 361 18.6 Application of photonic methods 362 18.6.1 Application to foods of vegetable origin 362 18.6.2 Application to meat products 363 18.6.3 Application to liquids 364 18.6.4 Application to other foods 365 18.6.5 Decomposition of allergens by pulsed light 366 18.6.6 Decomposition of mycotoxins by pulsed light 367 18.6.7 Photosensitization 367 18.7 Concluding remarks and future work 368 Acknowledgement 368 References 368 19 Intelligent Packaging and Food Safety 375 Istvan Siro 19.1 Introduction 375 19.2 Concepts of intelligent packaging 376 19.2.1 Time-temperature indicators 376 19.2.2 Current technologies and applications 377 19.2.3 State-of-the-art developments 378 19.2.4 Possibilities and limitations 379 19.3 Radio frequency identification 379 19.4 Gas indicators and sensors 381 19.4.1 Oxygen indicators 381 19.4.2 Carbon-dioxide indicators 383 19.5 Gas composition sensors 384 19.6 Freshness or spoilage indicators 384 19.7 Biosensors and nanosensors 385 19.7.1 Metallic nanoparticles 386 19.7.2 Quantum dots 387 19.7.3 DNA-based nanosensors 388 19.7.4 Conducting polymers 389 19.8 Conclusion and future outlook 389 References 390 20 Consumer Perception of Safety and Quality of Food Products Maintained under Cold Storage 395 Jasmin Geppert and Rainer Stamminger 20.1 Introduction 395 20.2 The role of refrigeration in food quality and safety 396 20.2.1 Food spoilage processes 396 20.2.2 Microbial spoilage 396 20.2.3 (Bio-) chemical spoilage 397 20.2.4 Physical spoilage 398 20.3 Effects of temperature on food spoilage and quality 398 20.3.1 Temperature dependency of chemical spoilage processes 398 20.3.2 Temperature dependency of enzymatic spoilage processes 398 20.3.3 Temperature dependency of microbial spoilage processes 399 20.4 Quality and safety of frozen foods 400 20.4.1 Freezing process 400 20.4.2 Frozen storage 400 20.5 Cold storage technologies 401 20.5.1 Principles of refrigeration 401 20.5.2 Refrigerator layout and temperature zones 402 20.5.3 Energy label and its influence on cooling performance 403 20.6 Consumers handling of chilled food and home practices 404 20.6.1 Factors affecting consumer behaviour in handling chilled foods 405 20.6.2 Food shopping habits 405 20.6.3 Food handling at home 406 20.6.4 Temperatures in domestic refrigeration 407 20.7 Conclusions and future outlook 409 References 410 21 Foodborne Infections and Intoxications Associated with International Travel 415 Martin Alberer and Thomas Loscher 21.1 Introduction 415 21.2 Travelers diarrhea 416 21.3 Etiology of foodborne infections 418 21.3.1 Escherichia coli (E. coli) 419 21.3.2 Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) 419 21.3.3 Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) 420 21.3.4 Enterohemorrhagic E. coli 421 21.3.5 Enteropathogenic E. coli 422 21.3.6 Enteroinvasive E. coli 422 21.3.7 Diffusely adherent E. coli 423 21.3.8 Infection by Campylobacter spp. 423 21.3.9 Shigellosis 424 21.3.10 Salmonellosis 424 21.3.11 Infection by Aeromonas spp. 425 21.3.12 Infection by Plesiomonas spp. 425 21.3.13 Infection by Vibrio cholerae and Non-cholera Vibrios 425 21.3.14 Infection by Yersinia enterocolitica 426 21.3.15 Infection by Arcobacter spp. 427 21.3.16 Viruses as causative agents in the development of TD 427 21.3.17 Protozoan organisms as cause of TD 428 21.3.18 Giardiasis 428 21.3.19 Cryptosporidiosis 428 21.3.20 Cyclosporiasis 429 21.3.21 Amebiasis 429 21.3.22 Other intestinal parasites as a cause for foodborne infection 430 21.4 Clinical symptoms/signs and diagnosis of TD 430 21.5 Therapy of TD 431 21.6 Prevention and Prophylaxis of TD 432 21.7 Foodborne intoxications 433 21.7.1 Staphylococcal enterotoxin intoxication 433 21.7.2 Bacillus cereus food intoxication 434 21.7.3 Clostridium perfringens food intoxication 434 21.7.4 Clostridium botulinum intoxication 434 21.7.5 Ciguatera 435 21.7.6 Tetrodotoxin poisoning 435 21.7.7 Paralytic shellfish poisoning 436 21.7.8 Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning 436 21.7.9 Amnesic shellfish poisoning 437 21.7.10 Scombroid 437 21.8 Conclusion 437 References 438 22 Electron Beam Inactivation of Foodborne Pathogens with an Emphasis on Salmonella 451 Reza Tahergorabi, Jacek Jaczynski, and Kristen E. Matak 22.1 Introduction 452 22.2 Food irradiation 453 22.3 Inactivation of Salmonella with e-beam and ionizing radiation 455 22.3.1 Application of electron beam 455 22.3.2 Comparison of e-beam, gamma radiation, and x-ray 456 22.3.3 Mechanism of microbial inactivation 456 22.4 Microbial inactivation kinetics and process calculations 459 22.5 Microbial radio-resistance 460 22.6 Foodborne Salmonella outbreaks and Salmonella reservoirs 460 22.6.1 Examples of e-beam applications to inactivate Salmonella in food 462 22.7 US regulatory status of e-beam 462 22.8 Future direction of Salmonella inactivation using e-beam 464 22.9 Conclusions 465 References 466 23 Inactivation of Foodborne Viruses: Recent Findings Applicable to Food-Processing Technologies 471 Allison Vimont, Ismail Fliss, and Julie