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Problèmes de production avec transport des composants

Author: Carlos Heitor Pereira LiberalinoAlain QuilliotSafia Kedad SidhoumAlexandre DolguiAziz MoukrimAll authors
Publisher: 2012.
Dissertation: Thèse de doctorat : Informatique : Clermont-Ferrand 2 : 2012.
Edition/Format:   Computer file : Document : Thesis/dissertation : French
Summary:
Dans ce travail nous considérons des problèmes de planification de production sur plusieurs sites avec transport de produits entre ces sites. L'objectif est de synchroniser les deux problèmes (planification et transport) et de construire une solution globale. Le système de production sur chaque site est modélisé comme un problème de Capacitated Lot-Sizing où nous travaillons avec stock et ressources. Le
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Genre/Form: Thèses et écrits académiques
Material Type: Document, Thesis/dissertation, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Carlos Heitor Pereira Liberalino; Alain Quilliot; Safia Kedad Sidhoum; Alexandre Dolgui; Aziz Moukrim; Mauricio Cardoso de Souza; Christophe Duhamel; Université Blaise Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand).; École doctorale des sciences pour l'ingénieur (Clermont-Ferrand).; Laboratoire d'Informatique, de Modélisation et d'Optimisation des Systèmes.
OCLC Number: 819197502
Notes: Titre provenant de l'écran-titre.
Description: 1 online resource
Responsibility: Carlos Heitor Pereira Liberalino ; sous la direction de Alain Quilliot.

Abstract:

Dans ce travail nous considérons des problèmes de planification de production sur plusieurs sites avec transport de produits entre ces sites. L'objectif est de synchroniser les deux problèmes (planification et transport) et de construire une solution globale. Le système de production sur chaque site est modélisé comme un problème de Capacitated Lot-Sizing où nous travaillons avec stock et ressources. Le transport de produits entre les sites se ramène à une version simplifiée du Vehicle Routing Problem où le temps est discrétisé. D'abord nous proposons un modèle linéaire en nombres entiers que nous appelons le « Lot-Sizing and Vehicle Routing Problem » (LSVRP). Puis nous présentons deux cas particuliers : le Single-item LSVRP (SLSVRP) et le Single-level LSVRP (1-LSVRP). Les problèmes sont traités ici par six heuristiques que nous avons développé. Quatre de ces méthodes sont des heuristiques qui utilisent la programmation en nombres entiers et prennent en compte la relaxation linéaire de quelques variables du problème. Elles s'appuient sur l'exploration partielle de l'arbre de décision et la fixation de variables. Les deux autres sont spécifiques pour les cas particuliers. La première, qui traite le S-LSVRP, est basée sur la propagation des ordres de production sur chaque site. Puis à chaque itération elle calcule le plan de transport compatible et essaie d'améliorer la solution en modifiant la production sur les sites. L'autre méthode consiste en une relaxation lagrangienne qui travaille sur une modélisation du 1-LSVRP en un problème de flot. Des résultats numériques et des analyses sont présentés pour évaluer l'efficacité de ces heuristiques.

In this work we consider some problems of scheduling both a production distributed on several sites and the transportation of items between those sites. By doing so, the objective is to synchronize the two components and to build a better overall solution. The production system on each site is modeled as a Capacitated Lot-Sizing Problem where stock both on resources and produced items is available. The inter-site items transportation is a simplified version of the Vehicle Routing Problem where time is discretized. We first propose a mixed integer linear programming formulation that we call “The Lot-Sizing and Vehicle Routing Problem” (LSVRP). Then we present two particular cases : The Single-item LSVRP (S-LSVRP) and The Single-level LSVRP (1-LSVRP). All those cases are treated here by the six heuristics we develloped. Four of those methods are MIP based heuristics and take in account the the linear relaxation of some variables of the problem. They rely on partial decision tree exploration along with variable fixing. The other two are specifics for the two particular cases. The one who treats the S-LSVRP is based on production order propagation over the sites. Then, at each iteration, it computes a compatible transportation schedule and it tries to improve the solution by modifying the production on the sites. The other method consists in a lagrangian relaxation that works with an adaptation of the 1-LSVRP into a flow problem. Computational results and analysis are presented to evaluate the efficiency of those heuristics.

