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Social psychology. 9th ed.

Author: David G Myers
Publisher: McGraw-Hill 2008.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats

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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: David G Myers
ISBN: 0071286705 9780071286701
OCLC Number: 1027935765
Contents: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 9th editionCHAPTER 1: Introducing Social PsychologyWhat is social psychology?Social psychology's big ideasWe construct our social realityOur social intuitions are often powerful but sometimes perilousSocial influences shape our behaviorPersonal attitudes and dispositions also shape behaviorSocial behavior is biologically rootedSocial psychology's principles are applicable in everyday lifeSocial psychology and human valuesObvious ways values enter psychologyNot-so-obvious ways values enter psychologyI knew it all along: Is social psychology simply common sense?Focus on: I knew it all alongResearch methods: How we do social psychologyForming and testing hypothesesCorrelational research: Detecting natural associationsExperimental research: Searching for cause and effectGeneralizing from laboratory to lifePostscript: Why I wrote this bookPART ONE: SOCIAL THINKINGCHAPTER 2: The Self in a SocialSpotlights and IllusionsResearch close-up: On being nervous about looking nervousSelf-concept: Who am I?At the center of our worlds: Our sense of selfDevelopment of the social self Self and cultureThe inside story: Hazel Markus and Shinobu Kitayama on cultural psychologySelf-knowledgeResearch close-up: An illusion of conscious willSelf-esteemSelf-esteem motivation The "dark side" of self-esteemPerceived self-controlSelf-efficacyLocus of controlLearned helplessness versus self-determinationSelf-serving biasExplaining positive and negative eventsCan we all be better than average?Focus on: Self-serving bias-How do I love me? Let me count the waysUnrealistic optimismFalse consensus and uniqueness Explaining self-serving bias Reflections on self-efficacy and self-serving biasSelf-presentationFalse modestySelf-handicappingImpression managementPostscript: Twin truths-The perils of pride, the powers of positive thinkingCHAPTER 3: Social Beliefs and JudgmentsPerceiving our social worldPrimingPerceiving and interpreting events Belief perseveranceConstructing memories of ourselves and our worldsJudging our social worldIntuitive judgmentsOverconfidenceHeuristics: Mental shortcuts Illusory thinkingMoods and judgmentsResearch close-up: Negative emotions make pessimistic investorsExplaining our social worldAttributing causality: To the person or the situationThe fundamental attribution errorExpectations of our social worldFocus on: The self-fulfilling psychology of the stock marketTeacher expectations and student performanceGetting from others what we expectConclusionsFocus on: How journalists think: Cognitive bias in newsmakingPostscript: Reflecting on illusory thinkingCHAPTER 4: Behavior and AttitudesHow well do our attitudes predict our behavior?When attitudes predict behaviorThe inside story: Mahzarin R. Banaji on discovering experimental social psychologyResearch close-up: You've not got mail: Prejudicial attitudes predict discriminatory behaviorWhen does our behavior affect our attitudes?Role playingWhen saying becomes believingFocus on: Saying becomes believingThe foot-in-the-door phenomenon Evil and moral acts Interracial behavior and racial attitudesSocial movementsWhy does our behavior affect our attitudes? Self-presentation: Impression managementSelf-justification: Cognitive dissonanceThe inside story: Leon Festinger on dissonance reductionSelf-perceptionComparing the theoriesPostscript: Changing ourselves through actionPART TWO: SOCIAL INFLUENCECHAPTER 5: Genes, Culture, and GenderHow are we influenced by human nature and cultural diversity?Genes, evolution, and behavior Culture and behavior Focus on: The cultural animalResearch close-up: Passing encounters, East and WestSocial rolesHow are gender similarities and differences explained?Independence versus connectednessSocial dominanceAggressionSexualityEvolution and gender: Doing what comes naturally?Gender and mating preferencesReflections on evolutionary psychologyFocus on: Evolutionary