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Source separation and decentralization for wastewater management

Author: Tove A Larsen; Kai M Udert; Judit Lienert
Publisher: London : IWA Publishing, 2013.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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"The book is intended for all professionals and researchers interested in wastewater management, whether or not they are familiar with source separation"--Back cover.
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Tove A Larsen; Kai M Udert; Judit Lienert
ISBN: 9781843393481 1843393484
OCLC Number: 835059714
Description: xxx, 491 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Contents: Machine generated contents note: ch. 1 Editorial / Judit Lienert --
pt. I The advantages of source separation and decentralization --
ch. 2 The energy issue in urban water management / Bruce E. Rittmann --
2.1.Introduction --
Think Globally and Act Locally --
2.2.Global Energy Goal --
2.3.Renewable Energy Sources --
2.4.Photosynthesis, Biomass, and BOD --
2.5.Microbial Energy Conversion --
2.6.Nutrient Recovery --
2.7.New Biomass from Photosynthetic Microorganisms --
2.8.Lower Energy Use --
2.9.The Impact of Source Separation and Decentralization --
References --
ch. 3 Peak phosphorus and the role of P recovery in achieving food security / Dana Cordell --
3.1.Introduction --
3.2.Phosphorus and Global Food Security --
3.3.Global Phosphorus Scarcity and Pollution --
3.4.Five Dimensions of Phosphorus Scarcity --
3.5.Phosphorus Use in the Global Food System --
3.6.Achieving Phosphorus Security --
3.6.1.An integrated approach is required --
3.6.2.The role of decentralized sanitation systems --
3.6.3.Key challenges and opportunities --
3.7.Conclusions --
References --
ch. 4 Nitrogen economy of the 21st Century / Tove A. Larsen --
4.1.Introduction --
4.2.Nitrogen Sources --
4.3.Release of Nitrogen to the Environment --
4.4.Environmental Consequences --
4.5.The Future and Possible Interventions --
4.6.Conclusions --
References --
ch. 5 Urban water supply under expanding water scarcity / Jun Xia --
5.1.Introduction --
5.2.Water Supply of Urban Areas --
5.2.1.On the verge of a new water scarcity --
5.3.Implications of Increasing Competition? --
5.4.Adapting to Increasing Water Shortage --
5.5.Reasonable Blue-Water Allocation --
5.6.Irrigation Potential --
5.7.Additive Versus Competing Water Uses --
5.8.Conclusion --
Acknowledgement --
References --
ch. 6 The issue of micropollutants in urban water management / Klaus Kummerer --
6.1.Introduction --
6.2.Parent Compounds, Metabolites and Transformation Products --
6.3.Classification --
6.4.Some Examples of Micropollutants --
6.4.1.Flame retardants --
6.4.2.Biocides and pesticides --
6.4.3.Endocrine disrupting chemicals --
6.4.4.Anti-corrosive additives --
6.4.5.Personal care products --
6.4.6.Perfluorinated surfactants --
PFOS and PFOA --
6.4.7.Pharmaceuticals --
6.4.8.Artificial sweeteners --
6.4.9.Engineered nanoparticles --
6.5.Management Options --
6.5.1.Technology --
6.5.2.Education and training --
6.5.3.Source separation --
6.5.4.Benign by design --
References --
ch. 7 Full costs, (dis-)economies of scale and the price of uncertainty / Max Maurer --
7.1.Introduction --
7.2.Conveyance-Based Wastewater Treatment --
7.3.(dis-)Economies of Scale --
7.4.Deficits of the Net Present Value Method --
7.5.The Cost of Uncertainty --
7.6.On-Site Treatment Systems --
7.7.Conclusions --
References --
ch. 8 The rationale for decentralization of wastewater infrastructure / Harold Leverenz --
8.1.Types of Wastewater Infrastructure --
8.2.Centralized Treatment Systems --
8.3.Distributed Centralized Systems --
8.4.Centralized Systems with Satellites --
