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Principles of turbomachinery

Author: S A Korpela
Publisher: Hoboken, NJ, USA : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2019.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : English : Second editionView all editions and formats
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
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Korpela, S. A., author.
Principles of turbomachinery
Hoboken, NJ, USA : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2019
(DLC) 2019001992
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: S A Korpela
ISBN: 9781119518099 9781119518112 1119518113 1119518091
OCLC Number: 1083156994
Description: 1 online resource
Contents: <P>Foreword xv</p> <p>Acknowledgments xvii</p> <p><b>1 Introduction 1</b></p> <p>1.1 Energy and Fluid machines 1</p> <p>1.1.1 Energy conversion of fossil fuels 1</p> <p>1.1.2 Steam turbines 2</p> <p>1.1.3 Gas turbines 3</p> <p>1.1.4 Hydraulic turbines 4</p> <p>1.1.5 Wind turbines 5</p> <p>1.1.6 Compressors 5</p> <p>1.1.7 Pumps and blowers 5</p> <p>1.1.8 Other uses and issues 6</p> <p>1.2 Historical survey 7</p> <p>1.2.1 Water power 7</p> <p>1.2.2 Wind turbines 8</p> <p>1.2.3 Steam turbines 9</p> <p>1.2.4 Jet propulsion 10</p> <p>1.2.5 Industrial turbines 11</p> <p>1.2.6 Pumps and compressors 12</p> <p>1.2.7 Note on units 12</p> <p><b>2 Principles of Thermodynamics and Fluid Flow 15</b></p> <p>2.1 Mass conservation principle 15</p> <p>2.2 First law of thermodynamics 17</p> <p>2.3 Second law of thermodynamics 19</p> <p>2.3.1 Tds-equations 19</p> <p>2.4 Equations of state 20</p> <p>2.4.1 Properties of steam 20</p> <p>2.4.2 Ideal gases 27</p> <p>2.4.3 Air tables and isentropic relations 29</p> <p>2.4.4 Ideal gas mixtures 32</p> <p>2.4.5 Incompressibility 35</p> <p>2.4.6 Stagnation state 36</p> <p>2.5 Efficiency 36</p> <p>2.5.1 Efficiency measures 37</p> <p>2.5.2 Thermodynamic losses 42</p> <p>2.5.3 Incompressible fluid 44</p> <p>2.5.4 Compressible flows 45</p> <p>2.6 Momentum balance 47</p> <p>Exercises 54</p> <p><b>3 Compressible Flow 61</b></p> <p>3.1 Mach number and the speed of sound 61</p> <p>3.1.1 Mach number relations 63</p> <p>3.2 Isentropic ow with area change 65</p> <p>3.2.1 Converging nozzle 69</p> <p>3.3 Influence of friction on ow through nozzles 71</p> <p>3.3.1 Polytropic efficiency 71</p> <p>3.3.2 Loss coefficients 74</p> <p>3.3.3 Nozzle efficiency 78</p> <p>3.3.4 Combined Fanno ow and area change 79</p> <p>3.4 Supersonic nozzle and normal shocks 84</p> <p>3.4.1 Converging{diverging nozzle 84</p> <p>3.5 Normal Shocks 87</p> <p>3.5.1 Rankine{Hugoniot relations 92</p> <p>3.6 Moving shocks 94</p> <p>3.7 Oblique shocks and expansion fans 96</p> <p>3.7.1 Mach waves 97</p> <p>3.7.2 Oblique shocks 97</p> <p>3.7.3 Supersonic ow over a rounded concave corner 103</p> <p>3.7.4 Reected shocks and shock interactions 104</p> <p>3.7.5 Mach reflection 106</p> <p>3.7.6 Detached oblique shocks 107</p> <p>3.7.7 Prandtl{Meyer theory 109</p> <p>Exercises 120</p> <p><b>4 Gas dynamics of wet steam 125</b></p> <p>4.1 Compressible ow of wet steam 126</p> <p>4.1.1 Clausius-Clapeyron equation 126</p> <p>4.1.2 Adiabatic exponent 127</p> <p>4.2 Conservation equations for wet steam 131</p> <p>4.2.1 Relaxation times 132</p> <p>4.2.2 Conservation equations in their working form 137</p> <p>4.2.3 Sound speeds 139</p> <p>4.3 Relaxation zones 142</p> <p>4.3.1 Type I wave 143</p> <p>4.3.2 Type II wave 147</p> <p>4.3.3 Type III wave 149</p> <p>4.3.4 Combined relaxation 149</p> <p>4.3.5 Flow in a variable area nozzle 153</p> <p>4.4 Shocks in wet steam 154</p> <p>4.4.1 Evaporation in the ow after the shock 157</p> <p>4.5 Condensation shocks 161</p> <p>4.5.1 Jump conditions across a condensation shock 163</p> <p>Exercises 167</p> <p><b>5 Principles of Turbomachine Analysis 171</b></p> <p>5.1 Velocity triangles 172</p> <p>5.2 Moment of momentum balance 175</p> <p>5.3 Energy transfer in turbomachines 176</p> <p>5.3.1 Trothalpy and specific work in terms of velocities 180</p> <p>5.3.2 Degree of reaction 183</p> <p>5.4 Utilization 184</p> <p>5.5 Scaling and similitude 191</p> <p>5.5.1 Similitude 