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Psychology : the science of behavior

Author: Neil R Carlson; et al
Publisher: Boston (MA) : Pearson Allyn and Bacon, cop. 2007.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 6th edView all editions and formats

The revision that you've been waiting for! Based on the connections between behavior and its biological underpinnings, Carlson presents psychological behavior in the context of its adaptive  Read more...


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Genre/Form: Textbooks
Učbeniki za visoke šole
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Neil R Carlson; et al
ISBN: 0205472893 9780205472895 0205493246 9780205493241
OCLC Number: 441151384
Notes: Pearson international ed. --> na ov.
Description: XXVII, 694 str. : ilustr. ; 28 cm
Contents: 1. The Science of PsychologyWhat Is Psychology? Explaining Behavior The Goals of Psychological Research Fields of Psychology The Rise of Psychology as a Science Philosophical Roots of Psychology Biological Roots of Psychology Major Trends in the Development of Psychology Structuralism Functionalism Freud's Psychodynamic Theory Psychology in Transition Behavior Humanistic Psychology Reaction against Behavior: The Cognitive Revolution The Biological Revolution 2. The Ways and Means of PsychologyThe Scientific Method in Psychology Identifying the Problem: Getting an Idea for Research Designing an Experiment Performing an Experiment Performing a Correlational Study Reporting and Generalizing Studies Evaluating Scientific Issues: Format for Critical ThinkingEthics Research with Human Participants Research with Animal Participants Biology and Culture: Cross-Cultural ResearchUnderstanding Research Results Descriptive Statistics: What Are the Results? Inferential Statistics: Distinguishing Chance From Significance3. Evolution, Heredity, and BehaviorThe Development of Evolutionary Theory The Voyage of the Beagle The Origin of Species Natural Selection and Evolution Natural Selection Natural Selection in Human Evolution Heredity and Genetics Basic Principles of Genetics The Importance of Genetic Diversity Influences of Gender on Heredity Mutations and Chromosomal Aberrations Genetic Disorders Heredity and Behavior Genetics Studying Genetic Influences Evaluating Scientific Issues: The Genetics of Alcoholism Sociobiology Reproductive Strategies and the Biological Basis of Parenting The Biological Basis of Altruism Evaluation of Sociobiology Biology and Culture: Thinking Critically about Selection 4. Biology of BehaviorThe Brain and Its Components Structure of the Nervous System Cells of the Nervous System The Excitable Axon: The Action Potential Communication with Other Cells: Synapses A Simple Neural CircuitDrugs and Behavior Effects of Drugs on Synaptic Transmission Neurotransmitters, their Actions, and Drugs that Affect Them Evaluating Scientific Issues: "Physiological" versus "Psychological" Drug AddictionStudy of the Brain Experimental Ablation Visualizing the Structure of the Brain Measuring the Brain's Activity Stimulating the Brain's Activity Altering Genetics Biology and Culture: Environmental Effects on Brain DevelopmentControl of Behavior and the Body's Physiological Functions Organization of the Cerebral Cortex Lateralization of Function Vision Audition Somatosensation and Spatial Perception Planning and Moving Episodic and Spatial Memory: Role of the Hippocampus Emotions: Role of the Amygdala Control of Internal Functions and Automatic BehaviorControl of Internal Functions and Automatic Behavior The Brain Stem The Cerebellum Structures within the Cerebral Hemispheres5. Learning and BehaviorProcedures for The Study Of Basic Learning Processes Pavlov's Procedure Thorndike's Procedure Comparison between Pavlov's and Thorndike's Procedures for Studying LearningConditions Required For Learning Temporal Contiguity Conditioned Reinforcement Effects of Temporal Contiguity on Human Behavior Drug Addiction Behavioral Discrepancy Blocking Biology and Culture: Learning, Superstition, and Ritualistic BehaviorThe Outcomes of Learning Acquisition Conditioned Reinforcement Neural Mechanisms of Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcement Automatic Conditioned Reinforcement Extinction Stimulus Generalization Stimulus Discrimination Punishment Evaluating Scientific Issues-What Is Insight? Cellular Mechanisms of Reinforcement Long-Term Potentiation Sensory Learning Behavior in Experienced Learners Instructional Control Observational Learning6. SensationSensory Processing Transduction Sensory Coding Psychophysics Evaluating Scientific Issues: Subliminal Self-HelpVision Light The Eye and Its Functions Transduction of Light by Photoreceptors Adaptation to Light and Dark Eye Movements Color Vision Audition Sound The Ear and Its Functions Detecting and Localizing Sounds in the Environment Age-Related Losses in Hearing Biology and Culture: The Deaf CommunityGustation Receptors and the Sensory Pathway The Five Qualities of TasteOlfaction Anatomy of the Olfactory System The Dimensions of Odor The Somatosenses The Skin Senses The Internal Senses The Vestibular Senses 7. PerceptionBrain Mechanisms of Visual Perception The Primary Visual Cortex The Visual Association Cortex Effects of Brain Damage on Visual Perception Perception of Form Figure and Ground Organization of Elements: Gestalt Laws of Grouping Models of Pattern Perception Evaluating Scientific Issues: Does the Brain Work Like a Serial Computer? Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processing Perception and Action: A Possible Synthesis Perception of Space and Motion Depth Perception Biology and Culture: Effects of Experience on Visual Perception Constancies of Visual Perception Perception of Motion8. MemoryOverview and Sensory Memory Iconic Memory Echoic Memory Short-Term or Working Memory Encoding of Information: Interaction with Long-Term Memory Primacy and Recency Effects The Limits of Working Memory Varieties of Working Memory Loss of Information from Short-Term Memory Learning and Encoding in Long-Term Memory The Consolidation Hypothesis The Levels of Processing Hypothesis Improving Long-Term Memory through MnemonicsThe Organization of Long-Term Memory Episodic and Semantic Memory Explicit and Implicit Memory The Biological Basis of Long-Term MemoryRemembering Remembering and Recollecting How Long Does Memory Last? Biology and Culture: Cultural Contexts for Remembering Reconstruction: Remembering as a Creative Process Remembering and Interference Evaluating Scientific Issues: Hypnosis, Remembering, and Criminal Investigation9. ConsciousnessConsciousness as a Social Phenomenon Can We Understand Consciousness? The Adaptive Significance of Consciousness Consciousness and the Ability to Communicate Evaluating Scientific Issues: Does Conscious Thought Control Behavior? Consciousness and Moral ReasoningSelective Attention Auditory Information Visual Information Brain Mechanisms of Selective Attention Biology and Culture: Control of ConsciousnessConsciousness and the Brain Isolation Aphasia: A Case of Global Unawareness Visual Agnosia: Lack of Awareness of Visual Perceptions The Split-Brain SyndromeHypnosis Characteristics of Hypnosis Theories of Hypnosis Sleep The Stages of Sleep Functions of Sleep Dreaming Brain Mechanisms of Sleep10. LanguageSpeech Comprehension and Production Speech Recognition Understanding the Meaning of Speech Brain Mechanisms of Speech Comprehension and ProductionReading Scanning of Text Phonetic and Whole-Word Recognition: Evidence from Neuropsychology Understanding the Meanings of Words and SentencesLanguage Acquisition by Children Evaluating Scientific Issues: Is There a Language Acquisition Device? Perception of Speech Sounds by Infants The Pre-speech Period and the First Words The Two-Word Stage How Adults Talk to Children Acquisition of Adult Rules of Grammar Acquisition of Meaning Biology and Culture: Communication with Other Primate Species11. Intelligence and ThinkingIntelligence: Global or Componential? Spearman's g Theory Evidence from Factor Analysis Sternberg's Triarchic Theory Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences Biology and Culture: Definitions of IntelligenceIntelligence Testing From Mandarins to Galton Intelligence Tests Reliability and Validity of Intelligence Tests The Use and Abuse of Intelligence TestsThe Roles of Heredity and Environment The Meaning of Heritability Sources of Environmental and Genetic Effects during Development Results of Heritability Studies Evaluating Scientific Issues: The Issue of Race and IntelligenceThinking and Problem Solving Categorization and Generalization Formal and Natural Concepts Deductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning Problem Solving12. Lifespan DevelopmentPrenatal Development Stages of Prenatal Development Threats to Normal Prenatal DevelopmentPhysical and Perceptual Development in Infancy and Childhood Motor Development Perceptual DevelopmentCognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood The Importance of a Responsive Environment The Work of Jean Piaget Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development Developmental Models of Information Processing in Cognitive Development Evaluating Scientific Issues: The Effects of Television Viewing on Children's Cognitive DevelopmentSocial Development in Infancy and Childhood Behaviors of the Infant That Foster Attachment The Nature and Quality of Attachment Interactions with Peers Approaches to Child RearingDevelopment of Gender Roles The Nature of Gender Differences Biology and Culture: The Causes of Gender Role DifferencesMoral Development Piaget's Theory of Moral Development Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development Evaluation of Piaget's and Kohlberg's Theories of Moral DevelopmentAdolescence Physical Development Social Development Cognitive DevelopmentAdulthood and Old Age Physical Development Cognitive Development Social Development13. Motivation and Emotion What is Motivation?Reinforcement and Motivation What Initiates Behavior? What Determines the Strength of Behavior? What Determines the Persistence of Behavior?Aggressive Behavior Ethological Studies