8.4.1.Implementation of satellite systems --
8.5.Decentralized Systems --
8.5.1.Types of decentralized wastewater systems --
8.5.2.Historical development of decentralized systems --
8.5.3.Modern development of decentralized systems --
8.5.4.Advantages and disadvantages of decentralization --
8.5.5.Continued developments in decentralized systems --
8.5.6.Future evolution of decentralized wastewater systems --
8.6.The Future --
8.7.Summary --
References --
ch. 9 Cities of the global South --
is decentralized sanitation a solution? / Barbara Evans --
9.1.Introduction --
9.2.Centralized Systems --
9.3.Unbundling --
9.3.1.The value chain --
9.3.2.Vertical unbundling --
9.3.3.Horizontal unbundling --
9.4.Decentralization --
9.5.Technologies --
9.6.Creating Incentives --
9.6.1.Contractual incentives --
9.6.2.Financial incentives --
9.6.3.Political incentives --
9.6.4.Professional incentives --
9.7.Summary --
References --
pt. II The challenges of source separation and decentralization --
ch. 10 Implementation of source separation and decentralization in cities / Willi Gujer --
10.1.Introduction --
10.2.The Main Advantages of Source Separation and Decentralization in Cities --
10.3.Challenges of Source Separation and Decentralization in Cities --
10.3.1.The challenge of transport --
10.3.2.The challenge of developing treatment processes --
10.4.Transition --
10.5.Conclusions --
References --
ch. 11 Hygiene, a major challenge for source separation and decentralization / Thor Axel Stenstrom --
11.1.Introduction --
11.2.Hazard Identification in a System Perspective --
11.3.Human Exposure Assessment --
11.4.Treatment Barriers and Examples of Their Reduction Efficiency --
11.5.Quantifications of Risks and Risk-Benefit Strategies --
11.6.Future Challenges and Knowledge Gaps --
References --
ch. 12 Closing the loop: Recycling nutrients to agriculture / Bjorn Vinneras --
12.1.Nutrient Balance Close to Crop Removal --
12.2.Source-Separated Toilet Wastes are Unique Biological Fertilizers --
12.3.Nutrient Requirements and Fertilizers Used in Practice --
12.4.Economic and GWP Value of Nutrients --
12.5.Urine is Very Low in Pollutants --
12.6.Low Hygiene Risk --
12.7.Spreading Machinery --
12.8.The Farmer --
Businessman, Soil Steward and Entrepreneur --
References --
ch. 13 The potential of control and monitoring / Gustaf Olsson --
13.1.Introduction --
13.1.1.Instrumentation, control and automation aspects --
13.2.The Influent --
13.3.Treatment Technologies --
13.4.Instrumentation --
13.5.Monitoring --
13.6.Actuators --
13.7.Operating Competence --
13.8.The Need for Standardization --
13.9.Conclusions --
References --
ch. 14 High acceptance of source-separating technologies --
but... / Judit Lienert --
14.1.Introduction --
14.2.Social Science Methods --
14.2.1.Quantitative questionnaire surveys --
14.2.2.Qualitative methods --
14.3.Acceptance of Nomix Technology --
14.3.1.Some results from qualitative approaches --
14.3.2.Results from quantitative approaches --
14.4.Acceptance of Urine-Based Fertilizers --
14.5.Technology Requirements and Outlook --
14.5.1.Drawbacks of NoMix toilets for users --
14.6.Conclusions --
References --
ch. 15 Market success of on-site treatment: a systemic innovation problem / Eckhard Stormer --
15.1.Introduction --
15.2.The Systemic Innovation Problem --
15.3.The German On-Site Industry --
15.4.Major Innovation Challenges --
15.5.Three Potential Trajectories --
15.6.Conclusions --
References --
pt. III Potential technologies for source separation --
ch. 16 Conceptualizing sanitation systems to account for new complexities in processing and management / Elizabeth Tilley --
16.1.Introduction --
16.2.Emerging Products --
16.3.Functional Groups for Targeted Product Processing --