science and religionGender and hormonesCulture and gender: Doing as the culture says?Gender roles vary with culture Gender roles vary over time Peer-transmitted cultureWhat can we conclude about genes, culture, and gender?Biology and cultureThe inside story: Alice Eagly on gender similarities and differencesThe power of the situation and the personPostscript: Should we view ourselves as products or architects of our social worlds?CHAPTER 6: Conformity and ObedienceWhat is conformity?What are the classic conformity and obedience studies?Sherif's studies of norm formation Research close-up: Contagious yawningFocus on: Mass delusionsAsch's studies of group pressureMilgram's obedience experimentsFocus on: Personalizing the victims What breeds obedience? Reflections on the classic studiesThe inside story: Stanley Milgram on obedienceWhat predicts conformity?Group sizeUnanimityCohesionStatusPublic responseNo prior commitmentWhy conform?Who conforms?Personality CultureSocial rolesDo we ever want to be different?ReactanceAsserting uniquenessPostscript: On being an individual within communityCHAPTER 7: PersuasionWhat paths lead to persuasion?The central route The peripheral routeDifferent routes for different purposesWhat are the elements of persuasion?Who says? The communicator Research close-up: Experimenting with a virtual social realityWhat is said? The message content How is it said? The channel of communicationTo whom is it said? The audienceExtreme persuasion: How do cults indoctrinate?Attitudes follow behaviorPersuasive elementsGroup effectsHow can persuasion be resisted?Strengthening personal commitment The inside story: William McGuire on attitude inoculationReal-life applications: Inoculation programsImplications of attitude inoculationPostscript: Being open but not naiveCHAPTER 8: Group InfluenceWhat is a group?Social facilitation: How are we affected by the presence of others?The mere presence of others Crowding: The presence of many othersWhy are we aroused in the presence of others?Social loafing: Do individuals exert less effort in a group?Many hands make light work Social loafing in everyday lifeDeindividuation: When do people lose their sense of self in groups?Doing together what we would not do aloneDiminished self-awarenessGroup polarization: Do groups intensify our opinions?The case of the "risky shift"Do groups intensify opinions? Focus on: Group polarizationExplaining polarizationGroupthink: Do groups hinder or assist good decisions?The inside story: Irving Janis on groupthinkSymptoms of groupthinkCritiquing the concept of groupthinkPreventing groupthinkGroup problem solvingThe inside story behind a Nobel Prize: Two minds are better than oneThe influence of the minority: How do individuals influence the group?Consistency Self-confidenceDefections from the majorityIs leadership minority influence?Focus on: Transformational community leadershipPostscript: Are groups bad for us?PART THREE: SOCIAL RELATIONSCHAPTER 9: Prejudice: Disliking othersWhat is the nature and power of prejudice?Defining prejudicePrejudice: Subtle and overtRacial prejudiceGender prejudiceWhat are the social sources of prejudice?Social inequalities: Unequal status and prejudiceSocializationInstitutional supportsWhat are the motivational sources of prejudice?Frustration and aggression: The scapegoat theorySocial identity theory: Feeling superior to othersMotivation to avoid prejudiceWhat are the cognitive sources of prejudice?Categorization: Classifying people into groupsDistinctiveness: Perceiving people who stand outAttribution: Is it a just world?What are the consequences of prejudice?Self-perpetuating stereotypes Discrimination's impact: The self-fulfilling prophecy Stereotype threatThe inside story: Claude Steele on stereotype threatDo stereotypes bias judgments of individuals?Postscript: Can we reduce prejudice?CHAPTER 10: Aggression: Hurting OthersWhat is aggression?What are some theories of aggression?Aggression as a biological phenomenon<h5>Aggression as a response to frustrationAggression as learned social behaviorWhat are some influences on aggression?Aversive incidentsArousalAggression cuesMedia influences: Pornography and sexual violenceMedia influences: TelevisionMedia influences: Video gamesThe inside story: Craig Anderson on video game violenceGroup influencesResearch close-up: When provoked, are groups more aggressive than individuals?How can aggression be reduced?Catharsis?Focus on: Clinical researcher Martin Seligman looks at catharsisA social learning approachPostscript: Reforming a violent cultureCHAPTER 11: Attraction and Intimacy: Liking and Loving OthersWhat leads to friendship and attraction?ProximityFocus on: Liking things associated with oneselfPhysical attractivenessThe inside story: Ellen Berscheid on attractivenessSimilarity versus complementarity The inside story: James Jones on cultural diversityLiking those who like us Focus on: Bad is stronger than goodRelationship rewardsWhat is love?Passionate loveCompanionate loveWhat enables close relationships?Attachment EquitySelf-disclosureFocus on: Does the Internet create intimacy or isolation?How do relationships end?DivorceThe detachment processPostscript: Making loveCHAPTER 12: HelpingWhy do we help?Social exchange and social normsThe inside story: Dennis Krebs on life experience and professional interestsEvolutionary psychologyComparing and evaluating theories of helping Genuine altruismFocus on: The benefits-and the costs-of empathy-induced altruismWhen will we help?Number of bystandersThe inside story: John M. Darley on bystander reactionsHelping when someone else does Time pressuresSimilarityResearch close-up: Ingroup similarity and helpingWho will help?Personality traitsReligious faithHow can we increase helping?Reduce ambiguity, increase responsibilityGuilt and concern for self-imageSocializing altruismFocus on: Behavior and attitudes among rescuers of JewsPostscript: Taking social psychology into lifeCHAPTER 13: Conflict and PeacemakingWhat creates conflict?Social dilemmas Competition Perceived injustice MisperceptionResearch close-up: Misperception and warHow can peace be achieved?ContactResearch close-up: Relationships that might have beenCooperation Focus on: Why do we care who wins?Focus on: Branch Rickey, Jackie Robinson, and the integration of baseballCommunicationConciliationPostscript: The conflict between individual and communal rightsPART FOUR: APPLYING SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGYCHAPTER 14: Social Psychology in the ClinicWhat influences the accuracy of clinical judgments?Illusory correlations Hindsight and overconfidence Self-confirming diagnoses Clinical versus statistical predictionImplications for better clinical practiceFocus on: A physician's viewWhat cognitive processes accompany behavior problems?DepressionThe inside story: Shelley Taylor on positive illusions LonelinessAnxiety and shynessHealth, illness, and deathWhat are some social-psychological approaches to treatment?Inducing internal change through external behavior Breaking vicious cyclesMaintaining change through internal attributions for successUsing therapy as social influenceHow do social relationships support health and well-being?Close relationships and healthClose relationships and happinessPostscript: Enhancing happinessCHAPTER 15: Social Psychology in CourtHow reliable is eyewitness testimony?The power of persuasive eyewitnesses When eyes deceiveFocus on: Eyewitness testimonyThe misinformation effectRetellingResearch close-up: Feedback to witnessesReducing errorWhat other factors influence juror judgments?The defendant's characteristicsThe judge's instructionsAdditional factorsWhat influences the individual juror?Juror comprehensionJury selection"Death-qualified" jurorsHow do group influences affect juries?Minority influenceGroup polarizationResearch close-up: Group polarization in a natural court settingLeniencyAre twelve heads better than one?Are six heads as good as twelve?From lab to life: Simulated and real juriesPostscript: Thinking smart with psychological scienceCHAPTER 16: Social Psychology and the Sustainable FutureAn environmental call to actionEnabling sustainable livingNew technologiesReducing consumptionThe social psychology of materialism and wealthIncreased materialismWealth and well-beingMaterialism fails to satisfyFocus on: Social comparison, belonging, and happinessToward sustainability and survivalResearch close-up: Measuring national well-beingPostscript: How does one live responsibly in the modern world?Epilogue


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