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Seafaring expeditions to Punt in the Middle Kingdom : excavations at Mersa/Wadi Gawasis, Egypt

Author: Kathryn A Bard; Rodolfo Fattovich
Publisher: Leiden ; Boston : Brill, [2018]
Series: Culture and history of the ancient Near East, v. 96.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
In the 12th Dynasty (ca. 1985-1773 BC) the Egyptian state sent a number of seafaring expeditions to the land of Punt, located somewhere in the southern Red Sea region, in order to bypass control of the upper Nile by the Kerma kingdom. Excavations at Mersa/Wadi Gawasis on the Red Sea coast of Egypt from 2001 to 2011 have uncovered evidence of the ancient harbor (Saww) used for these expeditions, including parts of  Read more...
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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Bard, Kathryn A., author.
Seafaring expeditions to Punt in the Middle Kingdom
Leiden ; Boston : Brill, [2018]
(DLC) 2018033013
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Kathryn A Bard; Rodolfo Fattovich
ISBN: 9789004368507 9004368507
OCLC Number: 1041898815
Description: xvi, 233 pages : illustrations (some color), maps (some color) ; 25 cm.
Contents: Egyptian Long-distance Trade, Pharaonic Expeditions and Direct Control of Sources of Raw Materials in Northeast Africa and the Sinai in the Middle Kingdom --
Introduction --
Mining Turquoise and Copper in the Sinai --
The Harbor Site at Ayn Soukhna --
Mining Galena at Gebel Zeit --
Mining Gold and Quarrying Stone in the Wadi Hammamat --
Nubian Resources and Egyptian Occupation --
The Harbor at Mersa/Wadi Gawasis --
Archaeological Investigations at Mersa/Wadi Gawasis --
The Pharaonic Harbor at Mersa/Wadi Gawasis --
Archaeological Investigations at Mersa/Wadi Gawasis --
Evidence of Ships and Cargo Boxes --
Sealings, Stelae and Ostraca --
Ceramics --
Stone Tools --
Plant and Animal Remains --
Environmental Context of the Harbor Site --
Chronology of the Harbor Site --
Summary : Archaeological and Geological Investigations at Mersa/Wadi Gawasis --
Spatial Use of the Mersa/Wadi Gawasis Harbor in the 12th Dynasty --
Overview --
The Eastern Terrace --
The Harbor --
Central Terrace and Western Terrace Top --
Western Terrace Slope --
Western Terrace Slope, North --
Western Terrace Slope, South --
Caves 2 and 3 --
Cave 5 --
Cave 7 and the Alcove Shrine --
Harbor Edge --
Production Area --
Ramps (slipways?) --
Western Terrace, Southern Slope --
Beach Area above the Harbor --
Stelae Associated with the Gallery-Caves --
Spatial Organization of the Harbor of Saww Compared to the Harbors at Ayn Soukhna and Wadi El-Jarf --
Organization of Mersa/Wadi Gawasis Seafaring Expeditions in the 12th Dynasty : The Textual Evidence --
Textual Evidence at Mersa/Wadi Gawasis --
Stelae --
Cargo Box Inscriptions --
Sealings and Papyri --
Ostraca --
Two Wooden Tags --
Dates of Known Expeditions Based on Textual Evidence --
Translation by Eugene Cruz-Uribe of the Hieroglyphic Text of the Ankhu Stela (Eastern Jamb, Central Block, and Western Jamb) Found at Mersa/Wadi Gawasis by A.M. Sayed and Recorded in These Articles --
Organization of Seafaring Expeditions from Mersa/Wadi Gawasis in the 12th Dynasty : Archaeological Evidence at the Harbor --
Archaeological Evidence of Seafaring Expeditions at Mersa/Wadi Gawasis --
Shipbuilding --
Ship Technology --
Ship Wood --
Cargo Boxes --
Rope/Ship Rigging --
Linen : Ship Sails, Caulking , and Clothing --
Copper Alloy Strips for Ship Timber Fastenings --
Other Expedition Supplies: Clothing, Footwear, Camp Furnishings --
Egyptian Ceramics at the Harbor Site --
Non-Egyptian Ceramics at the Harbor Site --
Shelter for Expedition Members --
Food Supplies and Storage, Food Processing and Baking/Cooking --
Local Production of Stone Tools --
Non-Egyptian Stone Tools at the Harbor Site --
Summary --
Appendix : Bread Baking Experiments --
Ancient Egyptian Bread Making --
Evidence of Bread Making at Mersa/Wadi Gawasis --
Experimenting with Middle Kingdom Bread Making --
Conclusions --
Interpreting Ideology at Saww : Ritual Practices, Memorial Shrines, and Commemorative Stelae --
Ceremonial Shrines and Commemorative Stelae at Mersa/Wadi Gawasis --
Shrines Constructed along the Red Sea Coast --
Shrines/Monuments on the Terrace Top Overlooking Wadi Gawasis --
The Alcove Shrine along the Western Terrace Slope --
Stelae --
Stelae in Monumental Structures --
Stelae at Mersa Gawasis --
Stelae Placed in Niches Carved in the Western Terrace Wall --
Use of Stelae at Saww --
Mersa/Wadi Gawasis Stelae and the Gods --
Archaeology of Ritual and Religion at Mersa/Wadi Gawasis --
The Land of Punt : A View from Mersa/Wadi Gawasis --
Punt and Mersa/Wadi Gawasis --
The Land of Punt : Egyptian Evidence --
Location of Punt : Natural Resources (Figure 41) --
The Land of Punt : Cultural Evidence (Figure 43) --
Punt and Bia-Punt, and the Evidence from Mersa/Wadi Gawasis : Inscriptions --
Punt and the Evidence from Mersa/WadiGawasis : Paleoethnobotanical Remains and Lithics --
Punt and the Evidence from Mersa/Wadi Gawasis : Exotic Ceramics --
Location of Bia-Punt and Punt: Ceramic Evidence at Mersa/Wadi Gawasis --
Long-distance Routes Involved in the Punt Expeditions --
Routes from Egypt to Punt/Bia-Punt --
The Levant and Maritime Trade with Punt --
Land Routes from the Nile Valley to the Red Sea Coast --
Sea Route to and from the Southern Red Sea --
Land Routes in Punt/Bia-Punt --
Maritime Expeditions to Punt/Bia-Punt --
The 12th Dynasty Punt/Bia-Punt Expeditions from Mersa/Wadi Gawasis.
Series Title: Culture and history of the ancient Near East, v. 96.
Responsibility: by Kathryn A. Bard, Rodolfo Fattovich.

