skip to content
Covid-19 virus
COVID-19 Resources

Reliable information about the coronavirus (COVID-19) is available from the World Health Organization (current situation, international travel). Numerous and frequently-updated resource results are available from this WorldCat.org search. OCLC’s WebJunction has pulled together information and resources to assist library staff as they consider how to handle coronavirus issues in their communities.

Image provided by: CDC/ Alissa Eckert, MS; Dan Higgins, MAM
Profit maximization techniques for operating chemical plants Preview this item
ClosePreview this item
Checking...

Profit maximization techniques for operating chemical plants

Author: Sandip Kumar Lahiri
Publisher: Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2020.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : English : First editionView all editions and formats
Summary:
"Profit maximization is at the core of every chemical company's vision and mission nowadays. Making money by safely producing chemicals, sailing locally are no more adequate to survive in today's business environment. Maximization of profit, continuous improvement of operation, sustainability, enhanced reliability to reduce production cost are buzzwords in today's CPI. Industries are slowly shifting their priority  Read more...
Rating:

(not yet rated) 0 with reviews - Be the first.

Subjects
More like this

Find a copy online

Links to this item

Find a copy in the library

&AllPage.SpinnerRetrieving; Finding libraries that hold this item...

Details

Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Lahiri, Sandip Kumar, 1970-
Profit maximization techniques for operating chemical plants
Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2020.
(DLC) 2019058766
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Sandip Kumar Lahiri
ISBN: 9781119532170 1119532175 9781119532217 1119532213 9781119532231 111953223X
OCLC Number: 1150825826
Description: 1 online resource
Contents: Figure List xix Table List xxv Preface xxvii 1 Concept of Profit Maximization 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Who is This Book Written for? 3 1.3 What is Profit Maximization and Sweating of Assets All About? 4 1.4 Need for Profit Maximization in Today's Competitive Market 7 1.5 Data Rich but Information Poor Status of Today's Process Industries 8 1.6 Emergence of Knowledge-Based Industries 9 1.7 How Knowledge and Data Can Be Used to Maximize Profit 9 References 10 2 Big Picture of the Modern Chemical Industry 11 2.1 New Era of the Chemical Industry 11 2.2 Transition from a Conventional to an Intelligent Chemical Industry 11 2.3 How Will Digital Affect the Chemical Industry and Where Can the Biggest Impact Be Expected? 12 2.3.1 Attaining a New Level of Functional Excellence 12 2.3.1.1 Manufacturing 13 2.3.1.2 Supply Chain 14 2.3.1.3 Sales and Marketing 14 2.3.1.4 Research and Development 15 2.4 Using Advanced Analytics to Boost Productivity and Profitability in Chemical Manufacturing 15 2.4.1 Decreasing Downtime Through Analytics 16 2.4.2 Increase Profits with Less Resources 17 2.4.3 Optimizing the Whole Production Process 18 2.5 Achieving Business Impact with Data 19 2.5.1 Data's Exponential Growing Importance in Value Creation 19 2.5.2 Different Links in the Value Chain 20 2.5.2.1 The Insights Value Chain - Definitions and Considerations 21 2.6 From Dull