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Primary Entity<\/h3>\n
<http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/819197502<\/a>> # Probl\u00E8mes de production avec transport des composants<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nbgn:Thesis<\/a>, schema:MediaObject<\/a>, bgn:ComputerFile<\/a>, schema:CreativeWork<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nbgn:inSupportOf<\/a> \"Th\u00E8se de doctorat : Informatique : Clermont-Ferrand 2 : 2012.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:oclcnum<\/a> \"819197502<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:placeOfPublication<\/a> <http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/vocabulary\/countries\/fr<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Thing\/planification<\/a>> ; # Planification<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Topic\/programmation_heuristique<\/a>> ; # Programmation heuristique<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Thing\/transport<\/a>> ; # Transport<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Thing\/multiflot<\/a>> ; # Multiflot<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Thing\/heuristique<\/a>> ; # Heuristique<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Topic\/production_planification<\/a>> ; # Production--Planification<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Thing\/relaxation_lagrangienne<\/a>> ; # Relaxation lagrangienne<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:author<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Person\/liberalino_carlos_heitor_pereira_1978<\/a>> ; # Carlos Heitor Pereira Liberalino<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Person\/dolgui_alexandre_1961<\/a>> ; # Alexandre Dolgui<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Person\/duhamel_christophe<\/a>> ; # Christophe Duhamel<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Person\/souza_mauricio_cardoso_de_1971<\/a>> ; # Mauricio Cardoso de Souza<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Organization\/universite_blaise_pascal_clermont_ferrand<\/a>> ; # Universit\u00E9 Blaise Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand).<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Organization\/laboratoire_d_informatique_de_modelisation_et_d_optimisation_des_systemes<\/a>> ; # Laboratoire d\'Informatique, de Mod\u00E9lisation et d\'Optimisation des Syst\u00E8mes.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Person\/moukrim_aziz_19<\/a>> ; # Aziz Moukrim<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Person\/quilliot_alain<\/a>> ; # Alain Quilliot<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Person\/kedad_sidhoum_safia_1984<\/a>> ; # Safia Kedad Sidhoum<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Organization\/ecole_doctorale_des_sciences_pour_l_ingenieur_clermont_ferrand<\/a>> ; # \u00C9cole doctorale des sciences pour l\'ing\u00E9nieur (Clermont-Ferrand).<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:datePublished<\/a> \"2012<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"In this work we consider some problems of scheduling both a production distributed on several sites and the transportation of items between those sites. By doing so, the objective is to synchronize the two components and to build a better overall solution. The production system on each site is modeled as a Capacitated Lot-Sizing Problem where stock both on resources and produced items is available. The inter-site items transportation is a simplified version of the Vehicle Routing Problem where time is discretized. We first propose a mixed integer linear programming formulation that we call \u201CThe Lot-Sizing and Vehicle Routing Problem\u201D (LSVRP). Then we present two particular cases : The Single-item LSVRP (S-LSVRP) and The Single-level LSVRP (1-LSVRP). All those cases are treated here by the six heuristics we develloped. Four of those methods are MIP based heuristics and take in account the the linear relaxation of some variables of the problem. They rely on partial decision tree exploration along with variable fixing. The other two are specifics for the two particular cases. The one who treats the S-LSVRP is based on production order propagation over the sites. Then, at each iteration, it computes a compatible transportation schedule and it tries to improve the solution by modifying the production on the sites. The other method consists in a lagrangian relaxation that works with an adaptation of the 1-LSVRP into a flow problem. Computational results and analysis are presented to evaluate the efficiency of those heuristics.<\/span>\"@fr<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"Dans ce travail nous consid\u00E9rons des probl\u00E8mes de planification de production sur plusieurs sites avec transport de produits entre ces sites. L\'objectif est de synchroniser les deux probl\u00E8mes (planification et transport) et de construire une solution globale. Le syst\u00E8me de production sur chaque site est mod\u00E9lis\u00E9 comme un probl\u00E8me de Capacitated Lot-Sizing o\u00F9 nous travaillons avec stock et ressources. Le transport de produits entre les sites se ram\u00E8ne \u00E0 une version simplifi\u00E9e du Vehicle Routing Problem o\u00F9 le temps est discr\u00E9tis\u00E9. D\'abord nous proposons un mod\u00E8le lin\u00E9aire en nombres entiers que nous appelons le \u00AB Lot-Sizing and Vehicle Routing Problem \u00BB (LSVRP). Puis nous pr\u00E9sentons deux cas particuliers : le Single-item LSVRP (SLSVRP) et le Single-level LSVRP (1-LSVRP). Les probl\u00E8mes sont trait\u00E9s ici par six heuristiques que nous avons d\u00E9velopp\u00E9. Quatre de ces m\u00E9thodes sont des heuristiques qui utilisent la programmation en nombres entiers et prennent en compte la relaxation lin\u00E9aire de quelques variables du probl\u00E8me. Elles s\'appuient sur l\'exploration partielle de l\'arbre de d\u00E9cision et la fixation de variables. Les deux autres sont sp\u00E9cifiques pour les cas particuliers. La premi\u00E8re, qui traite le S-LSVRP, est bas\u00E9e sur la propagation des ordres de production sur chaque site. Puis \u00E0 chaque it\u00E9ration elle calcule le plan de transport compatible et essaie d\'am\u00E9liorer la solution en modifiant la production sur les sites. L\'autre m\u00E9thode consiste en une relaxation lagrangienne qui travaille sur une mod\u00E9lisation du 1-LSVRP en un probl\u00E8me de flot. Des r\u00E9sultats num\u00E9riques et des analyses sont pr\u00E9sent\u00E9s pour \u00E9valuer l\'efficacit\u00E9 de ces heuristiques.<\/span>\"@fr<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:exampleOfWork<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/id\/1183178619<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:genre<\/a> \"Th\u00E8ses et \u00E9crits acad\u00E9miques<\/span>\"@fr<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:inLanguage<\/a> \"fr<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Probl\u00E8mes de production avec transport des composants<\/span>\"@fr<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:productID<\/a> \"819197502<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:url<\/a> <http:\/\/www.theses.fr\/2012CLF22230\/document<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:url<\/a> <https:\/\/tel.archives-ouvertes.fr\/tel-00719567<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nwdrs:describedby<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/819197502<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n\n