16.3.1.User interface --
16.3.2.Collection and storage --
16.3.3.Conveyance --
16.3.4.Treatment --
16.3.5.Use and disposal --
16.4.Operation and Management: Implications for System Boundaries --
16.4.1.User interface --
16.4.2.Collection and storage --
16.4.3.Conveyance --
16.4.4.Treatment --
16.4.5.Use and disposal --
16.5.Conclusions and Recommendations --
References --
ch. 17 Wastewater composition / Yuval Alfiya --
17.1.Introduction --
17.2.Domestic Wastewater Flows --
17.3.Wastewater Flow Patterns --
17.4.Blackwater --
17.4.1.Yellowwater --
17.4.2.Brownwater --
17.5.Greywater --
17.6.Proportional Contribution of Nutrients and Organics --
17.7.Discussion and Significance --
References --
ch. 18 Treatment of the solid fraction / Christopher Buzie --
18.1.Introduction --
18.2.Composition of Faecal Solids --
18.3.Treatment Goals --
18.4.Composting --
18.4.1.Process description --
18.4.2.Stage of development --
18.4.3.Operational requirements --
18.4.4.Environmental and health concerns --
18.4.5.Configurations --
18.5.Vermicomposting --
18.5.1.Process description --
18.5.2.Stage of development --
18.5.3.Operational requirements --
18.5.4.Environmental and health concerns --
18.5.5.Configurations --
18.6.Terra Preta Sanitation --
18.6.1.Process description and stage of development --
18.6.2.Operational requirements --
18.6.3.Environmental and health concerns --
18.6.4.Configuration --
18.7.Dehydration --
18.7.1.Process description --
18.7.2.Stage of development --
18.7.3.Operational requirements --
18.7.4.Environmental and health concerns --
18.7.5.Configurations --
18.8.Pasteurization --
18.9.Conclusions and Outlook --
References --
ch. 19 Aerobic elimination of organics and pathogens: greywater treatment / Paul Jeffrey --
19.1.Introduction --
19.2.Composition and Treatability --
19.2.1.Organic compounds --
19.2.2.Xenobiotics --
19.2.3.Pathogens --
19.3.Technologies for Aerobic Treatment --
19.3.1.Removal of organic compounds --
19.3.2.Xenobiotics removal --
19.3.3.Pathogen removal --
19.4.Conclusions --
References --
ch. 20 Biological nitrogen conversion processes / Sarina Jenni --
20.1.Introduction --
20.2.Biological Nitrogen Conversion --
20.2.1.Nitrogen uptake --
20.2.2.Nitrification --
20.2.3.Heterotrophic denitrification --
20.2.4.Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) --
20.3.Nitrogen Stabilization in Urine --
20.3.1.Conditions in stored urine --
20.3.2.Nitrification without base dosage --
20.3.3.Complete ammonia oxidation with base dosage --
20.3.4.Use of nitrified urine --
20.4.Nitrogen Removal from Urine --
20.4.1.Nitritation/anammox in a two-reactor set-up --
20.4.2.Nitritation/anammox in a single reactor --
20.5.Nitrogen Removal from Blackwater --
20.5.1.Blackwater collected in vacuum toilets --
20.5.2.Conventionally collected blackwater --
20.6.Conclusions --
References --
ch. 21 Anaerobic treatment of source-separated domestic wastewater / Katarzyna Kujawa-Roeleveld --
21.1.Introduction --
21.2.The Anaerobic Conversion Process --
21.3.Reactor Types --
21.3.1.Reactors without enhanced biomass retention --
21.3.2.Reactors with enhanced biomass retention --
21.4.Anaerobic Treatment of Black- and Brownwater --
Note continued: 21.4.1.Maximum process temperature --
21.4.2.Removal of organic substances and methane recovery for different waste streams --
21.4.3.Boosting energy production by adding kitchen waste --
21.4.4.Nutrient recovery and removal --
21.4.5.Removal of pharmaceuticals and hormones --
21.5.Anaerobic Treatment of Greywater --
21.6.Conclusions --
References --
ch. 22 Electrochemical systems / Jurg Keller --
22.1.Introduction --
22.2.Electrochemical Oxidation and Reduction Processes --
22.3.Oxidation and Reduction of Pollutants --