Data to Critical Business Insights: The Upstream Processes 22 2.6.1 Generating and Collecting Relevant Data 22 2.6.2 Data Refinement is a Two-Step Iteration 23 2.7 From Valuable Data Analytics Results to Achieving Business Impact: The Downstream Activities 25 2.7.1 Turning Insights into Action 25 2.7.2 Developing Data Culture 25 2.7.3 Mastering Tasks Concerning Technology and Infrastructure as Well as Organization and Governance 25 References 26 3 Profit Maximization Project (PMP) Implementation Steps 27 3.1 Implementing a Profit Maximization Project (PMP) 27 3.1.1 Step 1: Mapping the Whole Plant in Monetary Terms 27 3.1.2 Step 2: Assessment of Current Plant Conditions 27 3.1.3 Step 3: Assessment of the Base Control Layer of the Plant 28 3.1.4 Step 4: Assessment of Loss from the Plant 29 3.1.5 Step 5: Identification of Improvement Opportunity in Plant and Functional Design of PMP Applications 29 3.1.6 Step 6: Develop an Advance Process Monitoring Framework by Applying the Latest Data Analytics Tools 30 3.1.7 Step 7: Develop a Real-Time Fault Diagnosis System 30 3.1.8 Step 8: Perform a Maximum Capacity Test Run 30 3.1.9 Step 9: Develop and Implement Real-Time APC 31 3.1.10 Step 10: Develop a Data-Driven Offline Process Model for Critical Process Equipment 31 3.1.11 Step 11: Optimizing Process Operation with a Developed Model 32 3.1.12 Step 12: Modeling and Optimization of Industrial Reactors 32 3.1.13 Step 13: Maximize Throughput of All Running Distillation Columns 33 3.1.14 Step 14: Apply New Design Methodology for Process Equipment 33 References 34 4 Strategy for Profit Maximization 35 4.1 Introduction 35 4.2 How is Operating Profit Defined in CPI? 36 4.3 Different Ways to Maximize Operating Profit 36 4.4 Process Cost Intensity 37 4.4.1 Definition of Process Cost Intensity 37 4.4.2 Concept of Cost Equivalent (CE) 39 4.4.3 Cost Intensity for a Total Site 39 4.5 Mapping the Whole Process in Monetary Terms and Gain Insights 40 4.6 Case Study of a Glycol Plant 40 4.7 Steps to Map the Whole Plant in Monetary Terms and Gain Insights 43 4.7.1 Step 1: Visualize the Plant as a Black Box 43 4.7.2 Step 2: Data Collection from a Data Historian and Preparation of Cost Data 46 4.7.3 Step 3: Calculation of Profit Margin 46 4.7.4 Step 4: Gain Insights from Plant Cost and Profit Data 48 4.7.5 Step 5: Generation of Production Cost and a Profit Margin Table for One Full Year 51 4.7.6 Step 6: Plot Production Cost and Profit Margin for One Full Year and Gain Insights 51 4.7.7 Step 7: Calculation of Relative Standard Deviations of each Parameter in order to Understand the Cause of Variability 52 4.7.8 Step 8: Cost Benchmarking 53 Reference 54 5 Key Performance Indicators and Targets 55 5.1 Introduction 55 5.2 Key Indicators Represent Operation Opportunities 56 5.2.1 Reaction Optimization 56 5.2.2 Heat Exchanger Operation Optimization 58 5.2.3 Furnace Operation 58 5.2.4 Rotating Equipment Operation 59 5.2.5 Minimizing Steam Let down Flows 59 5.2.6 Turndown Operation 59 5.2.7 Housekeeping Aspects 59 5.3 Define Key Indicators 60 5.3.1 Process Analysis and Economics Analysis 61 5.3.2 Understand the Constraints 61 5.3.3 Identify Qualitatively Potential Area of Opportunities 65 5.4 Case Study of Ethylene Glycol Plant to Identify the Key Performance Indicator 66 5.4.1 Methodology 66 5.4.2 Ethylene Oxide Reaction Section 67 5.4.2.1 Understand the Process 67 5.4.2.2 Understanding the Economics of the Process 68 5.4.2.3 Factors that can Change the Production Cost and Overall Profit Generated from this Section 69 5.4.2.4 How is Production Cost Related to Process Parameters from the Standpoint of the Cause and Effect Relationship? 