Related Entities<\/h3>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Organization\/ecole_doctorale_des_sciences_pour_l_ingenieur_clermont_ferrand<\/a>> # \u00C9cole doctorale des sciences pour l\'ing\u00E9nieur (Clermont-Ferrand).<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Organization<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"\u00C9cole doctorale des sciences pour l\'ing\u00E9nieur (Clermont-Ferrand).<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Organization\/laboratoire_d_informatique_de_modelisation_et_d_optimisation_des_systemes<\/a>> # Laboratoire d\'Informatique, de Mod\u00E9lisation et d\'Optimisation des Syst\u00E8mes.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Organization<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Laboratoire d\'Informatique, de Mod\u00E9lisation et d\'Optimisation des Syst\u00E8mes.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Organization\/universite_blaise_pascal_clermont_ferrand<\/a>> # Universit\u00E9 Blaise Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand).<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Organization<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Universit\u00E9 Blaise Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand).<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Person\/dolgui_alexandre_1961<\/a>> # Alexandre Dolgui<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:birthDate<\/a> \"1961<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:deathDate<\/a> \"\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Dolgui<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Alexandre<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Alexandre Dolgui<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Person\/duhamel_christophe<\/a>> # Christophe Duhamel<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Duhamel<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Christophe<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Christophe Duhamel<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Person\/kedad_sidhoum_safia_1984<\/a>> # Safia Kedad Sidhoum<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:birthDate<\/a> \"1984<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:deathDate<\/a> \"\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Kedad Sidhoum<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Safia<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Safia Kedad Sidhoum<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Person\/liberalino_carlos_heitor_pereira_1978<\/a>> # Carlos Heitor Pereira Liberalino<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:birthDate<\/a> \"1978<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:deathDate<\/a> \"\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Liberalino<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Carlos Heitor Pereira<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Carlos Heitor Pereira Liberalino<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Person\/moukrim_aziz_19<\/a>> # Aziz Moukrim<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:birthDate<\/a> \"19..<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:deathDate<\/a> \"\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Moukrim<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Aziz<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Aziz Moukrim<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Person\/quilliot_alain<\/a>> # Alain Quilliot<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Quilliot<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Alain<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Alain Quilliot<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Person\/souza_mauricio_cardoso_de_1971<\/a>> # Mauricio Cardoso de Souza<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:birthDate<\/a> \"1971<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:deathDate<\/a> \"\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Souza<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Mauricio Cardoso de<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Mauricio Cardoso de Souza<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Thing\/heuristique<\/a>> # Heuristique<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Heuristique<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Thing\/multiflot<\/a>> # Multiflot<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Multiflot<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Thing\/planification<\/a>> # Planification<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Planification<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Thing\/relaxation_lagrangienne<\/a>> # Relaxation lagrangienne<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Relaxation lagrangienne<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Thing\/transport<\/a>> # Transport<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Transport<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Topic\/production_planification<\/a>> # Production--Planification<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Production--Planification<\/span>\"@fr<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1183178619#Topic\/programmation_heuristique<\/a>> # Programmation heuristique<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Programmation heuristique<\/span>\"@fr<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/vocabulary\/countries\/fr<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\ndcterms:identifier<\/a> \"fr<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/www.theses.fr\/2012CLF22230\/document<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nrdfs:comment<\/a> \"Acc\u00E8s au texte int\u00E9gral<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n