192</p> <p>5.5.2 Incompressible ow 192</p> <p>5.5.3 Shape parameter or specific speed and specific diameter 195</p> <p>5.5.4 Compressible ow analysis 200</p> <p>5.6 Performance characteristics 201</p> <p>5.6.1 Compressor performance map 201</p> <p>5.6.2 Turbine performance map 203</p> <p>Exercises 204</p> <p><b>6 Steam Turbines 209</b></p> <p>6.1 Introduction 209</p> <p>6.2 Impulse turbines 211</p> <p>6.2.1 Single-stage impulse turbine 211</p> <p>6.2.2 Pressure compounding 220</p> <p>6.2.3 Blade shapes 224</p> <p>6.2.4 Velocity compounding 226</p> <p>6.3 Stage with zero reaction 232</p> <p>6.4 Loss coefficients 234</p> <p>Exercises 236</p> <p><b>7 Axial Turbines 239</b></p> <p>7.1 Introduction 239</p> <p>7.2 Turbine stage analysis 241</p> <p>7.3 Flow and loading coefficients and reaction ratio 245</p> <p>7.3.1 Fifty percent (50%) stage 250</p> <p>7.3.2 Zero percent (0%) reaction stage 253</p> <p>7.3.3 O --
design operation 255</p> <p>7.3.4 Variable axial velocity 257</p> <p>7.4 Three-dimensional ow 258</p> <p>7.5 Radial equilibrium 259</p> <p>7.5.1 Free vortex ow 260</p> <p>7.5.2 Fixed blade angle 264</p> <p>7.6 Constant mass flux 264</p> <p>7.7 Turbine efficiency and losses 267</p> <p>7.7.1 Soderberg loss coefficients 267</p> <p>7.7.2 Stage efficiency 268</p> <p>7.7.3 Stagnation pressure losses 270</p> <p>7.7.4 Performance charts 275</p> <p>7.7.5 Zweifel correlation 279</p> <p>7.7.6 Further discussion of losses 281</p> <p>7.7.7 Ainley{Mathieson correlation 283</p> <p>7.7.8 Secondary loss 286</p> <p>7.8 Multistage turbine 291</p> <p>7.8.1 Reheat factor in a multistage turbine 291</p> <p>7.8.2 Polytropic or small-stage efficiency 294</p> <p>Exercises 295</p> <p><b>8 Axial Compressors 301</b></p> <p>8.1 Compressor stage analysis 302</p> <p>8.1.1 Stage temperature and pressure rise 303</p> <p>8.1.2 Analysis of a repeating stage 305</p> <p>8.2 Design deflection 311</p> <p>8.2.1 Compressor performance map 314</p> <p>8.3 Radial equilibrium 315</p> <p>8.3.1 Modified free vortex velocity distribution 316</p> <p>8.3.2 Velocity distribution with zero-power exponent 319</p> <p>8.3.3 Velocity distribution with first-power exponent 321</p> <p>8.4 Diffusion factor 322</p> <p>8.4.1 Momentum thickness of a boundary layer 324</p> <p>8.5 Efficiency and losses 328</p> <p>8.5.1 Efficiency 328</p> <p>8.5.2 Parametric calculations 331</p> <p>8.6 Cascade aerodynamics 333</p> <p>8.6.1 Blade shapes and terms 333</p> <p>8.6.2 Blade forces 334</p> <p>8.6.3 Other losses 337</p> <p>8.6.4 Diffuser performance 337</p> <p>8.6.5 Flow deviation and incidence 338</p> <p>8.6.6 Multi-stage compressor 340</p> <p>8.6.7 Compressibility effects 341</p> <p>8.6.8 Design of a compressor 342</p> <p>Stage 1. 343</p> <p>Exercises 348</p> <p><b>9 Centrifugal Compressors and Pumps 353</b></p> <p>9.1 Compressor analysis 354</p> <p>9.1.1 Slip factor 355</p> <p>9.1.2 Pressure ratio 357</p> <p>9.2 Inlet design 364</p> <p>9.2.1 Choking of the inducer 369</p> <p>9.3 Exit design 371</p> <p>9.3.1 Performance characteristics 371</p> <p>9.3.2 Diffusion ratio 374</p> <p>9.3.3 Blade height 375</p> <p>9.4 Vaneless diffuser 376</p> <p>9.5 Centrifugal pumps 381</p> <p>9.5.1 Specific speed and specific diameter 385</p> <p>9.6 Fans 393</p> <p>9.7 Cavitation 393</p> <p>9.8 Diffuser and volute design 396</p> <p>9.8.1 Vaneless diffuser 396</p> <p>9.8.2 Volute design 397</p> <p>Exercises 400</p> <p><b>10 Radial in Flow Turbines 405</b></p> <p>10.1 Turbine analysis 406</p> <p>10.2 Efficiency 411</p> <p>10.3 Specific speed and specific diameter 415</p> <p>10.4 Stator ow 421</p> <p>10.4.1 Loss coefficients for stator ow 425</p> <p>10.5 Design of the inlet of a radial in flow turbine 429</p> <p>10.5.1 Minimum inlet Mach number 430</p> <p>10.5.2 Blade stagnation Mach number 436</p> <p>10.5.3 Inlet relative Mach number 437</p> <p>10.6 Design of the Exit 438</p> <p>10.6.1 Minimum exit Mach number 439</p> <p>10.6.2 Radius ratio r3s=r2 440</p> <p>10.6.3 Blade height-to-radius ratio b2=r2 442</p> <p>10.6.4 Optimum incidence angle and the number of blades 443</p> <p>Exercises 448</p> <p><b>11 Hydraulic Turbin
Responsibility: Seppo A. Korpela, The Ohio State University.