69 5.4.2.5 Constraints 69 5.4.2.6 Key Parameter Identifications 70 5.4.3 Cycle Water System 71 5.4.3.1 Main Purpose 71 5.4.3.2 Economics of the Process 71 5.4.3.3 Factors that can Change the Production Cost of this Section 72 5.4.3.4 Constraints 72 5.4.3.5 Key Performance Parameters 72 5.4.4 Carbon Dioxide Removal Section 73 5.4.4.1 Main Purpose 73 5.4.4.2 Economics 73 5.4.4.3 Factors that can Change the Production Cost of this Section 73 5.4.4.4 Constraints 74 5.4.4.5 Key Performance Parameters 74 5.4.5 EG Reaction and Evaporation Section 74 5.4.5.1 Main Purpose 74 5.4.5.2 Economics 75 5.4.5.3 Factors that can Change the Production Cost of this Section 76 5.4.5.4 Key Performance Parameters 76 5.4.6 EG Purification Section 76 5.4.6.1 Main Purpose 76 5.4.6.2 Economics 77 5.4.6.3 Key Performance Parameters 77 5.5 Purpose to Develop Key Indicators 77 5.6 Set up Targets for Key Indicators 78 5.7 Cost and Profit Dashboard 78 5.7.1 Development of Cost and Profit Dashboard to Monitor the Process Performance in Money Terms 78 5.7.2 Connecting Key Performance Indicators in APC 79 5.8 It is Crucial to Change the Viewpoints in Terms of Cost or Profit 80 References 80 6 Assessment of Current Plant Status 83 6.1 Introduction 83 6.1.1 Data Extraction from a Data Historian 83 6.1.2 Calculate the Economic Performance of the Section 84 6.2 Monitoring Variations of Economic Process Parameters 90 6.3 Determination of the Effect of Atmosphere on the Plant Profitability 90 6.4 Capacity Variations 91 6.5 Assessment of Plant Reliability 91 6.6 Assessment of Profit Suckers and Identification of Equipment for Modeling and Optimization 91 6.7 Assessment of Process Parameters Having a High Impact on Profit 93 6.8 Comparison of Current Plant Performance Against Its Design 93 6.9 Assessment of Regulatory Control System Performance 94 6.9.1 Basic Assessment Procedure 96 6.10 Assessment of Advance Process Control System Performance 97 6.11 Assessment of Various Profit Improvement Opportunities 97 References 98 7 Process Modeling by the Artificial Neural Network 99 7.1 Introduction 99 7.2 Problems to Develop a Phenomenological Model for Industrial Processes 100 7.3 Types of Process Model 101 7.3.1 First Principle-Based Model 101 7.3.2 Data-Driven Models 101 7.3.3 Grey Model 101 7.3.4 Hybrid Model 101 7.4 Emergence of Artificial Neural Networks as One of the Promising Data-Driven Modeling Techniques 106 7.5 ANN-Based Modeling 106 7.5.1 How Does ANN Work? 106 7.5.2 Network Architecture 107 7.5.3 Back-Propagation Algorithm (BPA) 107 7.5.4 Training 108 7.5.5 Generalizability 110 7.6 Model Development Methodology 110 7.6.1 Data Collection and Data Inspection 110 7.6.2 Data Pre-processing and Data Conditioning 110 7.6.2.1 Outlier Detection and Replacement 112 7.6.2.2 Univariate Approach to Detect Outliers 112 7.6.2.3 Multivariate Approach to Detect Outliers 112 7.6.3 Selection of Relevant Input-Output Variables 113 7.6.4 Align Data 113 7.6.5 Model Parameter Selection, Training, and Validation 113 7.6.6 Model Acceptance and Model Tuning 115 7.7 Application of ANN Modeling Techniques in the Chemical Process Industry 