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Practical scanning electron microscopy : electron and ion microprobe analysis

Author: Joseph Goldstein; Harvey Yakowitz
Publisher: New York : Plenum Press, [1975]
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Goldstein, Joseph, 1939-
Practical scanning electron microscopy.
New York : Plenum Press, [1975]
(OCoLC)624777327
Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Joseph Goldstein; Harvey Yakowitz
ISBN: 0306308207 9780306308208
OCLC Number: 1174600
Description: xviii, 582 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Contents: I Introduction.- I. Evolution of the Scanning Electron Microscope.- II. Evolution of the Electron Probe Microanalyzer.- III. Combination SEM-EPMA.- IV. Outline and Purpose of This Book.- References.- Bibliography of Texts and Monographs in SEM and EPMA.- II Electron Optics.- I. Electron Guns.- A. Tungsten Filament Cathode.- B. LaB6 Rod Cathode.- C. Field Emission Gun.- II. Electron Lenses.- A. General Properties of Magnetic Lenses.- B. Production of Minimum Spot Size.- C. Aberrations in the Electron Optical Column.- D. Design of the Final Lens.- III. Electron Probe Diameter dp vs. Electron Probe Current i.- A. Calculation of dmin and imax.- B. High-Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy.- IV. Depth of Field.- References.- III Electron Beam-Specimen Interaction.- I. Electron Scattering in Solids.- II. Electron Range and Spatial Distribution of the Primary Electron Beam.- III. Emitted Electrons-Backscattered Electrons.- IV. Emitted Electrons-Low-Energy Electrons.- V. X-Rays.- A. X-Ray Production.- B. X-Ray Absorption.- C. Depth of X-Ray Production.- VI. Auger Electrons.- VII. Summary-Range and Spatial Resolution.- References.- IV Image Formation in the Scanning Electron Microscope.- I. The SEM Imaging Process.- II. Signal Detectors.- A. Everhart-Thornley Detector.- B. Solid State Detector.- C. Specimen Current Detection.- D. Detection of Electromagnetic Radiation.- III. Contrast Formation.- A. Atomic Number Contrast.- B. Topographic Contrast.- C. Interpretation of Topographic Images.- IV. Signal Characteristics and Image Quality.- V. Resolution Limitations in the SEM.- A. Signal Limitations.- B. Resolution Limitation due to Beam-Specimen Interactions.- VI. Signal Processing.- A. Black Level Suppression.- B. Nonlinear Amplification (Gamma).- C. Signal Differentiation.- D. Y-Modulation.- VII. Image Defects.- VIII. Electron Penetration Effects in Images.- References.- V Contrast Mechanisms of Special Interest In Materials Science.- I. Introduction.- II. Electron Channeling Contrast.- A. Introduction.- B. The Mechanism of Electron Channeling Contrast.- C. The Electron Channeling Pattern.- D. Electron Optical and Signal Processing Conditions.- E. Electron Channeling Contrast from Polycrystals.- F. Selected Area Channeling Patterns (SACP).- G. Crystal Perfection Effects on Electron Channeling Patterns.- III. Magnetic Contrast in the SEM.- A. Introduction.- B. Classes of Magnetic Materials.- C. Type I Magnetic Contrast.- D. Type II Magnetic Contrast.- IV. Voltage Contrast.- V. Electron-Beam-Induced Current (EBIC).- VI. Cathodoluminescence.- References.- VI Specimen Preparation, Special Techniques, and Applications of the Scanning Electron Microscope.- I. Specimen Preparation for Materials Examination in the SEM.- II. Stereomicroscopy.- III. Dynamic Experiments in the SEM.- IV. Applications of the SEM.- A. Examination of Fractured Polycrystalline Iron.- B. Failure Analysis of a Composite Consisting of Borsic (Boron-Silicon Carbide) Rods in a Matrix of Plasma-Sprayed Aluminum.- C. Investigation of Returned Lunar Material-Glassy Spherules from Apollo 11.- D. Analysis of Corrosion Mechanism in a Steam Boiler Tube.- E. Rapid Phase Delineation in a Mineral Specimen.- F. Characterization of Wear Particles and Surface Degradation Produced by Wear in Bearing and Gear Tests.- G. Examination of Human Teeth.- H. Applications of Electron Channeling Contrast to Materials Problems.- I. Examination of Magnetically Written Information with Type I Magnetic Contrast.- J. Applications of Type II Magnetic Contrast.