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Primary Entity

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Foreword xv

Acknowledgments xvii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Energy and Fluid machines 1

1.1.1 Energy conversion of fossil fuels 1

1.1.2 Steam turbines 2

1.1.3 Gas turbines 3

1.1.4 Hydraulic turbines 4

1.1.5 Wind turbines 5

1.1.6 Compressors 5

1.1.7 Pumps and blowers 5

1.1.8 Other uses and issues 6

1.2 Historical survey 7

1.2.1 Water power 7

1.2.2 Wind turbines 8

1.2.3 Steam turbines 9

1.2.4 Jet propulsion 10

1.2.5 Industrial turbines 11

1.2.6 Pumps and compressors 12

1.2.7 Note on units 12

2 Principles of Thermodynamics and Fluid Flow 15

2.1 Mass conservation principle 15

2.2 First law of thermodynamics 17

2.3 Second law of thermodynamics 19

2.3.1 Tds-equations 19

2.4 Equations of state 20

2.4.1 Properties of steam 20

2.4.2 Ideal gases 27

2.4.3 Air tables and isentropic relations 29

2.4.4 Ideal gas mixtures 32

2.4.5 Incompressibility 35

2.4.6 Stagnation state 36

2.5 Efficiency 36

2.5.1 Efficiency measures 37

2.5.2 Thermodynamic losses 42

2.5.3 Incompressible fluid 44

2.5.4 Compressible flows 45

2.6 Momentum balance 47

Exercises 54

3 Compressible Flow 61

3.1 Mach number and the speed of sound 61

3.1.1 Mach number relations 63

3.2 Isentropic ow with area change 65

3.2.1 Converging nozzle 69

3.3 Influence of friction on ow through nozzles 71

3.3.1 Polytropic efficiency 71

3.3.2 Loss coefficients 74

3.3.3 Nozzle efficiency 78

3.3.4 Combined Fanno ow and area change 79

3.4 Supersonic nozzle and normal shocks 84

3.4.1 Converging{diverging nozzle 84

3.5 Normal Shocks 87

3.5.1 Rankine{Hugoniot relations 92

3.6 Moving shocks 94

3.7 Oblique shocks and expansion fans 96

3.7.1 Mach waves 97

3.7.2 Oblique shocks 97

3.7.3 Supersonic ow over a rounded concave corner 103

3.7.4 Reected shocks and shock interactions 104

3.7.5 Mach reflection 106

3.7.6 Detached oblique shocks 107

3.7.7 Prandtl{Meyer theory 109

Exercises 120

4 Gas dynamics of wet steam 125

4.1 Compressible ow of wet steam 126

4.1.1 Clausius-Clapeyron equation 126

4.1.2 Adiabatic exponent 127

4.2 Conservation equations for wet steam 131

4.2.1 Relaxation times 132

4.2.2 Conservation equations in their working form 137

4.2.3 Sound speeds 139

4.3 Relaxation zones 142

4.3.1 Type I wave 143

4.3.2 Type II wave 147

4.3.3 Type III wave 149

4.3.4 Combined relaxation 149

4.3.5 Flow in a variable area nozzle 153

4.4 Shocks in wet steam 154

4.4.1 Evaporation in the ow after the shock 157

4.5 Condensation shocks 161

4.5.1 Jump conditions across a condensation shock 163

Exercises 167

5 Principles of Turbomachine Analysis 171

5.1 Velocity triangles 172

5.2 Moment of momentum balance 175

5.3 Energy transfer in turbomachines 176

5.3.1 Trothalpy and specific work in terms of velocities 180

5.3.2 Degree of reaction 183

5.4 Utilization 184

5.5 Scaling and similitude 191

5.5.1 Similitude 192

5.5.2 Incompressible ow 192

5.5.3 Shape parameter or specific speed and specific diameter 195

5.5.4 Compressible ow analysis 200

5.6 Performance characteristics 201

5.6.1 Compressor performance map 201

5.6.2 Turbine performance map 203