115 7.8 Case Study: Application of the ANN Modeling Technique to Develop an Industrial Ethylene Oxide Reactor Model 116 7.8.1 Origin of the Present Case Study 116 7.8.2 Problem Definition of the Present Case Study 117 7.8.3 Developing the ANN-Based Reactor Model 119 7.8.4 Identifying Input and Output Parameters 119 7.8.5 Data Collection 120 7.8.6 Neural Regression 121 7.8.7 Results and Discussions 122 7.9 Matlab Code to Generate the Best ANN Model 124 References 125 8 Optimization of Industrial Processes and Process Equipment 131 8.1 Meaning of Optimization in an Industrial Context 131 8.2 How Can Optimization Increase Profit? 132 8.3 Types of Optimization 133 8.3.1 Steady-State Optimization 133 8.3.2 Dynamic Optimization 133 8.4 Different Methods of Optimization 134 8.4.1 Classical Method 134 8.4.2 Gradient-Based Methods of Optimization 134 8.4.3 Non-traditional Optimization Techniques 135 8.5 Brief Historical Perspective of Heuristic-based Non-traditional Optimization Techniques 136 8.6 Genetic Algorithm 138 8.6.1 What is Genetic Algorithm? 138 8.6.2 Foundation of Genetic Algorithms 138 8.6.3 Five Phases of Genetic Algorithms 140 8.6.3.1 Initial Population 140 8.6.3.2 Fitness Function 140 8.6.3.3 Selection 140 8.6.3.4 Crossover 140 8.6.3.5 Termination 141 8.6.4 The Problem Definition 141 8.6.5 Calculation Steps of GA 141 8.6.5.1 Step 1: Generating Initial Population by Creating Binary Coding 141 8.6.5.2 Step 2: Evaluation of Fitness 142 8.6.5.3 Step 3: Selecting the Next Generation's Population 142 8.6.6 Advantages of GA Against Classical Optimization Techniques 144 8.7 Differential Evolution 145 8.7.1 What is Differential Evolution (DE)? 145 8.7.2 Working Principle of DE 145 8.7.3 Calculation Steps Performed in DE 145 8.7.4 Choice of DE Key Parameters (NP, F, and CR) 145 8.7.5 Stepwise Calculation Procedure for DE implementation 146 8.8 Simulated Annealing 149 8.8.1 What is Simulated Annealing? 149 8.8.2 Procedure 149 8.8.3 Algorithm 150 8.9 Case Study: Application of the Genetic Algorithm Technique to Optimize the Industrial Ethylene Oxide Reactor 151 8.9.1 Conclusion of the Case Study 152 8.10 Strategy to Utilize Data-Driven Modeling and Optimization Techniques to Solve Various Industrial Problems and Increase Profit 153 References 155 9 Process Monitoring 159 9.1 Need for Advance Process Monitoring 159 9.2 Current Approaches to Process Monitoring and Diagnosis 160 9.3 Development of an Online Intelligent Monitoring System 161 9.4 Development of KPI-Based Process Monitoring 161 9.5 Development of a Cause and Effect-Based Monitoring System 163 9.6 Development of Potential Opportunity-Based Dash Board 163 9.6.1 Development of Loss and Waste Monitoring Systems 164 9.6.2 Development of a Cost-Based Monitoring System 165 9.6.3 Development of a Constraints-Based Monitoring System 166 9.7 Development of Business Intelligent Dashboards 166 9.8 Development of Process Monitoring System Based on Principal Component Analysis 167 9.8.1 What is a Principal Component Analysis? 168 9.8.2 Why Do We Need to Rotate the Data? 169 9.8.3 How Do We Generate Principal Components? 170 9.8.4 Steps to Calculating the Principal Components 170 9.9 Case Study for Operational State Identification and Monitoring Using PCA 171 9.9.1 Case Study 1: Monitoring a Reciprocating Reclaim Compressor 171 References 174 10 Fault Diagnosis 177 10.1 Challenges to the Chemical Industry 177 10.2 What is Fault Diagnosis? 