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Sea ice : physics and remote sensing

Author: Mohammed Shokr; Nirmal K Sinha
Publisher: Washington, D.C. American Geophysical Union Hoboken, New Jersey Wiley [2015] [2015] © 2015
Series: Geophysical monograph, 209.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
"Sea Ice: Physics and Remote Sensing addresses experiences acquired mainly in Canada by researchers in the fields of ice physics and growth history in relation to its polycrystalline structure as well as ice parameters retrieval from remote sensing observations. The volume describes processes operating at the macro- and microscale (e.g., brine entrapment in sea ice, crystallographic texture of ice types, brine  Read more...
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Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Mohammed Shokr; Nirmal K Sinha
ISBN: 1119027896 9781119027898
OCLC Number: 992557465
Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p. 507-534) and index.
Description: xiv, 579 pages, [24] pages of plates : illustrations (some color), map ; 29 cm
Contents: TABLE OF CONTENTSAKNOWLEDGMENTPREFACECHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION1.1 Background1.2 Historical synopsis: Canada and the Arctic1.3 The fascinating nature of sea ice1.4 Sea ice in research and operational disciplines1.4.1 Sea ice in marine navigation1.4.2 Sea ice in physics1.4.3 Sea ice in climatology1.4.4 Sea ice in meteorology1.4.5 Sea ice in oceanography1.4.6 Sea ice in marine biology 1.4.7 1.4.7 Sea ice and offshore structures1.4.8 Sea ice for Search & Rescue and transportation1.5 Sea ice and remote sensing1.6 About the book and its organizationCHAPTER 2: ICE PHYSICS AND PHYSICAL PROCESSES2.1 Initial Ice Formation2.1.1 Relevant sea water properties2.1.2 Sea water freezing mechanism2.1.3 Initial ice crystals and frazil ice2.2 Ice Growth2.2.1 Lateral ice growth2.2.2 Vertical ice growth2.2.3 Superimposed ice2.2.4 Thermodynamic Ice growth 2.2.4.1 Modelling ice growth 2.2.4.2 Effect of Snow cover 2.2.4.3 Effect of oceanic heat flux 2.2.4.4 Effect of ice surface ablation2.3 Inclusions in Ice2.3.1 Compositional (constitutional) supercooling and brine pocket formation2.3.2 Dentritic interface of sea ice2.3.3 Salinity loss during ice growth 2.3.3.1 Initial rapid salt rejection at the ice-water interface 2.3.3.2 Subsequent slow salt rejection from the bulk ice2.4 Ice Deformation2.5 Ice Decay and Aging2.6 Ice classes and regimes2.6.1 Criteria of ice classification2.6.2 Polynyas2.6.3 Pancake ice regime2.6.4 Ice edge and marginal ice zone2.6.5 Ice of land originCHAPTER 3: SEA ICE PROPERTIES: DATA AND DERIVATIONS3.1 Temperature profiles in ice and snow3.2 Bulk salinity and salinity profile3.3 Density of first-year and multi-year ice3.4 Volume fraction of sea ice constituents3.5 Thermal properties 3.5.1 Thermal conductivity of sea ice 3.5.2 Thermal conductivity of snow 3.5.3 Specific heat of sea ice 3.5.4 Latent heat of fusion3.6 Dielectric properties 3.6.1 Dielectric constant of brine 3.6.2 Dielectric mixing models 3.6.3 Field measurements of dielectric constantCHAPTER 4: POLYCRYSTALLINE ICE STRUCTURE4.1 Terms and definitions relevant to polycrystalline ice 4.1.1 Special thermal state of natural ice 4.1.2 General terms for structural aspects of ice 4.1.3 Basic terms and definitions4.2 Morphology of ice4.2.1 Form of ice crystals4.2.2 Miller Indices for hexagonal ice4.2.3 Growth direction of ice crystals4.2.4 Ice density in relation to crystalline structure4.3 Structure- and Texture-based Classification of Natural Ice4.3.1 Fresh-water ice classification of Michel and Ramseier4.3.2 Extending crystallographic classification of fresh-water ice to sea ice4.3.3 Crystallographic classes of natural ice 4.3.3.1 Granular or snow ice (T1 ice) 4.3.3.2 Randomly oriented (S4) and vertically oriented (S5) frazil ice 4.3.3.3 Columnar-grained with c-axis vertical (S1 ice) 4.3.3.4 Columnar-grained with c-axis horizontal and random (S2 ice) 4.3.3.5 Columnar-grained ice with c-axis horizontal and oriented (S3 ice) 4.3.3.6 Agglomerate ice with discontinuous columnar-grained (R ice type) 4.3.3.7 Ice of land-based origin4.3.4 Stereographical projection (fabric diagram) of natural polycrystalline ice4.4 Age-based structural features of natural sea ice 4.4.1 Young ice, Y (Sikuaq) 4.4.2 First-Year ice, FY (Siku) 4.4.3 Multi-Year ice, MY (Qavvaq)4.5 Information contents in Polycrystalline Ice Structure4.5.1 Geometric characteristics of crystalline structure4.5.2 Geometric characteristics of brine pockets in first-year ice4.5.3 Geometric characteristics of air bubbles4.5.4 Biomass accumulation at the bottom of the iceCHAPTER 5: AGING OF SEA ICE: STORIES THAT WERE NEVER TOLD5. Mould Bay experiments: beginning of RADARSAT field project5.1.1 Ageing in sea ice: transition from FY to MY ice5.1.2 Ice conditions and parameters5.1.3 Interface between Old and New ice in SY ice cover5.1.4 Multi-year (MY) ice and interfaces: Mould Bay 1984 experience5. 