22.3.1.Suitable anode materials --
22.3.2.Electrochemical ammonia oxidation --
22.3.3.Electrochemical urea degradation --
22.3.4.Influence of urea hydrolysis --
22.3.5.Removal of organic pollutants and pathogens --
22.4.Electrochemical Dissolution of Metals --
22.4.1.Electrocoagulation --
22.4.2.Electrochemical precipitation of phosphate from urine --
22.5.Bioelectrochemical Processes --
22.5.1.Electroactive bacteria --
22.5.2.Reactor set-ups --
22.5.3.Advantages and challenges --
22.6.Use of Bioelectrochemical Systems for Wastewater Containing Organic Solids --
22.6.1.Degradation of complex organic substrates --
22.6.2.Combining bioelectrochemical systems with organic solids pre-treatment --
22.7.Bioelectrochemical Urine Treatment --
22.7.1.Influence of urine composition --
22.7.2.Ammonium exchange --
22.7.3.Inhibition by ammonia --
22.7.4.Sulfate removal --
22.7.5.Micropollutant removal --
22.8.Energy Conversion and Degradation Rates --
22.9.Conclusions --
References --
ch. 23 Transfer into the gas phase: ammonia stripping / Kai M. Udert --
23.1.Introduction --
23.2.Wastewaters with High Ammonia Content --
23.3.Chemical Equilibria --
23.3.1.Acid-base equilibrium --
23.3.2.Gas exchange equilibrium --
23.4.Ammonia Stripping with Air --
23.5.Ammonia Stripping with Air and Carbon Dioxide Pre-Stripping --
23.6.Ammonia Stripping from Stored Urine --
23.6.1.Stripping reactors with adsorption in acid --
23.6.2.Steam stripping --
23.6.3.Passive ammonia stripping in urine-collecting systems --
23.7.Products of Ammonia Stripping --
23.8.Conclusions --
References --
ch. 24 Transfer into the solid phase / Kai M. Udert --
24.1.Introduction --
24.2.Struvite Precipitation --
24.2.1.Conditions for struvite formation --
24.2.2.Magnesium sources --
24.2.3.Struvite precipitation in urine --
24.2.4.Struvite precipitation in blackwater --
24.2.5.Micropollutants and pathogens --
24.2.6.Use of struvite --
24.3.Other Precipitation Processes --
24.4.Phosphate Adsorption --
24.4.1.Phosphate removal with adsorption --
24.4.2.Applications --
24.4.3.Adsorbents --
24.4.4.Mechanisms --
24.4.5.Phosphorus recovery --
24.5.Nutrient Removal by Ion Exchange --
24.5.1.Operational conditions --
24.5.2.Ion exchange in source-separated urine --
24.5.3.Amount of zeolite --
24.5.4.Blackwater and greywater --
24.5.5.Use of zeolites as fertilizer carrier --
24.6.Concentration Processes --
24.6.1.Freeze and thaw --
24.6.2.Electrodialysis --
24.6.3.Reverse osmosis --
24.6.4.Distillation --
24.6.5.Energy demand --
24.7.Concluding Remarks --
References --
ch. 25 Membrane processes / Zenah Bradford-Hartke --
25.1.Introduction --
25.2.Basic Features of Membrane Systems --
25.2.1.Precautions for decentralized systems --
25.3.Decentralized Applications --
25.3.1.Introduction --
25.3.2.Greywater --
25.3.3.Blackwater --
25.3.4.Source-separated urine --
25.3.5.Combined wastewater --
25.4.Industry Trends --
25.4.1.Accounting for the cost of carbon --
25.4.2.Increased monitoring and regulation of trace contaminants --
25.4.3.Application of risk management procedures --
25.5.Conclusions --
References --
ch. 26 Chemical oxidation processes / Urs von Gunten --
26.1.Introduction --
26.1.1.Common chemical oxidants --
26.1.2.Oxidation/disinfection by-products --
26.1.3.Kinetics of oxidation/disinfection processes --
26.1.4.Transformation products and their biological activity --
26.2.Application of Oxidation Processes to Source-Separated Waste Streams --
26.2.1.General considerations --
26.2.2.Efficiency of oxidation/disinfection processes: role of water matrix components --
26.2.3.Efficiency of oxidation/disinfection with ozone: the role of DOC concentration --
26.2.4.Application of oxidation/disinfection processes to source-separated urine --