178 10.3 Benefit of a Fault Diagnosis System 179 10.3.1 Characteristic of an Automated Fault Diagnosis System 180 10.4 Decreasing Downtime Through a Fault Diagnosis Type Data Analytics 180 10.5 User Perspective to Make an Effective Fault Diagnosis System 181 10.6 How Are Fault Diagnosis Systems Made? 183 10.6.1 Principal Component-Based Approach 184 10.6.2 Artificial Neural Network-Based Approach 184 10.7 A Case Study to Build a Robust Fault Diagnosis System 185 10.7.1 Challenges to a Build Fault Diagnosis of an Ethylene Oxide Reactor System 187 10.7.2 PCA-Based Fault Diagnosis of an EO Reactor System 187 10.7.3 Acquiring Historic Process Data Sets to Build a PCA Model 188 10.7.4 Criteria of Selection of Input Parameters for PCA 189 10.7.5 How PCA Input Data is Captured in Real Time 191 10.7.6 Building the Model 192 10.7.6.1 Calculations of the Principal Components 192 10.7.6.2 Calculations of Hotelling's T2 192 10.7.6.3 Calculations of the Residual 193 10.7.7 Creation of a PCA Plot for Training Data 193 10.7.8 Creation of Hotelling's T2 Plot for the Training Data 194 10.7.9 Creation of a Residual Plot for the Training Data 194 10.7.10 Creation of an Abnormal Zone in the PCA Plot 194 10.7.11 Implementing the PCA Model in Real Time 194 10.7.12 Detecting Whether the Plant is Running Normally or Abnormally on a Real-Time Basis 195 10.7.13 Use of a PCA Plot During Corrective Action in Real Time 197 10.7.14 Validity of a PCA Model 198 10.7.14.1 Time-Varying Characteristic of an EO Catalyst 198 10.7.14.2 Capturing the Efficiency of the PCA Model Using the Residual Plot 199 10.7.15 Quantitive Decision Criteria Implemented for Retraining of an Ethylene Oxide (EO) Reactor PCA Model 200 10.7.16 How Retraining is Practically Executed 200 10.8 Building an ANN Model for Fault Diagnosis of an EO Reactor 200 10.8.1 Acquiring Historic Process Data Sets to Build an ANN Model 200 10.8.2 Identification of Input and Output Parameters 201 10.8.3 Building of an ANN-Based EO Reactor Model 201 10.8.3.1 Complexity of EO Reactor Modeling 201 10.8.3.2 Model Building 202 10.8.4 Prediction Performance of an ANN Model 203 10.8.5 Utilization of an ANN Model for Fault Detection 203 10.8.6 How Do PCA Input Data Relate to ANN Input/Output Data? 204 10.8.7 Retraining of an ANN Model 206 10.9 Integrated Robust Fault Diagnosis System 206 10.10 Advantages of a Fault Diagnosis System 208 References 208 11 Optimization of an Existing Distillation Column 209 11.1 Strategy to Optimize the Running Distillation Column 209 11.1.1 Strategy 209 11.2 Increase the Capacity of a Running Distillation Column 210 11.3 Capacity Diagram 211 11.4 Capacity Limitations of Distillation Columns 212 11.5 Vapour Handling Limitations 214 11.5.1 Flow Regimes - Spray and Froth 214 11.5.2 Entrainment 215 11.5.3 Tray Flooding 215 11.5.4 Ultimate Capacity 217 11.6 Liquid Handling Limitations 217 11.6.1 Downcomer Flood 217 11.6.2 Downcomer Residence Time 217 11.6.3 Downcomer Froth Back-Up% 219 11.6.4 Downcomer Inlet Velocity 220 11.6.5 Weir liquid loading 221 11.6.6 Downcomer Sizing Criteria 221 11.7 Other Limitations and Considerations 221 11.7.1 Weeping 221 11.7.2 Dumping 222 11.7.3 Tray Turndown 222 11.7.4 Foaming 223 11.8 Understanding the Stable Operation Zone 223 11.9 Case Study to Develop a Capacity Diagram 224 11.9.1 Calculation of Capacity Limits 224 11.9.1.1 Spray Limit 224 11.9.1.2 Vapor Flooding Limit 226 11.9.1.3 Downcomer Backup Limit 226 11.9.1.4 Maximum Liquid Loading Limit 227 11.9.1.5 Minimum Liquid Loading Limit 227 11.9.1.6 Minimum Vapor Loading Limit 228 11.9.2 Plotting a Capacity Diagram 228 11.9.3 Insights from the Capacity Diagram 229 11.9.4 How Can the Capacity Diagram Be Used for Profit Maximization? 