Regulating toxic substances : a philosophy of science and the law (Book, 1993) []
skip to content
Regulating toxic substances : a philosophy of science and the law Preview this item
ClosePreview this item

Regulating toxic substances : a philosophy of science and the law

Author: Carl F Cranor
Publisher: New York : Oxford University Press, 1993.
Series: Environmental ethics and science policy.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
The proliferation of chemical substances in commerce poses significant scientific and philosophical problems. The scientific challenge is to develop data, methodologies and techniques for identifying and assessing toxic substances before they cause harm to human beings or the environment. The philosophical problem is to determine how much scientific information we should demand for this task consistent with the

(not yet rated) 0 with reviews - Be the first.

More like this

Find a copy in the library

&AllPage.SpinnerRetrieving; Finding libraries that hold this item...


Genre/Form: Legislation
Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Carl F Cranor
ISBN: 019507436X 9780195074369 0195113780 9780195113785
OCLC Number: 25130677
Description: xix, 252 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm.
Contents: Introduction: Assessing Toxic Substances Through a Glass Darkly --
1. The Scientific Background --
Predicting Risks from Animal Bioassays --
Background --
Regulatory Science and Policy Choices --
Normative Implications of the Scientific Uncertainties in Risk Assessment --
Problems in the Statistics of Human Epidemiological Studies and Animal Bioassays --
Discovering Risks --
Practical Evidence-Gathering Problems --
Theoretical Difficulties --
Traditional Practices in Interpreting Epidemiological Studies --
An Alternative to Traditional Practices --
Clean Hands Science, Dirty Hands Public Policy --
Professional Ethics --
Public Policy Issues --
2. Scientific Evidence in the Tort Law --
Institutional Background --
The Challenge to Present Evidentiary Procedures --
Legal Issues --
Arguments for the Scientific Standards Test --
Arguments Against Competitor Views --
Black's Proposal --
A Common Conceptual Framework for Evaluating Scientific and Legal Burdens of Proof --
An Alternative View --
3. Joint Causation, Torts, and Administrative Law in Environmental Health Protections --
Joint Causation and the Tort Law --
Liability Rules for Causation --
Proof of Causation --
Administrative Law --
No Moral or Policy Bars to Regulation when Joint Causation Obtains --
The Case for Regulation of Toxic Substances when Joint Causation Obtains --
Utilitarian Arguments --
Justice Arguments --
Other Considerations for Using Administrative Remedies --
4. Scientific Procedures in Regulatory Agencies --
Institutional Background --
Major Laws Regulating Carcinogens --
Premarket Regulatory Statutes --
Postmarket Regulatory Statutes --
Procedural Requirements --
Substantive Statutory Requirements --
Approaches to Risk Assessment in Regulatory Agencies --
A Brief History of Agency Use of Risk Assessment --
Current Agency Risk Assessment Practices --
Two Unacceptable Approaches to Risk Assessment --
The Complete and Accurate Science Approach --
The Science-Intensive Approach --
Shortcomings of Present and Recommended Practices --
An Alternative Approach --
Coping with Scientific Uncertainty --
Mitigating the Demanding Evidentiary Standards of Science --
Expediting Risk Assessment --
Use of Tabulated TD[subscript 50]s for Most Sensitive Sites and Species --
Use of Expedited Linearized Multistage Default Procedures --
The Virtues of Expedited Procedures --
Making Public Policy on Expedited Risk Assessments Through the Agencies and Courts --
5. Epistemic and Moral Justification --
Epistemic Justification --
Moral Justification --
Principles Implicit in the Occupational Safety and Health Act --
Philosophical Theories of Distribution --
Utilitarianism --
The Daniels-Rawls Theory of Health Care Protection --
The Attraction of Distributively Sensitive Theories --
Notes --
Appendix A Uncertainties in Carcinogen Risk Assessments --
Appendix B Cancer Potency Estimates of CDHS and EPA --
Appendix C Relative Risk as a Function of Alpha and Beta Values --
Appendix D Statutes Authorizing Regulation of Carcinogens --
Appendix E Derivation of TD[subscript 50] Potency Values --
Bibliography --
Series Title: Environmental ethics and science policy.
Responsibility: Carl F. Cranor.
More information:


The author of this text argues that the criteria used to determine substance toxicity are too rigorous and time-consuming for use in tort cases and for regulation. This results in under-regulation  Read more...


Editorial reviews

Publisher Synopsis

will usefully introduce ... philosophically unsophisticated readers to some key normative and epistemological issues in environmental policy ... and will usefully introduce philosophical readers to Read more...

User-contributed reviews
Retrieving GoodReads reviews...
Retrieving DOGObooks reviews...


Be the first.
Confirm this request

You may have already requested this item. Please select Ok if you would like to proceed with this request anyway.

Close Window

Please sign in to WorldCat 

Don't have an account? You can easily create a free account.