26.2.5.Application of oxidation/disinfection processes to greywater --
26.2.6.Application of oxidation/disinfection to effluents of biological reactors --
26.3.Conclusions --
References --
ch. 27 Enhanced fractionation of mixed wastewater as an alternative to separation at the source / Bert Bundervoet --
27.1.Introduction --
27.2.Motives for Up-Concentration --
27.3.Approaches for Small Communities --
27.3.1.Fractionation of mixed wastewater --
27.3.2.Post-treatment options for water reuse --
27.3.3.The potential for energy recovery --
27.3.4.The potential for nutrient recovery --
27.4.Approaches at Household Level --
27.5.The Future of Membrane Filtration --
27.6.Summary --
Acknowledgement --
References --
pt. IV The international experience --
ch. 28 The Swedish experience with source separation / H. Jonsson --
28.1.The Early 1990s --
Introduction of UD --
28.2.Late 1990s To Present --
On-Site Sanitation --
28.3.Three Typical Swedish Cases Studies --
28.3.1.Single household with local reuse of urine and faeces --
28.3.2.Local blackwater system for eco-fertilizer production --
28.3.3.Municipality demanding source separation (Tanum) --
28.4.Conclusions --
References --
ch. 29 Practical experience with source separation in Germany / Jorg Londong --
29.1.Background --
29.2.The DWA Story --
29.3.The Pilot Plant Story --
29.3.1.Pilot projects with anaerobic digestion of blackwater --
29.3.2.Pilot projects with urine source separation --
29.4.Necessity For Technical Improvements and Scientific Research --
29.5.Perspective --
References --
ch. 30 The Netherlands: "Nieuwe Sanitatie" / A. J. (Bert) Palsma --
30.1.Introduction --
30.2."New Sanitation" in the Netherlands --
30.3.From Research to Implementation --
References --
ch. 31 Source control and source separation: the Swiss experience / Markus Boller --
31.1.Introduction --
31.2.Drivers for Change in Switzerland --
31.3.Case Studies in Switzerland --
31.3.1.On-site wastewater treatment and reuse --
31.3.2.Urine separation and processing --
31.3.3.Energy and water autarky --
31.4.What Did We Learn? --
References --
ch. 32 Development of decentralized systems in Australia / Ashok Sharma --
32.1.Introduction --
32.2.Drivers for Decentralization --
32.3.Overview of Decentralized Systems --
32.3.1.Cluster Scale Developments --
32.3.2.Urine-Separating Toilets --
32.4.Conclusions --
References --
ch. 33 Source separation in middle- and low-income countries / Arne Panesar --
33.1.Introduction --
33.2.Drivers for Source Separation in Middle- and Low-Income Countries --
33.3.Examples of Scaled-Up Dissemination of Source Separation in Africa and Asia --
33.3.1.Scaling-up urine diverting toilets in peri-urban areas of eThekwini, South Africa --
33.3.2.Community-led water and environmental sanitation improvement in Shaanxi, China --
33.4.Conclusion and Outlook --
References --
pt. V The paradigm shift --
ch. 34 Why question the prevailing paradigm of wastewater management? / M. Bruce Beck --
34.1.Introduction --
34.2.Imagining the City as a Force for Good in its Environment --
34.3.Source Separation and Decentralization --
34.4.Social Science and Economics --
34.5.Conclusions --
References --
ch. 35 How to spur innovation? / Peter A. Wilderer --
35.1.Why Innovation? --
35.2.Theory of Innovation --
35.3.Sustainable Innovation --
35.4.Sustainable Wastewater Management --
35.5.Spuring Sustainable Innovation --
References.
Responsibility: edited by Tove A. Larsen, Kai M. Udert and Judit Lienert.

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Source Separation and Decentralization for Wastewater Management sets up a comprehensive view of the resources involved in urban water management and the potential of source separation and  Read more...

