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Reforming non-tariff measures : from evidence to policy advice

Author: Olivier Cadot; Michael J Ferrantino; Julien Gourdon; José Daniel Reyes
Publisher: Washington, DC : World Bank Group, [2018] ©2018
Series: Directions in development (Washington, D.C.)., Trade.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : International government publication : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
High levels of trade costs persist in the world trading system, despite recent progress in tariff reduction, trade facilitation, and logistics. At least some of these costs can be attributed to non-tariff measures (NTMs), policies imposed by governments other than ordinary customs duties which have an impact on the price at which exports and imports are traded, the quantities traded, or both. Such costs are  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Cadot, Olivier.
Reforming Non-Tariff Measures : From Evidence to Policy Advice.
Washington, D.C. : World Bank Publications, ©2018
Material Type: Document, Government publication, International government publication, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Olivier Cadot; Michael J Ferrantino; Julien Gourdon; José Daniel Reyes
ISBN: 9781464811395 1464811393
OCLC Number: 1043555337
Notes: Title from resource, viewed August 2, 2018.
Description: 1 online resource (xvi, 103 pages) : illustrations (chiefly color).
Contents: Front Cover; Contents; Acknowledgments; About the Authors; Abbreviations; Overview; Chapter 1 Introduction; Note; References; Chapter 2 The Policy Case for Tackling Non-Tariff Measures; Trade as an Engine of Growth; High Trade Costs in Spite of Liberalization; Streamline, Not Eliminate: The Basic Welfare Economics of NTMs; Regional Efforts at Tackling NTMs; Making NTM Streamlining Part of Country-Level Competitiveness Agendas; Notes; References; Chapter 3 The Big Numbers: Do NTMs Matter?; How Prevalent Are NTMs? The Inventory Approach. How Stringent Are NTMs? Price-Based and Quantity-Based Methods for Calculating the Ad Valorem Equivalent of NTMsHow Do NTMs Differ? A Regulatory Distance Approach; Notes; References; Chapter 4 Which NTMs Matter for Household Expenditures, Poverty, and Firms' Competitiveness?; Non-Tariff Measures and Poverty; Firms' Access to Imported Inputs; Notes; References; Chapter 5 Getting to Policy Advice; Identifying and Flagging Problem Cases; Registration Requirements Hampering Entry and Competition in the Steel Sector in Indonesia. Export Registration Requirements and Mandatory Certificates of Origin Increase the Cost of Exports in CambodiaNotes; References; Chapter 6 Conclusions; Appendix A Sources for Policy Data on NTMs; Appendix B Some Methods for Handicraft and Mass-Produced Handicraft Estimates of Tariff Equivalents; Appendix C Model to Estimate Trade Costs to Export; Appendix D Price Index of Products with and without Import Bans in Nigeria; Boxes; Box 2.1 Mexico's Experience with Regulatory Reform; Box 4.1 NTM Pass-Through to Domestic Prices; Box 5.1 Are the Results Driven by Compositional Effects?; Figures. Figure 2.1 Sample Means of Growth and Investment around the Date of Trade LiberalizationFigure 2.2 Average Tariffs, by Country Income Level, 1980s-2000s; Figure 2.3 Transformation of Non-Tariff Barriers in the Middle East and North Africa Region, 2001 and 2011; Figure 2.4 Evolution of Gravity-Simulated Trade Costs, by Country Income Level, 1996-2009; Figure 2.5 Number of Non-Tariff Barriers Identified for Elimination in the East African Community Time-Bound Program, by Priority, 2008 and 2010; Figure 2.6 Workflow of Planned NTM Reviews in Cambodia. Figure 3.1 Frequency Index, Coverage Ratio, and Prevalence Score, by CountryFigure 3.2 Frequency Index, Coverage Ratio, and Pervasiveness Score, by Harmonized System Chapter and Region; Figure 3.3 Combined Ad Valorem Equivalents, by Sector; Figure 3.4 NTM Compliance Costs versus Market-Creating Effects; Figure 3.5 Estimated Equilibrium Changes, by Country; Figure 3.6 Bilateral Regulatory Distance for Manufactured Products and TBT Measures; Figure 3.7 Bilateral Regulatory Distance for Agri-Food Products and SPS Measures.
Series Title: Directions in development (Washington, D.C.)., Trade.
Responsibility: Olivier Cadot, Michael J. Ferrantino, Julien Gourdon, and José-Daniel Reyes.

Abstract:

High levels of trade costs persist in the world trading system, despite recent progress in tariff reduction, trade facilitation, and logistics. At least some of these costs can be attributed to non-tariff measures (NTMs), policies imposed by governments other than ordinary customs duties which have an impact on the price at which exports and imports are traded, the quantities traded, or both. Such costs are particularly worrisome if they have a discriminatory or protectionist effect, or violate countries' international commitments. However, even NTMs designed to carry out domestic regulatory objectives-- for example, protection of human, animal or plant health, consumer or workplace safety, or the environment-- can have substantial effects on international trade, which should be considered when such policies are developed. This book discusses some of the analytical methods that can be used to accompany the process of policy development for NTMs. It discusses the broad economic rationale for improving the design of NTMs;, illustrates the main forms of quantification of NTMs and their effects, including inventory approaches, price-based approaches, and quantity-based approaches; proposes a new analytical and measurable concept of "regulatory distance" to help guide deep integration efforts at the regional level; provides a discussion of the effects of NTMs on household expenditures, poverty, and firm competitiveness; and shows how empirical analysis of NTMs can be used to inform policy advice. As such, it should provide a valuable addition to the arsenal of tools available for applied analysis of international trade policy.

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