- K. Study of Reliability of Integrated Circuit Chips-Quality Control.- L. Observation of Ferroelectric Domains.- M. Electron-Beam Writing.- References.- VII X-Ray Spectral Measurement and Interpretation.- I. Introduction.- II. Crystal Spectrometers.- A. Basic Design.- B. The X-Ray Detector.- C. Detector Electronics.- III. Solid State X-Ray Detectors.- A. Operating Principles.- B. Pulse Pileup.- C. The Multichannel Analyzer.- IV. A Comparison of Crystal Spectrometers with Solid State X-Ray Detectors.- V. The Analysis of X-Ray Spectral Data.- A. General Considerations.- B. The Background Shape.- C. Characteristic X-Ray Production Efficiencies.- D. Indirect-to-Direct X-Ray Excitation Ratios.- References.- VIII Microanalysis of Thin Films and Fine Structure.- I. Introduction.- II. Factors Affecting X-Ray Spatial Resolution.- A. Probe Position and Stability.- B. Probe Current as a Function of Diameter.- C. Electron Beam Penetration and Scattering.- D. Indirect X-Ray Production.- III. Characterizing the X-Ray-Excited Volume.- A. Depth Distribution Profile.- B. Monte Carlo Calculations.- IV. Thin-Film Analysis.- V. Particles, Inclusions, and Fine Structures.- References.- IX Methods of Quantitative X-Ray Analysis Used in Electron Probe Microanalysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy.- I. Introduction.- II. The Absorption Factor kA.- A. Formulation.- B. Expression Used to Calculate $${f_p}$$.- C. Experimental Results and the $${f_p}$$ Expressions.- III. Atomic Number Correction kZ.- IV. The Characteristic Fluorescence Correction kF.- V. The Continuum Fluorescence Correction.- VI. Summary Discussion of the ZAF Method.- VII. The Empirical Method for Quantitative Analysis.- VIII. Comments on Analysis Involving Elements of Atomic Number of 11 or Less.- IX. Quantitative Analysis with Nonnormal Electron-Beam Incidence.- X. Analysis Involving Special Specimen Geometries.- XI. Discussion.- Appendix. The Analysis of an Iron-Silicon Alloy.- References.- X Computational Schemes for Quantitative X-Ray Analysis: On-Line Analysis with Small Computers.- I. Introduction.- II. Summary of Computational Schemes for Quantitative Analysis.- III. The FRAME Program.- A. Fundamentals of FRAME.- B. Limitations of FRAME.- C. Comparison of Results from FRAME and COR2.- D. Example Showing On-Line Analysis Using FRAME.- E. Conclusions.- IV. Data Reduction Based on the Hyperbolic Method.- V. Summary.- References.- XI Practical Aspects of X-Ray Microanalysis.- I. Grappling with the Unknown.- A. Elemental Identification.- B. Crystal Spectrometer Systems.- C. Elemental Distribution (X-Ray Area Scanning).- D. Applications of Elemental Identification and Distribution.- II. Specimen Preparation for Quantitative Analysis.- A. Surface Roughness and Polishing.- B. Choice of Coating Material.- C. Standards in Microprobe Analysis.- III. Applications Involving Compositional Analysis.- References.- XII Special Techniques in the X-Ray Analysis of Samples.- I. Light Element Analysis.- II. Precision and Sensitivity in X-Ray Analysis.- A. Statistical Basis for Calculating Precision and Sensitivity.- B. Sample Homogeneity.- C. Analytical Sensitivity.- D. Trace Element Analysis.- III. X-Ray Analysis at Interfaces.- A. Spatial Resolution.- B. X-Ray Absorption.- C. X-Ray Fluorescence.- IV. Soft X-Ray Emission Spectra.- V. Thin Films.- Appendix. Deconvolution Technique.- References.- XIII Biological Applications: Sample Preparation and Quantitation.- I. Sample Preparation.- A. Liquid Samples.- B. Thick Samples.- C. Particles.- D. Single Cells and Cell Organelles.- E. Sections.- F. Microincineration.- G. Coating.- II. Analysis.- A. Qualitative Analysis.- B. Quantitative Analysis.- III. Summary.- References.- XIV Ion Microprobe Mass Analysis.- I. Basic Concepts and Instrumentation.- II. Ion Microscope.- III. Ion Microprobe.- IV. Production of Ions.- V. Sputtering.- VI. Qualitative Analysis.- VII. Quantitative Analysis.- VIII. Dead-Time Losses.- IX. In-Depth Profiling.- X. Applications.- References.
Responsibility: edited by Joseph I. Goldstein and Harvey Yakowitz ; foreword by T.E. Everhart.

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