2 High-Arctic ice islands and microwave remote sensing experience5.2.1 Background history of ice islands5.2.2 Shelf ice and Arctic ice islands5.2.3 Multi-Year rubble field of an Arctic ice island5.2.4 RADARSAT images of Arctic ice islandsCHAPTER 6: LABORATORY TECHNIQUES FOR REVEALING STRUCTURE OF POLYCRYSTALLINE ICE6.1 Relevant optical properties 6.1.1 Fundamentals of polarized light 6.1.2 Birefringence or double-refraction in ice (Ih) 6.1.3 Optical retardation 6.1.4 Interference colours for white light6.2 Thin sectioning techniques for ice and snow 6.2.1 Hot- and Cold-plate technique for thin sectioning of ice6.2.2 Double-microtoming technique (DMT) for thin sectioning of ice 6.2.3 Double-microtoming technique (DMT) for thin sectioning of snow 6.2.4 Precautions for thin sectioning by DMT 6.2.5 Optimum thickness for thin sections of ice and snow 6.3 Viewing and photographing ice thin sections 6.3.1 Laboratory and hand-held polariscope6.3.2 Cross-polarized versus parallel-polarized light viewing6.3.3 Scattered light and combined cross-polarized/scattered light viewing6.3.4 Circularly polarized light and rapid crystallographic analysis6.4 Etching techniques 6.4.1 Sublimation of ice and sublimation (Higuch)i etch pits 6.4.2 Etching processes and applications6.4.3 Thermal etching of microtomed ice surfaces6.4.4 Chemical etching and replicating ice surfacesCHAPTER 7: REMOTE SENSING PRINCIPLES RELEVANT TO SE ICE7.1 General Principles of satellite remote sensing7.2 Historical synopsis of satellite remote sensing for sea ice7.3 Electromagnetic wave properties and processes 7.3.1 Polarization and depolarization of EM wave 7.3.2 Reflection, transmission, absorption, scattering and emission 7.3.3 Brightness temperature and emissivity 7.3.4 Penetration depth7.4 Optical sensing7.5 Thermal infrared sensing7.6 Microwave sensing 7.6.1 Passive microwave 7.6.2 Active microwave 7.6.2.1 Imaging radar principles 7.6.2.2 Multi-channel SAR 7.6.2.3 Radar polarimetry7.7 Radiative processes in relevant media 7.7.1 Atmospheric influences 7.7.2 Sea water 7.7.3 Snow on sea: physical and radiative processes 7.7.3.1 Optical and thermal infrared regions 7.7.3.2 Microwave regionCHAPTER 8: DATA SETS OF RADIATVE MEASUREMENTS AND PROPERTIES8.1 Radar backscatter 8.1.1 Backscatter databases from ice types and open water 8.1.2 Effect of wind-roughened ocean surface on backscatter 8.1.3 Multi-polarization data of sea ice8.2 Microwave brightness temperature data8.3 Visible and Near-Infrared reflectance and albedo8.4 Emissivity data in the microwave region8.5 Microwave penetration depthCHAPTER 9: RETRIEVAL OF SEA ICE SURFACE INFORMATION9.1 Surface deformation9.2 Cracks and leads9.3 Surface melt9.4 Frost flowersCHAPTER 10: RETRIEVAL OF ICE AND SNOW GEOPHYSICAL PARAMETERS10.1 Ice type classification 10.1.1 Ice classification from optical and TIR systems 10.1.2 Ice classification from Microwave data10.2 Ice concentration 10.2.1 Ice concentration from VIS and TIR images 10.2.2 Ice concentration from passive microwave observations10.2.2.1 Description of selected algorithms10.2.2.2 Sources of error and sensitivity of algorithms 10.2.2.3 Validation of ice concentration algorithms 10.2.2.4 Comparison of passive microwave algorithms 10.2.3 Ice concentration from SAR10.3 Sea ice extent and area10.4 Ice thickness10.5 Ice Surface temperature10.6 Snow depth over sea ice10.7 Ice motionCHAPTER 11: SEA ICE SERVICE IN CANADA: HISTORY AND CURRET OPERATIONAL PROGRAM11.1 History of Ice Service in Canada11.2 The operational sea ice programs and products
Series Title: Geophysical monograph, 209.
Responsibility: Mohammed Shokr, Nirmal Sinha.
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Abstract:

"Sea Ice: Physics and Remote Sensing addresses experiences acquired mainly in Canada by researchers in the fields of ice physics and growth history in relation to its polycrystalline structure as well as ice parameters retrieval from remote sensing observations. The volume describes processes operating at the macro- and microscale (e.g., brine entrapment in sea ice, crystallographic texture of ice types, brine drainage mechanisms, etc.). The information is supported by high-quality photographs of ice thin-sections prepared from cores of different ice types, all obtained by leading experts during field experiments in the 1970s through the 1990s, using photographic cameras and scanning microscopy. In addition, this volume presents techniques to retrieve a suite of sea ice parameters (e.g. ice type, concentration, extent, thickness, surface temperature, surface deformation, etc.) from space-borne and airborne sensor data. .

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