Abstract:

In the 12th Dynasty (ca. 1985-1773 BC) the Egyptian state sent a number of seafaring expeditions to the land of Punt, located somewhere in the southern Red Sea region, in order to bypass control of the upper Nile by the Kerma kingdom. Excavations at Mersa/Wadi Gawasis on the Red Sea coast of Egypt from 2001 to 2011 have uncovered evidence of the ancient harbor (Saww) used for these expeditions, including parts of ancient ships, expedition equipment and food - all transported ca. 150 km across the desert from Qift in Upper Egypt to the harbor. This book summarizes the results of these excavations for the organization of these logistically complex expeditions, and evidence at the harbor for the location of Punt.

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This book summarizes the results of these excavations for the organization of these logistically complex expeditions, and evidence at the harbor for the location of Punt.<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"Egyptian Long-distance Trade, Pharaonic Expeditions and Direct Control of Sources of Raw Materials in Northeast Africa and the Sinai in the Middle Kingdom -- Introduction -- Mining Turquoise and Copper in the Sinai -- The Harbor Site at Ayn Soukhna -- Mining Galena at Gebel Zeit -- Mining Gold and Quarrying Stone in the Wadi Hammamat -- Nubian Resources and Egyptian Occupation -- The Harbor at Mersa\/Wadi Gawasis -- Archaeological Investigations at Mersa\/Wadi Gawasis -- The Pharaonic Harbor at Mersa\/Wadi Gawasis -- Archaeological Investigations at Mersa\/Wadi Gawasis -- Evidence of Ships and Cargo Boxes -- Sealings, Stelae and Ostraca -- Ceramics -- Stone Tools -- Plant and Animal Remains -- Environmental Context of the Harbor Site -- Chronology of the Harbor Site -- Summary : Archaeological and Geological Investigations at Mersa\/Wadi Gawasis -- Spatial Use of the Mersa\/Wadi Gawasis Harbor in the 12th Dynasty -- Overview -- The Eastern Terrace -- The Harbor -- Central Terrace and Western Terrace Top -- Western Terrace Slope -- Western Terrace Slope, North -- Western Terrace Slope, South -- Caves 2 and 3 -- Cave 5 -- Cave 7 and the Alcove Shrine -- Harbor Edge -- Production Area -- Ramps (slipways?) -- Western Terrace, Southern Slope -- Beach Area above the Harbor -- Stelae Associated with the Gallery-Caves -- Spatial Organization of the Harbor of Saww Compared to the Harbors at Ayn Soukhna and Wadi El-Jarf -- Organization of Mersa\/Wadi Gawasis Seafaring Expeditions in the 12th Dynasty : The Textual Evidence -- Textual Evidence at Mersa\/Wadi Gawasis -- Stelae -- Cargo Box Inscriptions -- Sealings and Papyri -- Ostraca -- Two Wooden Tags -- Dates of Known Expeditions Based on Textual Evidence -- Translation by Eugene Cruz-Uribe of the Hieroglyphic Text of the Ankhu Stela (Eastern Jamb, Central Block, and Western Jamb) Found at Mersa\/Wadi Gawasis by A.M. Sayed and Recorded in These Articles -- Organization of Seafaring Expeditions from Mersa\/Wadi Gawasis in the 12th Dynasty : Archaeological Evidence at the Harbor -- Archaeological Evidence of Seafaring Expeditions at Mersa\/Wadi Gawasis -- Shipbuilding -- Ship Technology -- Ship Wood -- Cargo Boxes -- Rope\/Ship Rigging -- Linen : Ship Sails, Caulking , and Clothing -- Copper Alloy Strips for Ship Timber Fastenings -- Other Expedition Supplies: Clothing, Footwear, Camp Furnishings -- Egyptian Ceramics at the Harbor Site -- Non-Egyptian Ceramics at the Harbor Site -- Shelter for Expedition Members -- Food Supplies and Storage, Food Processing and Baking\/Cooking -- Local Production of Stone Tools -- Non-Egyptian Stone Tools at the Harbor Site -- Summary -- Appendix : Bread Baking Experiments -- Ancient Egyptian Bread Making -- Evidence of Bread Making at Mersa\/Wadi Gawasis -- Experimenting with Middle Kingdom Bread Making -- Conclusions -- Interpreting Ideology at Saww : Ritual Practices, Memorial Shrines, and Commemorative Stelae -- Ceremonial Shrines and Commemorative Stelae at Mersa\/Wadi Gawasis -- Shrines Constructed along the Red Sea Coast -- Shrines\/Monuments on the Terrace Top Overlooking Wadi Gawasis -- The Alcove Shrine along the Western Terrace Slope -- Stelae -- Stelae in Monumental Structures -- Stelae at Mersa Gawasis -- Stelae Placed in Niches Carved in the Western Terrace Wall -- Use of Stelae at Saww -- Mersa\/Wadi Gawasis Stelae and the Gods -- Archaeology of Ritual and Religion at Mersa\/Wadi Gawasis -- The Land of Punt : A View from Mersa\/Wadi Gawasis -- Punt and Mersa\/Wadi Gawasis -- The Land of Punt : Egyptian Evidence -- Location of Punt : Natural Resources (Figure 41) -- The Land of Punt : Cultural Evidence (Figure 43) -- Punt and Bia-Punt, and the Evidence from Mersa\/Wadi Gawasis : Inscriptions -- Punt and the Evidence from Mersa\/WadiGawasis : Paleoethnobotanical Remains and Lithics -- Punt and the Evidence from Mersa\/Wadi Gawasis : Exotic Ceramics -- Location of Bia-Punt and Punt: Ceramic Evidence at Mersa\/Wadi Gawasis -- Long-distance Routes Involved in the Punt Expeditions -- Routes from Egypt to Punt\/Bia-Punt -- The Levant and Maritime Trade with Punt -- Land Routes from the Nile Valley to the Red Sea Coast -- Sea Route to and from the Southern Red Sea -- Land Routes in Punt\/Bia-Punt -- Maritime Expeditions to Punt\/Bia-Punt -- The 12th Dynasty Punt\/Bia-Punt Expeditions from Mersa\/Wadi Gawasis.<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:exampleOfWork<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/id\/5371596687<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:inLanguage<\/a> \"en<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isPartOf<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5371596687#Series\/culture_and_history_of_the_ancient_near_east<\/a>> ; # Culture and history of the ancient Near East ;<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isSimilarTo<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5371596687#CreativeWork\/seafaring_expeditions_to_punt_in_the_middle_kingdom<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Seafaring expeditions to Punt in the Middle Kingdom : excavations at Mersa\/Wadi Gawasis, Egypt<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:productID<\/a> \"1041898815<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:workExample<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9789004368507<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nwdrs:describedby<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/1041898815<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n\n

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