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Quantum generations : a history of physics in the twentieth century

Auteur : Helge Kragh
Éditeur: Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 2002.
Édition/format:   Livre imprimé : AnglaisVoir toutes les éditions et tous les formats
Résumé:

Presenting the history of twentieth-century physics, this book takes us from the discovery of X rays in the mid-1890s to superstring theory in the 1990s. It also shows how the revolutionary  Lire la suite...

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Genre/forme: History
Type de document: Livre
Tous les auteurs / collaborateurs: Helge Kragh
ISBN: 0691095523 9780691095523
Numéro OCLC: 492973682
Description: 512 p. : couv. ill. ; 23 cm
Contenu: Preface xi PART ONE: FROM CONSOLIDATION TO REVOLUTION 1 CHAPTER ONE Fin-de-Siecle Physics: A World Picture in Flux 3 CHAPTER TWO The World of Physics 13 Personnel and Resources 13 Physics Journals 19 A Japanese Look at European Physics 22 CHAPTER THREE Discharges in Gases and What Followed 27 A New Kind of Rays 28 From Becquerel Rays to Radioactivity 30 Spurious Rays, More or Less 34 The Electron before Thomson 38 The First Elementary Particle 40 CHAPTER FOUR Atomic Architecture 44 The Thomson Atom 44 Other Early Atomic Models 48 Rutherford's Nuclear Atom 51 A Quantum Theory of Atomic Structure 53 CHAPTER FIVE The Slow Rise of Quantum Theory 58 The Law of Blackbody Radiation 58 Early Discussions of the Quantum Hypothesis 63 Einstein and the Photon 66 Specific Heats and the Status of Quantum Theory by 1913 68 CHAPTER SIX Physics at Low Temperatures 74 The Race Toward Zero 74 Kammerlingh Onnes and the Leiden Laboratory 76 Superconductivity 80 CHAPTER SEVEN Einstein's Relativity, and Others' 87 The Lorentz Transformations 87 Einsteinian Relativity 90 From Special to General Relativity 93 Reception 98 CHAPTER EIGHT A Revolution that Failed 105 The Concept of Electromagnetic Mass 105 Electron Theory as a Worldview 108 Mass Variation Experiments 111 Decline of a Worldview 114 Unified Field Theories 116 CHAPTER NINE Physics in Industry and War 120 Industrial Physics 120 Electrons at Work, I. Long-Distance Telephony 123 Electrons at Work, II: Vacuum Tubes 126 Physics in the Chemists' War 130 PART TWO: FROM REVOLUTION TO CONSOLIDATION 137 CHAPTER TEN Science and Politics in the Weimar Republic 139 Science Policy and Financial Support 139 International Relations 143 The Physics Community 148 Zeitgeist and the Physical Worldview 151 CHAPTER ELEVEN Quantum Jumps 155 Quantum Anomalies 155 Heisenberg'S Quantum Mechanics 161 Schrodinger's Equation 163 Dissemination and Receptions 168 CHAPTER TWELVE The Rise of Nuclear Physics 174 The Electron-Proton Model 174 Quantum Mechanics and the Nucleus 177 Astrophysical Applications 182 1932, Annus Mirabilis 184 CHAPTER THIRTEEN From Two to Many Particles 190 Antiparticles 190 Surprises from the Cosmic Radiation 193 Crisis in Quantum Theory 196 Yukawas Heavy Quantum 201 CHAPTER FOURTEEN Philosophical Implications of Quantum Mechanics 206 Uncertainty and Complementarity 206 Against the Copenhagen Interpretation 212 Is Quantum Mechanics Complete? 215 CHAPTER FIFTEEN Eddington's Dream and Other Heterodoxies 218 Eddington's Fundamentalism 218 Cosmonumerology and Other Speculations 221 Milne and Cosmophysics 223 The Modem Aristotelians 226 CHAPTER SIXTEEN Physics and the New Dictatorships 230 In the Shadow of the Swastika 230 Aryan Physics 236 Physics in Mussolini's Italy 238 Physics, Dialectical Materialism, and Stalinism 240 CHAPTER SEVENTEEN Brain Drain and Brain Gain 245 American Physics in the 1930s 245 Intellectual Migrations 249 CHAPTER EIGHTEEN From Uranium Puzzle to Hiroshima 257 The Road to Fission 257 More than Moonshine 261 Toward the Bomb 265 The Death of Two Cities 269 PART THREE: PROGRESS AND PROBLEMS 277 CHAPTER NINETEEN Nuclear Themes 279 Physics of Atomic Nuclei 279 Modem Alchemy 283 Hopes and Perils of Nuclear Energy 285 Controlled Fusion Energy 290 CHAPTER TWENTY Militarization and Megatrends 293 Physics-A Branch of the Military? 295 Big Machines 302 A European Big Science Adventure 308 CHAPTER TWENTY-ONE Particle Discoveries 312 Mainly Mesons 312 Weak Interactions 317 Quarks 321 The Growth of Particle Physics 325 CHAPTER TWENTY-TWO Fundamental Theories 332 The Ups and Downs of Field Theory 336 Gauge Fields and Electroweak Unification 339 Quantum Chromodynamics 344 CHAPTER TWENTY-THREE Cosmology and the Renaissance of Relativity 349 Toward the Big Bang Universe 349 The Steady State Challenge 354 Cosmology after 1960 357 The Renaissance of General Relativity 361 CHAPTER TWENTY-FOUR Elements of Solid State Physics 366 The Solid State Before 1940 366 Semiconductors and the Rise of the Solid State Community 370 Breakthroughs in Superconductivity 375 CHAPTER TWENTY-FIVE Engineering Physics and Quantum Electronics 382 It Started with the Transistor 382 Microwaves, the Laser and Quantum Optics 386 Optical Fibers 391 CHAPTER TWENTY-SIX Science under Attack--Physics in Crisis? 394 Signs of Crisis 394 A Revolt against Science 401 The End of Physics? 405 CHAPTER TWENTY-SEVEN Unifications and Speculations 409 The Problem of Unity 409 Grand Unified Theories 411 Superstring Theory 415 Quantum Cosmology 419 PART FOUR: A LOOK BACK 425 CHAPTER TWENTY-EIGHT Nobel Physics 427 CHAPTER TWENTY-NINE A Century of Physics in Retrospect 440 Growth and Progress 440 Physics and the Other Sciences 444 Conservative Revolutions 447 APPENDIX Further Reading 453 Bibliography 461 Index 481
Responsabilité: Helge Kragh.

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"A readable and enormously valuable book."--Graham Farmelo, Nature "An ambitious one-volume history: the first comprehensive textbook to address most of the significant aspects in the intellectual Lire la suite...

 
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