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   schema:description "Note continued: 21.4.1.Maximum process temperature -- 21.4.2.Removal of organic substances and methane recovery for different waste streams -- 21.4.3.Boosting energy production by adding kitchen waste -- 21.4.4.Nutrient recovery and removal -- 21.4.5.Removal of pharmaceuticals and hormones -- 21.5.Anaerobic Treatment of Greywater -- 21.6.Conclusions -- References -- ch. 22 Electrochemical systems / Jurg Keller -- 22.1.Introduction -- 22.2.Electrochemical Oxidation and Reduction Processes -- 22.3.Oxidation and Reduction of Pollutants -- 22.3.1.Suitable anode materials -- 22.3.2.Electrochemical ammonia oxidation -- 22.3.3.Electrochemical urea degradation -- 22.3.4.Influence of urea hydrolysis -- 22.3.5.Removal of organic pollutants and pathogens -- 22.4.Electrochemical Dissolution of Metals -- 22.4.1.Electrocoagulation -- 22.4.2.Electrochemical precipitation of phosphate from urine -- 22.5.Bioelectrochemical Processes -- 22.5.1.Electroactive bacteria -- 22.5.2.Reactor set-ups -- 22.5.3.Advantages and challenges -- 22.6.Use of Bioelectrochemical Systems for Wastewater Containing Organic Solids -- 22.6.1.Degradation of complex organic substrates -- 22.6.2.Combining bioelectrochemical systems with organic solids pre-treatment -- 22.7.Bioelectrochemical Urine Treatment -- 22.7.1.Influence of urine composition -- 22.7.2.Ammonium exchange -- 22.7.3.Inhibition by ammonia -- 22.7.4.Sulfate removal -- 22.7.5.Micropollutant removal -- 22.8.Energy Conversion and Degradation Rates -- 22.9.Conclusions -- References -- ch. 23 Transfer into the gas phase: ammonia stripping / Kai M. Udert -- 23.1.Introduction -- 23.2.Wastewaters with High Ammonia Content -- 23.3.Chemical Equilibria -- 23.3.1.Acid-base equilibrium -- 23.3.2.Gas exchange equilibrium -- 23.4.Ammonia Stripping with Air -- 23.5.Ammonia Stripping with Air and Carbon Dioxide Pre-Stripping -- 23.6.Ammonia Stripping from Stored Urine -- 23.6.1.Stripping reactors with adsorption in acid -- 23.6.2.Steam stripping -- 23.6.3.Passive ammonia stripping in urine-collecting systems -- 23.7.Products of Ammonia Stripping -- 23.8.Conclusions -- References -- ch. 24 Transfer into the solid phase / Kai M. Udert -- 24.1.Introduction -- 24.2.Struvite Precipitation -- 24.2.1.Conditions for struvite formation -- 24.2.2.Magnesium sources -- 24.2.3.Struvite precipitation in urine -- 24.2.4.Struvite precipitation in blackwater -- 24.2.5.Micropollutants and pathogens -- 24.2.6.Use of struvite -- 24.3.Other Precipitation Processes -- 24.4.Phosphate Adsorption -- 24.4.1.Phosphate removal with adsorption -- 24.4.2.Applications -- 24.4.3.Adsorbents -- 24.4.4.Mechanisms -- 24.4.5.Phosphorus recovery -- 24.5.Nutrient Removal by Ion Exchange -- 24.5.1.Operational conditions -- 24.5.2.Ion exchange in source-separated urine -- 24.5.3.Amount of zeolite -- 24.5.4.Blackwater and greywater -- 24.5.5.Use of zeolites as fertilizer carrier -- 24.6.Concentration Processes -- 24.6.1.Freeze and thaw -- 24.6.2.Electrodialysis -- 24.6.3.Reverse osmosis -- 24.6.4.Distillation -- 24.6.5.Energy demand -- 24.7.Concluding Remarks -- References -- ch. 25 Membrane processes / Zenah Bradford-Hartke -- 25.1.Introduction -- 25.2.Basic Features of Membrane Systems -- 25.2.1.Precautions for decentralized systems -- 25.3.Decentralized Applications -- 25.3.1.Introduction -- 25.3.2.Greywater -- 25.3.3.Blackwater -- 25.3.4.Source-separated urine -- 25.3.5.Combined wastewater -- 25.4.Industry Trends -- 25.4.1.Accounting for the cost of carbon -- 25.4.2.Increased monitoring and regulation of trace contaminants -- 25.4.3.Application of risk management procedures -- 25.5.Conclusions -- References -- ch. 26 Chemical oxidation processes / Urs von Gunten -- 26.1.Introduction -- 26.1.1.Common chemical oxidants -- 26.1.2.Oxidation/disinfection