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Preventing disease through healthy environments : a global assessment of the burden of disease from environmental risks

Author: Annette Prüss-Üstün; C Corvalán; Robert Bos; Maria Neira, Dr.; World Health Organization,
Publisher: Geneva, Switzerland : World Health Organization, [2016] ©2016
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : International government publication : English : [Second edition]View all editions and formats
Summary:
"The main message emerging from this new comprehensive global assessment is that premature death and disease can be prevented through healthier environments--and to a significant degree. Analysing the latest data on the environment-disease nexus and the devastating impact of environmental hazards and risks on global health, backed up by expert opinion, this report covers more than 130 diseases and injuries. The  Read more...
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Material Type: Document, Government publication, International government publication, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Annette Prüss-Üstün; C Corvalán; Robert Bos; Maria Neira, Dr.; World Health Organization,
ISBN: 9789241565196 9241565195
OCLC Number: 944520548
Description: 1 online resource (xxiii, 147 pages) : color illustrations
Contents: Acronyms and abbreviations --
Preface --
Executive summary --
1. Introduction --
2. Methods: Estimating the environmental burden of disease --
The environment: A contextual determinant of health --
The link with social determinants of health --
What is meant by the population attributable fraction of a risk factor? --
Estimating the population attributable fraction --
Comparative risk assessment --
Calculations based on limited epidemiological data --
Disease transmission pathway --
Expert survey --
Combining risk factors for individual diseases --
Estimating the burden of disease attributable to the environment --
Estimating uncertainties --
3. Results: A systematic analysis of fractions attributable to the environment, by disease Infectious and parasitic diseases --
Infectious and parasitic diseases --
Respiratory infections --
Diarrhoeal diseases --
Intestinal nematode infections --
Malaria --
Trachoma --
Schistosomiasis --
Chagas disease --
Lymphatic filariasis --
Onchocerciasis --
Leishmaniasis --
Dengue --
Japanese encephalitis --
HIV/AIDS --
Sexually transmitted diseases --
Hepatitis B and C --
Tuberculosis --
Other infectious and parasitic diseases --
Neonatal and nutritional conditions --
Neonatal conditions --
Protein-energy malnutrition --
Noncommunicable diseases --
Cancers --
Mental, behavioural and neurological disorders --
Cataracts --
Hearing loss --
Ischaemic heart disease --
Stroke --
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease --
Asthma --
Musculoskeletal diseases --
Congenital anomalies --
Other noncommunicable diseases --
Risks factors for noncommunicable diseases from other areas but related to the environment --
Overweight and obesity --
Physical inactivity --
Unintentional injuries --
Road traffic accidents --
Unintentional poisonings --
Falls --
Fires, heat and hot substances --
Drownings --
Other unintentional injuries --
Intentional injuries --
Self-harm --
Interpersonal violence --
The link between the environment and demographics --
Global results of the analysis by disease and population subgroups --
Disease specific results --
Age differences --
Gender differences --
Regional and country differences --
Trends --
4. Discussion: Leveraging environment-health links --
Environment, health and the Sustainable Development Goals --
Strengths and weaknesses of the analysis --
5. Conclusion: Towards healthy environments --
Key findings --
Reducing the burden of unhealthy environments. Annexes --
Annex 1. WHO Member States and country groupings by income region --
Annex 2. Results tables --
Annex 3:. Technical annex on methods --
Annex 3.1. Calculation of population attributable fractions --
Annex 3.2. Combination of risk factors for one disease: Additional information --
Annex 3.3. Additional information on estimation of PAFs for selected diseases --
References --
Acknowledgments --
Photo credits.
Other Titles: Global assessment of the burden of disease from environmental risks
Responsibility: A Prüss-Ustün, J Wolf, C Corvalán, R. Bos and M. Neira.

Abstract:

"The main message emerging from this new comprehensive global assessment is that premature death and disease can be prevented through healthier environments--and to a significant degree. Analysing the latest data on the environment-disease nexus and the devastating impact of environmental hazards and risks on global health, backed up by expert opinion, this report covers more than 130 diseases and injuries. The analysis shows that 23% of global deaths (and 26% of deaths among children under five) are due to modifiable environmental factors--and therefore can be prevented. Stroke, ischaemic heart disease, diarrhoea and cancers head the list. People in low-income countries bear the greatest disease burden, with the exception of noncommunicable diseases. The report's unequivocal evidence should add impetus to coordinating global efforts to promote healthy environments--often through well-established, cost-effective interventions. This analysis will inform those who want to better understand the transformational spirit of the Sustainable Development Goals agreed by Heads of State in September 2015. The results of the analysis underscore the pressing importance of stronger intersectoral action to create healthier environments that will contribute to sustainably improving the lives of millions around the world."

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