229 References 230 12 New Design Methodology 231 12.1 Need for New Design Methodology 231 12.2 Case Study of the New Design Methodology for a Distillation Column 231 12.2.1 Traditional Way to Design a Distillation Column 231 12.2.2 Background of the Distillation Column Design 232 12.3 New Intelligent Methodology for Designing a Distillation Column 234 12.4 Problem Description of the Case Study 237 12.5 Solution Procedure Using the New Design Methodology 237 12.6 Calculations of the Total Cost 238 12.7 Search Optimization Variables 239 12.8 Operational and Hydraulic Constraints 239 12.9 Particle Swarm Optimization 241 12.9.1 PSO Algorithm 241 12.10 Simulation and PSO Implementation 242 12.11 Results and Analysis 243 12.12 Advantages of PSO 245 12.13 Advantages of New Methodology over the Traditional Approach 246 12.14 Conclusion 248 Nomenclature 248 References 250 Appendix 12.1 251 13 Genetic Programing for Modeling of Industrial Reactors 259 13.1 Potential Impact of Reactor Optimization on Overall Profit 259 13.2 Poor Knowledge of Reaction Kinetics of Industrial Reactors 259 13.3 ANN as a Tool for Reactor Kinetic Modeling 260 13.4 Conventional Methods for Evaluating Kinetics 260 13.5 What is Genetic Programming? 261 13.6 Background of Genetic Programming 262 13.7 Genetic Programming at a Glance 263 13.7.1 Preparatory Steps of Genetic Programming 264 13.7.2 Executional Steps of Genetic Programming 264 13.7.3 Creating an Individual 267 13.7.4 Fitness Test 268 13.7.5 The Genetic Operations 269 13.7.6 User Decisions 271 13.7.7 Computing Resources 272 13.8 Example Genetic Programming Run 272 13.8.1 Preparatory Steps 273 13.8.2 Step-by-Step Sample Run 274 13.8.3 Selection, Crossover, and Mutation 275 13.9 Case Studies 277 13.9.1 Case Study 1 277 13.9.2 Case Study 2 278 13.9.3 Case Study 3 279 13.9.4 Case Study 4 280 References 281 14 Maximum Capacity Test Run and Debottlenecking Study 283 14.1 Introduction 283 14.2 Understanding Different Safety Margins in Process Equipment 283 14.3 Strategies to Exploit the Safety Margin 284 14.4 Capacity Expansion versus Efficiency Reduction 285 14.5 Maximum Capacity Test Run: What is it All About? 286 14.6 Objective of a Maximum Capacity Test Run 287 14.7 Bottlenecks of Different Process Equipment 288 14.7.1 Functional Bottleneck 288 14.7.2 Reliability Bottleneck 288 14.7.3 Safety Interlock Bottleneck 290 14.8 Key Steps to Carry Out a Maximum Capacity Test Run in a Commercial Running Plant 291 14.8.1 Planning 291 14.8.2 Discussion with Technical People 296 14.8.3 Risk and Opportunity 296 14.8.4 Dos and Don'ts 297 14.8.5 Simulations 298 14.8.6 Preparations 299 14.8.7 Management of Change 299 14.8.8 Execution 300 14.8.9 Data Collections 300 14.8.10 Critical Observations 302 14.8.11 Report Preparations 303 14.8.12 Detailed Simulations and Assembly of All Observations 303 14.8.13 Final Report Preparation 304 14.9 Scope and Phases of a Detailed Improvement Study 304 14.9.1 Improvement Scoping Study 305 14.9.2 Detail Feasibility Study 305 14.9.3 Retrofit Design Phase 305 14.10 Scope and Limitations of MCTR 306 14.10.1 Scope 306 14.10.2 Two Big Benefits of Doing MCTR 306 14.10.3 Limitations of MCTR 306 15 Loss Assessment 309 15.1 Different Losses from the System 309 15.2 Strategy to Reduce the Losses andWastages 309 15.3 Money Loss Audit 310 15.4 Product or Utility Losses 312 15.4.1 Loss in the Drain 312 15.4.2 Loss Due to Vent and Flaring 313 15.4.3 Utility Loss 314 15.4.4 Heat Loss Assessment for the Fired Heater 314 15.4.5 Heat Loss Assessment for the Distillation Column 315 15.4.6 Heat Loss Assessment for Steam Leakage 316 15.4.7 Heat Loss Assessment for Condensate Loss 317 16 Advance Process Control 319 16.1 What is Advance Process Control? 319 16.2 Why is APC Necessary to Improve Profit? 320 16.3 Why APC is Preferred over Normal PID Regulatory Control 322 16.4 Position of APC in the Control Hierarchy 324 16.5 Which are the Plants where Implementations of APC were Proven Very Profitable? 327 16.6 How do Implementations of APC Increase Profit? 328 16.7 How does APC Extract Benefits? 330 16.8 Application of APC in Oil Refinery, Petrochemical, Fertilizer and Chemical Plants and Related Benefits 334 16.9 Steps to Execute an APC Project 336 16.9.1 Step 1: Preliminary Cost -Benefit Analysis 336 16.9.2 Step 2: Assessment of Base Control Loops 337 16.9.3 Step 3: Functional Design of the Controller 337 16.9.4 Step 4: Conduct the Plant Step Test 338 16.9.5 Step 5: Generate a Process Model 338 16.9.6 Step 6: Commission the Online Controller 338 16.9.7 Step 7: Online APC Controller Tuning 339 16.10 How Can an Effective Functional Design Be Done? 339 16.10.1 Step 1: Define Process Control Objectives 340 16.10.2 Step 2: Identification of Process Constraints 342 16.10.3 Step 3: Define Controller Scope 343 16.10.4 Step 4: Variable Selection 344 16.10.5 Step 5: Rectify Regulatory Control Issues 346 16.10.6 Step 6: Explore the Scope of Inclusions of Inferential Calculations 347 16.10.7 Step 7: Evaluate Potential Optimization Opportunity 347 16.10.8 Step 8: Define LP or QP Objective Function 348 References 349 17 150 Ways and Best Practices to Improve Profit in Running Chemical Plant 351 17.1 Best Practices Followed in Leading Process Industries Around the World 351 17.2 Best Practices Followed in a Steam and Condensate System 351 17.3 Best Practices Followed in Furnaces and Boilers 355 17.4 Best Practices Followed in Pumps, Fans, and Compressor 357 17.5 Best Practices Followed in Illumination Optimization 359 17.6 Best Practices in Operational Improvement 359 17.7 Best Practices Followed in Air and Nitrogen Header 360 17.8 Best Practices Followed in Cooling Tower and CoolingWater 361 17.9 Best Practices Followed inWater Conservation 362 17.10 Best Practices Followed in Distillation Column and Heat Exchanger 363 17.11 Best Practices in Process Improvement 364 17.12 Best Practices in Flare Gas Reduction 365 17.13 Best Practices in Product or Energy Loss Reduction 365 17.14 Best Practices to Monitor Process Control System Performance 366 17.15 Best Practices to Enhance Plant Reliability 367 17.16 Best Practices to Enhance Human Resource 368 17.17 Best Practices to Enhance Safety, Health, and the Environment 368 17.18 Best Practices to Use New Generation Digital Technology 369 17.19 Best Practices to Focus a Detailed Study and R&D Effort 370 Index 373
Responsibility: Dr Sandip Kumar Lahiri.

Abstract:

"Profit maximization is at the core of every chemical company's vision and mission nowadays. Making money by safely producing chemicals, sailing locally are no more adequate to survive in today's business environment. Maximization of profit, continuous improvement of operation, sustainability, enhanced reliability to reduce production cost are buzzwords in today's CPI. Industries are slowly shifting their priority to energy efficiency, real-time process optimization, environment friendliness, and sustainability. Running the plant at their highest feasible capacity by exploiting the margin available in process equipment is no longer a luxury but a necessity. There is a drastic change of business environment in last 20 years. Shrinking profit margin of chemical process industries (CPI) due to globalization, uneven label playing field in international chemical business give rise to cut-throat competition among process industries has changed the global chemical business scenario(Lahiri, 2017b)"--

Reviews

User-contributed reviews
Retrieving GoodReads reviews...
Retrieving DOGObooks reviews...

Tags

Be the first.
Confirm this request

You may have already requested this item. Please select Ok if you would like to proceed with this request anyway.

Linked Data


\n\n

Primary Entity<\/h3>\n
<http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/1150825826<\/a>> # Profit maximization techniques for operating chemical plants<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:MediaObject<\/a>, schema:Book<\/a>, schema:CreativeWork<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:oclcnum<\/a> \"1150825826<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:placeOfPublication<\/a> <http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/vocabulary\/countries\/nju<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/dewey.info\/class\/660.0681\/e23\/<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/10166810436#Topic\/chemical_engineering_cost_effectiveness<\/a>> ; # Chemical engineering--Cost effectiveness<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/10166810436#Topic\/engineering_economy<\/a>> ; # Engineering economy<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/10166810436#Topic\/profit<\/a>> ; # Profit<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:author<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/10166810436#Person\/lahiri_sandip_kumar_1970<\/a>> ; # Sandip Kumar Lahiri<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:bookEdition<\/a> \"First edition.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:bookFormat<\/a> schema:EBook<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:datePublished<\/a> \"2020<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"\"Profit maximization is at the core of every chemical company\'s vision and mission nowadays. Making money by safely producing chemicals, sailing locally are no more adequate to survive in today\'s business environment. Maximization of profit, continuous improvement of operation, sustainability, enhanced reliability to reduce production cost are buzzwords in today\'s CPI. Industries are slowly shifting their priority to energy efficiency, real-time process optimization, environment friendliness, and sustainability. Running the plant at their highest feasible capacity by exploiting the margin available in process equipment is no longer a luxury but a necessity. There is a drastic change of business environment in last 20 years. Shrinking profit margin of chemical process industries (CPI) due to globalization, uneven label playing field in international chemical business give rise to cut-throat competition among process industries has changed the global chemical business scenario(Lahiri, 2017b)\"--<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:exampleOfWork<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/id\/10166810436<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:genre<\/a> \"Electronic books<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:inLanguage<\/a> \"en<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isSimilarTo<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/10166810436#CreativeWork\/profit_maximization_techniques_for_operating_chemical_plants<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Profit maximization techniques for operating chemical plants<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:productID<\/a> \"1150825826<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:url<\/a> <http:\/\/dx.doi.org\/10.1002\/9781119532231<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:url<\/a> <http:\/\/public.eblib.com\/choice\/PublicFullRecord.aspx?p=6190918<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:workExample<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9781119532231<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:workExample<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9781119532170<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:workExample<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9781119532217<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nwdrs:describedby<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/1150825826<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n\n

Related Entities<\/h3>\n
<http:\/\/dewey.info\/class\/660.0681\/e23\/<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/10166810436#Person\/lahiri_sandip_kumar_1970<\/a>> # Sandip Kumar Lahiri<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:birthDate<\/a> \"1970<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Lahiri<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Sandip Kumar<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Sandip Kumar Lahiri<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/10166810436#Topic\/chemical_engineering_cost_effectiveness<\/a>> # Chemical engineering--Cost effectiveness<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Chemical engineering--Cost effectiveness<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/10166810436#Topic\/engineering_economy<\/a>> # Engineering economy<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Engineering economy<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/10166810436#Topic\/profit<\/a>> # Profit<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Profit<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/vocabulary\/countries\/nju<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\ndcterms:identifier<\/a> \"nju<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/public.eblib.com\/choice\/PublicFullRecord.aspx?p=6190918<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nrdfs:comment<\/a> \"Click here to view book<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/10166810436#CreativeWork\/profit_maximization_techniques_for_operating_chemical_plants<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:CreativeWork<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nrdfs:label<\/a> \"Profit maximization techniques for operating chemical plants<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"Print version:<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isSimilarTo<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/1150825826<\/a>> ; # Profit maximization techniques for operating chemical plants<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9781119532170<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:ProductModel<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"1119532175<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"9781119532170<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9781119532217<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:ProductModel<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"1119532213<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"9781119532217<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9781119532231<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:ProductModel<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"111953223X<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"9781119532231<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n