by-products -- 26.1.3.Kinetics of oxidation/disinfection processes -- 26.1.4.Transformation products and their biological activity -- 26.2.Application of Oxidation Processes to Source-Separated Waste Streams -- 26.2.1.General considerations -- 26.2.2.Efficiency of oxidation/disinfection processes: role of water matrix components -- 26.2.3.Efficiency of oxidation/disinfection with ozone: the role of DOC concentration -- 26.2.4.Application of oxidation/disinfection processes to source-separated urine -- 26.2.5.Application of oxidation/disinfection processes to greywater -- 26.2.6.Application of oxidation/disinfection to effluents of biological reactors -- 26.3.Conclusions -- References -- ch. 27 Enhanced fractionation of mixed wastewater as an alternative to separation at the source / Bert Bundervoet -- 27.1.Introduction -- 27.2.Motives for Up-Concentration -- 27.3.Approaches for Small Communities -- 27.3.1.Fractionation of mixed wastewater -- 27.3.2.Post-treatment options for water reuse -- 27.3.3.The potential for energy recovery -- 27.3.4.The potential for nutrient recovery -- 27.4.Approaches at Household Level -- 27.5.The Future of Membrane Filtration -- 27.6.Summary -- Acknowledgement -- References -- pt. IV The international experience -- ch. 28 The Swedish experience with source separation / H. Jonsson -- 28.1.The Early 1990s -- Introduction of UD -- 28.2.Late 1990s To Present -- On-Site Sanitation -- 28.3.Three Typical Swedish Cases Studies -- 28.3.1.Single household with local reuse of urine and faeces -- 28.3.2.Local blackwater system for eco-fertilizer production -- 28.3.3.Municipality demanding source separation (Tanum) -- 28.4.Conclusions -- References -- ch. 29 Practical experience with source separation in Germany / Jorg Londong -- 29.1.Background -- 29.2.The DWA Story -- 29.3.The Pilot Plant Story -- 29.3.1.Pilot projects with anaerobic digestion of blackwater -- 29.3.2.Pilot projects with urine source separation -- 29.4.Necessity For Technical Improvements and Scientific Research -- 29.5.Perspective -- References -- ch. 30 The Netherlands: "Nieuwe Sanitatie" / A. J. (Bert) Palsma -- 30.1.Introduction -- 30.2."New Sanitation" in the Netherlands -- 30.3.From Research to Implementation -- References -- ch. 31 Source control and source separation: the Swiss experience / Markus Boller -- 31.1.Introduction -- 31.2.Drivers for Change in Switzerland -- 31.3.Case Studies in Switzerland -- 31.3.1.On-site wastewater treatment and reuse -- 31.3.2.Urine separation and processing -- 31.3.3.Energy and water autarky -- 31.4.What Did We Learn? -- References -- ch. 32 Development of decentralized systems in Australia / Ashok Sharma -- 32.1.Introduction -- 32.2.Drivers for Decentralization -- 32.3.Overview of Decentralized Systems -- 32.3.1.Cluster Scale Developments -- 32.3.2.Urine-Separating Toilets -- 32.4.Conclusions -- References -- ch. 33 Source separation in middle- and low-income countries / Arne Panesar -- 33.1.Introduction -- 33.2.Drivers for Source Separation in Middle- and Low-Income Countries -- 33.3.Examples of Scaled-Up Dissemination of Source Separation in Africa and Asia -- 33.3.1.Scaling-up urine diverting toilets in peri-urban areas of eThekwini, South Africa -- 33.3.2.Community-led water and environmental sanitation improvement in Shaanxi, China -- 33.4.Conclusion and Outlook -- References -- pt. V The paradigm shift -- ch. 34 Why question the prevailing paradigm of wastewater management? / M. Bruce Beck -- 34.1.Introduction -- 34.2.Imagining the City as a Force for Good in its Environment -- 34.3.Source Separation and Decentralization -- 34.4.Social Science and Economics -- 34.5.Conclusions -- References -- ch. 35 How to spur innovation? / Peter A. Wilderer -- 35.1.Why Innovation? -- 35.2.Theory of Innovation -- 35.3.Sustainable Innovation -- 35.4.Sustainable Wastewater Management -- 35.5.Spuring Sustainable Innovation -- References."@en ;