of Aggression Hormones and Aggression Environmental Variables that Affect Human AggressionSexual Behavior Effects of Sex Hormones on Behavior Sexual OrientationEmotion Emotions as Response Patterns Social Judgments: Role of the Orbitofrontal Cortex Measuring Emotional Responses: Lie Detection in Criminal InvestigationExpression and Recognition of Emotions The Social Nature of Emotional Expressions of Humans Situations that Produce Emotions: The Role of Cognition Biology and Culture: Are Emotional Expressions Innate?Feelings of Emotion Theories of Emotion Effects of Spinal Cord Injury and Autonomic-System Damage Evaluating Scientific Issues: Is Cognition Essential for Emotion?Eating What Starts a Meal? What Stops a Meal? Obesity Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa14. Personality Trait Theories of Personality Personality Types and Traits Identification of Personality TraitsPsychobiological Approaches Heritability of Personality Traits Brain Mechanisms in Personality The Social Cognitive Approach Expectancies and Observational Learning Reciprocal Determinism and Self-Efficacy Person Variables Locus of Control Evaluating Scientific Issues: Traits versus Situations as Predictors of BehaviorThe Psychodynamic Approach The Development of Freud's Theory Structures of the Mind: Id, Ego, and Superego Defense Mechanisms Freud's Psychosexual Theory of Personality Development Further Development of Freud's Theory: The Neo-Freudians Some Observations on Psychodynamic Theory and ResearchThe Humanistic Approach Maslow and Self-Actualization Rogers and Conditions of Worth Some Observations on the Humanistic ApproachAssessment of Personality Objective Tests of Personality Projective Tests of Personality Evaluation of Projective Tests Biology and Culture: Gender Differences in Personality15. Social PsychologySocial Cognition Impression Formation The Self Attribution Attributional Biases Attribution, Heuristics, and Social CognitionAttitudes: Their Formation and Change Formation of Attitudes Attitude Change and Persuasion Cognitive Dissonance Self-PerceptionStereotypes and Prejudice The Origins of Prejudice Self-Fulfilling Prophecies Hope for ChangeSocial Influences and Group Behavior Conformity Social Facilitation Social Loafing Commitment and Compliance Obedience to Authority Group Decision Making Resisting Social InfluencesInterpersonal Attraction and Loving Interpersonal Attraction Evaluating Scientific Issues: Arousal and Interpersonal Attraction Loving Biology and Culture: Evolution and the Likelihood of Love16. Lifestyle, Stress, and HealthCultural Evolution: Lifestyle Choices and ConsequencesHealthy and Unhealthy Lifestyles Nutrition Physical Fitness Cigarette Smoking Drinking Alcoholic Beverages Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS Biology and Culture: Cultural Reactions to Contagious DiseasesUnhealthy Lifestyles Are Preventable: Self-ControlStress and Health The Biological Basis of Stress Cognitive Appraisal and Stress Stressful Lifestyles and Impaired Health Evaluating Scientific Issues: Is There a Cancer-Prone Personality?Coping with Everyday Stress Sources of Stress Coping Styles and Strategies Stress Inoculation Training17. The Nature and Causes of Mental DisordersClassification and Diagnosis of Mental Disorders What Is "Abnormal"? Perspectives on the Causes of Mental Disorders The DSM-IV-TR Classification Scheme Some Problems with DSM-IV-TR Classification The Need for Classification Evaluating Scientific Issues: Clinical versus Actuarial DiagnosisAnxiety, Somatoform, and Dissociative Disorders Anxiety Disorders Somatoform Disorders Dissociative Disorders Biology and Culture: Culture-Bound SyndromesPersonality Disorders Antisocial Personality DisorderSubstance-Related Disorders Description Possible CausesSchizophrenia Description Types of Schizophrenia Early Signs of Schizophrenia Possible CausesMood Disorders Description Possible Causes18. The Treatment of Mental DisordersMental Disorders and Therapy Early Treatment of Mental Disorders The Development of PsychotherapyInsight Therapies Psychoanalysis and Modern Psychodynamic Approaches Humanistic Therapy Evaluation of Insight TherapiesBehavior Therapies, Cognitive Therapies, and Cognitive-Behavior Therapies Therapies Based on Classical Conditioning Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning Maintaining Behavioral Change Cognitive Therapies Cognitive-Behavior Therapies Evaluation of Behavior Therapies, Cognitive Therapies, and Cognitive-Behavior TherapiesGroup Therapies and Community Psychology Family Therapy and Couples Therapy Community Psychology Evaluation of Group Therapies and Community Psychology Biology and Culture: Cultural Belief Systems and Indigenous Healing Therapies Biological Therapies Drug Therapy Electroconvulsive Therapy Psychosurgery Evaluation of Biological Treatments Evaluating Scientific Issues: Assessing the Effectiveness of PsychotherapyThe Relationship between Client and Therapist
Responsibility: Neil R. Carlson ... [et al. ; illustrator Jay Alexander].


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