Exercises 204

6 Steam Turbines 209

6.1 Introduction 209

6.2 Impulse turbines 211

6.2.1 Single-stage impulse turbine 211

6.2.2 Pressure compounding 220

6.2.3 Blade shapes 224

6.2.4 Velocity compounding 226

6.3 Stage with zero reaction 232

6.4 Loss coefficients 234

Exercises 236

7 Axial Turbines 239

7.1 Introduction 239

7.2 Turbine stage analysis 241

7.3 Flow and loading coefficients and reaction ratio 245

7.3.1 Fifty percent (50%) stage 250

7.3.2 Zero percent (0%) reaction stage 253

7.3.3 O -- design operation 255

7.3.4 Variable axial velocity 257

7.4 Three-dimensional ow 258

7.5 Radial equilibrium 259

7.5.1 Free vortex ow 260

7.5.2 Fixed blade angle 264

7.6 Constant mass flux 264

7.7 Turbine efficiency and losses 267

7.7.1 Soderberg loss coefficients 267

7.7.2 Stage efficiency 268

7.7.3 Stagnation pressure losses 270

7.7.4 Performance charts 275

7.7.5 Zweifel correlation 279

7.7.6 Further discussion of losses 281

7.7.7 Ainley{Mathieson correlation 283

7.7.8 Secondary loss 286

7.8 Multistage turbine 291

7.8.1 Reheat factor in a multistage turbine 291

7.8.2 Polytropic or small-stage efficiency 294

Exercises 295

8 Axial Compressors 301

8.1 Compressor stage analysis 302

8.1.1 Stage temperature and pressure rise 303

8.1.2 Analysis of a repeating stage 305

8.2 Design deflection 311

8.2.1 Compressor performance map 314

8.3 Radial equilibrium 315

8.3.1 Modified free vortex velocity distribution 316

8.3.2 Velocity distribution with zero-power exponent 319

8.3.3 Velocity distribution with first-power exponent 321

8.4 Diffusion factor 322

8.4.1 Momentum thickness of a boundary layer 324

8.5 Efficiency and losses 328

8.5.1 Efficiency 328

8.5.2 Parametric calculations 331

8.6 Cascade aerodynamics 333

8.6.1 Blade shapes and terms 333

8.6.2 Blade forces 334

8.6.3 Other losses 337

8.6.4 Diffuser performance 337

8.6.5 Flow deviation and incidence 338

8.6.6 Multi-stage compressor 340

8.6.7 Compressibility effects 341

8.6.8 Design of a compressor 342

Stage 1. 343

Exercises 348

9 Centrifugal Compressors and Pumps 353

9.1 Compressor analysis 354

9.1.1 Slip factor 355

9.1.2 Pressure ratio 357

9.2 Inlet design 364

9.2.1 Choking of the inducer 369

9.3 Exit design 371

9.3.1 Performance characteristics 371

9.3.2 Diffusion ratio 374

9.3.3 Blade height 375

9.4 Vaneless diffuser 376

9.5 Centrifugal pumps 381

9.5.1 Specific speed and specific diameter 385

9.6 Fans 393

9.7 Cavitation 393

9.8 Diffuser and volute design 396

9.8.1 Vaneless diffuser 396

9.8.2 Volute design 397

Exercises 400

10 Radial in Flow Turbines 405

10.1 Turbine analysis 406

10.2 Efficiency 411

10.3 Specific speed and specific diameter 415

10.4 Stator ow 421

10.4.1 Loss coefficients for stator ow 425

10.5 Design of the inlet of a radial in flow turbine 429

10.5.1 Minimum inlet Mach number 430

10.5.2 Blade stagnation Mach number 436

10.5.3 Inlet relative Mach number 437

10.6 Design of the Exit 438

10.6.1 Minimum exit Mach number 439

10.6.2 Radius ratio r3s=r2 440

10.6.3 Blade height-to-radius ratio b2=r2 442

10.6.4 Optimum incidence angle and the number of blades 443

Exercises 448

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