Jean 23.1 Introduction 472 23.2 Physical treatments 473 23.2.1 Low-temperature-based methods 473 23.2.2 High-temperature-based methods 474 23.2.3 UV light treatments 475 23.2.4 Pulsed light treatments 477 23.2.5 Irradiation treatments 478 23.2.6 High-pressure treatments 479 23.2.7 Other physical treatments 480 23.3 Chemical treatments 481 23.3.1 Washing 481 23.3.2 Hypochlorous acid 481 23.3.3 Chlorine dioxide 483 23.3.4 Ozone 483 23.3.5 Peroxyacids 484 23.3.6 Other chemical agents 485 23.4 Conclusions and future outlook 486 References 486 24 Use of Synbiotics (Probiotics and Prebiotics) to Improve the Safety of Foods 497 Jean Guy LeBlanc, Alejandra de Moreno de LeBlanc, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza Oliveira, and Svetoslav Dimitrov Todorov 24.1 Introduction 498 24.2 Probiotics 499 24.3 Prebiotics and synbiotics 501 24.4 Production of bacteriocins by probiotic LAB 502 24.4.1 Production of antibacterial substances by LAB 502 24.4.2 Production of bacteriocins by LAB 503 24.4.3 Production of bacteriocins by LAB present in fermented cereals 504 24.4.4 Production of bacteriocins by LAB present in other fermented foods 505 24.4.5 Effect of commercial drugs on bacteriocin production by LAB 506 24.4.6 Antibiotic resistance in bacteriocins producing LAB 507 Acknowledgements 510 References 511 25 Predictive Microbiology: A Valuable Tool in Food Safety and Microbiological Risk Assessments 517 F.N. Arroyo-Lopez, J. Bautista Gallego, A. Valero, R.M. Garcia-Gimeno, and A. Garrido Fernandez 25.1 Introduction 518 25.2 Predictive microbiology 519 25.2.1 History and definition 519 25.2.2 Steps to follow in the correct implementation of a predictive model 520 25.2.3 Choice of the medium for model development 521 25.2.4 Experimental design 521 25.2.5 Data collection 521 25.2.6 Primary modelling 522 25.2.7 Secondary modelling 522 25.2.8 Square root models 524 25.2.9 Cardinal parameters models 524 25.2.10 Polynomial models 525 25.2.11 Probabilistic models 525 25.2.12 Neural network (NN) models 525 25.2.13 Dose response models 526 25.2.14 Dynamic models 526 25.2.15 Model validation 526 25.3 Microbiological risk assessment 527 25.4 Software packages and web applications 529 25.5 Applications and future implications 530 Acknowledgements 531 References 531 26 Pests in Poultry, Poultry Product-Borne Infection and Future Precautions 535 Hongshun Yang, Shuvra K. Dey, Robert Buchanan, and Debabrata Biswas 26.1 Introduction 536 26.2 The potential risk of contamination in poultry 537 26.2.1 Conventional poultry 537 26.2.2 Pasture poultry 538 26.3 Major sources of pests in poultry 539 26.3.1 Premise pests 540 26.3.2 Ectoparasites 541 26.4 Important poultry-related diseases associated with pests 542 26.4.1 Salmonella and Campylobacter 542 26.4.2 Coccidiosis of poultry associated with pest 544 26.5 Current practices of pest control in poultry 545 26.5.1 Housing type and management 545 26.5.2 Waste management 545 26.5.3 Flock management 545 26.6 Promising pest control strategies 546 26.7 Conclusion and future outlook 547 References 548 27 Safety of Meat and Meat Products in the Twenty-first Century 553 Ian Jenson, Paul Vanderlinde, John Langbridge, and John Sumner 27.1 Introduction 553 27.2 Where did we start? 554 27.3 Associated risk and public health 555 27.4 Meat safety: fresh (chilled and frozen) red meat 556 27.4.1 Hazards associated with fresh meat 557 27.4.2 Hygienic processing of meat 559 27.4.3 Risk assessment 560 27.4.4 Risk management 561 27.4.5 Performance 563 27.5 Meat safety: cooked and ready-to-eat meats 564 27.5.1 Hazards associated with RTE meats 564 27.5.2 Processing of RTE meats 565 27.5.3 Risk assessment 566 27.5.4 Risk management 566 27.6 Meat safety: fermented meats 567 27.6.1 Hazards 568 27.6.2 Processing of fermented meats 569 27.6.3 Risk associated with fermented meats 570 27.6.4 Microbiological criteria 570 27.7 Current status of meat safety and future outlook 570 References 571 28 Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles for Ochratoxin-A Prevention in Coffee Production Chain 577 Kulandaivelu Velmourougane, T.N.Gopinandhan, and Rajeev Bhat 28.1 Introduction 578 28.2 Coffee quality and food safety 578 28.3 Mycotoxins 578 28.4 Coffee production and OTA contamination 580 28.4.1 Harvesting 580 28.4.2 Sorting 580 28.4.3 Pulping and fermentation 580 28.4.4 Drying 583 28.4.5 Moisture management 584 28.4.6 On-farm storage 585 28.5 Coffee waste management and OTA contamination 587 28.6 Curing factories as a source of OTA contamination 587 28.6.1 Dust control in curing factories 587 28.6.2 Defective beans and OTA contamination 587 28.6.3 Shipment 588 28.7 Application of GAP/GMP and HACCP principles 588 28.7.1 HACCP, food hygiene and food safety 588 28.7.2 Code of good practices for OTA prevention in coffee production 589 28.8 Conclusions and future outlook 592 Acknowledgements 592 References 592 Index 597
Responsibility: editors, Rajeev Bhat, Vicente M. Gómez-López.

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