   schema:description ""The book is intended for all professionals and researchers interested in wastewater management, whether or not they are familiar with source separation"--Back cover."@en ;
   schema:description "Machine generated contents note: ch. 1 Editorial / Judit Lienert -- pt. I The advantages of source separation and decentralization -- ch. 2 The energy issue in urban water management / Bruce E. Rittmann -- 2.1.Introduction -- Think Globally and Act Locally -- 2.2.Global Energy Goal -- 2.3.Renewable Energy Sources -- 2.4.Photosynthesis, Biomass, and BOD -- 2.5.Microbial Energy Conversion -- 2.6.Nutrient Recovery -- 2.7.New Biomass from Photosynthetic Microorganisms -- 2.8.Lower Energy Use -- 2.9.The Impact of Source Separation and Decentralization -- References -- ch. 3 Peak phosphorus and the role of P recovery in achieving food security / Dana Cordell -- 3.1.Introduction -- 3.2.Phosphorus and Global Food Security -- 3.3.Global Phosphorus Scarcity and Pollution -- 3.4.Five Dimensions of Phosphorus Scarcity -- 3.5.Phosphorus Use in the Global Food System -- 3.6.Achieving Phosphorus Security -- 3.6.1.An integrated approach is required -- 3.6.2.The role of decentralized sanitation systems -- 3.6.3.Key challenges and opportunities -- 3.7.Conclusions -- References -- ch. 4 Nitrogen economy of the 21st Century / Tove A. Larsen -- 4.1.Introduction -- 4.2.Nitrogen Sources -- 4.3.Release of Nitrogen to the Environment -- 4.4.Environmental Consequences -- 4.5.The Future and Possible Interventions -- 4.6.Conclusions -- References -- ch. 5 Urban water supply under expanding water scarcity / Jun Xia -- 5.1.Introduction -- 5.2.Water Supply of Urban Areas -- 5.2.1.On the verge of a new water scarcity -- 5.3.Implications of Increasing Competition? -- 5.4.Adapting to Increasing Water Shortage -- 5.5.Reasonable Blue-Water Allocation -- 5.6.Irrigation Potential -- 5.7.Additive Versus Competing Water Uses -- 5.8.Conclusion -- Acknowledgement -- References -- ch. 6 The issue of micropollutants in urban water management / Klaus Kummerer -- 6.1.Introduction -- 6.2.Parent Compounds, Metabolites and Transformation Products -- 6.3.Classification -- 6.4.Some Examples of Micropollutants -- 6.4.1.Flame retardants -- 6.4.2.Biocides and pesticides -- 6.4.3.Endocrine disrupting chemicals -- 6.4.4.Anti-corrosive additives -- 6.4.5.Personal care products -- 6.4.6.Perfluorinated surfactants -- PFOS and PFOA -- 6.4.7.Pharmaceuticals -- 6.4.8.Artificial sweeteners -- 6.4.9.Engineered nanoparticles -- 6.5.Management Options -- 6.5.1.Technology -- 6.5.2.Education and training -- 6.5.3.Source separation -- 6.5.4.Benign by design -- References -- ch. 7 Full costs, (dis-)economies of scale and the price of uncertainty / Max Maurer -- 7.1.Introduction -- 7.2.Conveyance-Based Wastewater Treatment -- 7.3.(dis-)Economies of Scale -- 7.4.Deficits of the Net Present Value Method -- 7.5.The Cost of Uncertainty -- 7.6.On-Site Treatment Systems -- 7.7.Conclusions -- References -- ch. 8 The rationale for decentralization of wastewater infrastructure / Harold Leverenz -- 8.1.Types of Wastewater Infrastructure -- 8.2.Centralized Treatment Systems -- 8.3.Distributed Centralized Systems -- 8.4.Centralized Systems with Satellites -- 8.4.1.Implementation of satellite systems -- 8.5.Decentralized Systems -- 8.5.1.Types of decentralized wastewater systems -- 8.5.2.Historical development of decentralized systems -- 8.5.3.Modern development of decentralized systems -- 8.5.4.Advantages and disadvantages of decentralization -- 8.5.5.Continued developments in decentralized systems -- 8.5.6.Future evolution of decentralized wastewater systems -- 8.6.The Future -- 8.7.Summary -- References -- ch. 9 Cities of the global South -- is decentralized sanitation a solution? / