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Principles of animal locomotion

Author: R McNeill Alexander
Publisher: Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, ©2003.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
How can geckoes walk on the ceiling and basilisk lizards run over water? What are the aerodynamic effects that enable small insects to fly? What are the relative merits of squids' jet-propelled swimming and fishes' tail-powered swimming? Why do horses change gait as they increase speed? What determines our own vertical leap? Recent technical advances have greatly increased researchers' ability to answer these  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Material Type: Document
Document Type: Book, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: R McNeill Alexander
ISBN: 0691086788 9780691086781 1400849519 9781400849512
OCLC Number: 1058958355
Language Note: English.
Notes: Description based upon print version of record.
15.1. Undulating Fishes.
Description: 1 online resource (385 p.)
Contents: Cover; Title; Copyright; Contents; PREFACE; Chapter 1. The Best Way to Travel; 1.1. Fitness; 1.2. Speed; 1.3. Acceleration and Maneuverability; 1.4. Endurance; 1.5. Economy of Energy; 1.6. Stability; 1.7. Compromises; 1.8. Constraints; 1.9. Optimization Theory; 1.10. Gaits; Chapter 2. Muscle, the Motor; 2.1. How Muscles Exert Force; 2.2. Shortening and Lengthening Muscle; 2.3. Power Output of Muscles; 2.4. Pennation Patterns and Moment Arms; 2.5. Power Consumption; 2.6. Some Other Types of Muscle; Chapter 3. Energy Requirements for Locomotion; 3.1. Kinetic Energy. 3.2. Gravitational Potential Energy3.3. Elastic Strain Energy; 3.4. Work That Does Not Increase the Body's Mechanical Energy; 3.5. Work Requirements; 3.6. Oscillatory Movements; Chapter 4. Consequences of Size Differences; 4.1. Geometric Similarity, Allometry, and the Pace of Life; 4.2. Dynamic Similarity; 4.3. Elastic Similarity and Stress Similarity; Chapter 5. Methods for the Study of Locomotion; 5.1. Cinematography and Video Recording; 5.2. Stationary Locomotion; 5.3. Measurement of Energy Consumption; 5.4. Observing Flow; 5.5. Forces and Pressures; 5.6. Recording Muscle Action. 5.7. Recording Movement at a Distance5.8. Properties of Materials; Chapter 6. Alternative Techniques for Locomotion on Land; 6.1. Two-Anchor Crawling; 6.2. Crawling by Peristalsis; 6.3. Serpentine Crawling; 6.4. Froglike Hopping; 6.5. An Inelastic Kangaroo; 6.6. A Minimal Model of Walking; 6.7. The Synthetic Wheel; 6.8. Walkers with Heavy Legs; 6.9. Spring-Mass Models of Running; 6.10. Comparisons; Chapter 7. Walking, Running, and Hopping; 7.1. Speed; 7.2. Gaits; 7.3. Forces and Energy; 7.4. Energy-Saving Springs; 7.5. Internal Kinetic Energy; 7.6. Metabolic Cost of Transport. 7.7. Prediction of Optimal Gaits7.8. Soft Ground, Hills, and Loads; 7.9. Stability; 7.10. Maneuverability; Chapter 8. Climbing and Jumping; 8.1. Standing Jumps; 8.2. Leg Design and Jumping Technique; 8.3. Size and Jumping; 8.4. Jumping from Branches; 8.5. Climbing Vertical Surfaces and Walking on the Ceiling; Chapter 9. Crawling and Burrowing; 9.1. Worms; 9.2. Insect Larvae; 9.3. Molluscs; 9.4. Reptiles; 9.5. Mammals; Chapter 10. Gliding and Soaring; 10.1. Drag; 10.2. Lift; 10.3. Drag on Aerofoils; 10.4. Gliding Performance; 10.5. Stability; 10.6. Soaring; Chapter 11. Hovering. 11.1. Airflow around Hovering Animals11.2. Lift Generation; 11.3. Power for Hovering; Chapter 12. Powered Forward Flight; 12.1. Aerodynamics of Flapping Flight; 12.2. Power Requirements for Flight; 12.3. Optimization of Flight; Chapter 13. Moving on the Surface of Water; 13.1. Fisher Spiders; 13.2. Basilisk Lizards; 13.3. Surface Swimmers; Chapter 14. Swimming with Oars and Hydrofoils; 14.1. Froude Efficiency; 14.2. Drag-Powered Swimming; 14.3. Swimming Powered by Lift on Limbs or Paired Fins; 14.4. Swimming with Hydrofoil Tails; 14.5. Porpoising; Chapter 15. Swimming by Undulation.
Responsibility: R. McNeill Alexander.

Abstract:

How can geckoes walk on the ceiling and basilisk lizards run over water? What are the aerodynamic effects that enable small insects to fly? What are the relative merits of squids' jet-propelled swimming and fishes' tail-powered swimming? Why do horses change gait as they increase speed? What determines our own vertical leap? Recent technical advances have greatly increased researchers' ability to answer these questions with certainty and in detail. This text provides an up-to-date overview of how animals run, walk, jump, crawl, swim, soar, hover, and fly. Excluding only the tiny crea.

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