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Prediction of the environmental fate of chemicals

Author: Yusaf Samiullah
Publisher: London : Elsevier Applied Science, 1990.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:

Concern over the effects of chemicals in the environment has been increasing for many years. via a spillage or in an effluent, it is potentially subject to a wide variety of processes which may  Read more...

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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Yusaf Samiullah
ISBN: 1851664505 9781851664504
OCLC Number: 246555534
Description: XI, 285 Seiten : Illustrationen, Diagramme
Contents: 1 Introduction.- 2 Fundamental Properties of Chemicals.- 2.1. Introduction.- 2.2. Molecular and molar properties.- 2.2.1. Molecular structure.- 2.2.2. Additive and constitutive properties.- 2.2.3. The quantification of molecular structure.- 2.2.4. The development of an index of molecular connectivity.- 2.2.5. Applications of the molecular connectivity index.- 2.2.6. Structure-activity relationships and toxicology.- 2.3. Partition coefficients.- 2.3.1. Additive-constitutive properties.- 2.3.2. Fragment constants.- 2.3.3. Molecular connectivity.- 2.3.4. Experimental determination of partition coefficient.- 2.3.5. Activity coefficients.- 2.4. Partition coefficient and bioconcentration.- 3 Chemical Release and Environmental Pathways.- 3.1. Natural phenomena.- 3.2. Human activities.- 3.3. Manufacturing processes.- 3.4. Physical form and source description.- 3.5. Estimating releases.- 3.6. Environmental pathways.- 4 Modelling Strategies.- 4.1. Modelling philosophy.- 4.2. Model categories.- 4.3. Material balance and dimensional analysis.- 4.4. Partitioning models.- 4.5. Fugacity.- 4.5.1. Fugacity capacities (Z).- 4.5.2. Fugacity models.- 4.5.3. Calculation of fugacity capacity.- 4.6. System design.- 4.7. Model evaluation.- 5 The Soil Environment.- 5.1. Introduction.- 5.2. Physical processes.- 5.2.1. Adsorption.- 5.2.2. Diffusion.- 5.2.3. Volatilization.- 5.3. Chemical processes.- 5.3.1. Ionization.- 5.3.2. Hydrolysis.- 5.3.3. Oxidation/reduction.- 5.3.4. Complexation.- 5.4. Mathematical models of soil systems.- 5.4.1. Unsaturated soil zone (soil) modeling.- 5.4.2. Saturated soil zone (groundwater) modeling.- 5.4.3. Ranking models.- 5.4.4. Aquatic equilibrium models.- 6 The Aquatic Environment.- 6.1. Introduction.- 6.2. The hydrosphere.- 6.3. Physical processes.- 6.3.1. Hydrodynamic transport.- 6.3.2. Solubility in water.- 6.3.3. Volatilization from water.- 6.4. Chemical processes.- 6.4.1. Aqueous photolysis.- 6.4.2. Metals in water.- 6.5. Biodegradation..- 6.6. Mathematical models.- 6.6.1. Environmental rates approach.- 6.6.2. Model ecosystem approach.- 6.6.3. Aquatic fate models.- 7 The Atmospheric Environment.- 7.1. Introduction.- 7.2. Acidification pathways.- 7.2.1. Sulphur dioxide.- 7.2.2. Oxides of nitrogen.- 7.2.3. Chlorofluorocarbons and ozone depletion.- 7.3. Atmospheric sink mechanisms.- 7.3.1. Removal processes.- 7.4. Atmospheric residence time.- 7.5. Atmospheric dispersion modeling.- 7.5.1. Simple models.- 7.5.2. More complex models.- 8 Conclusions.- References and Bibliography.
Responsibility: Yusaf Samiullah.

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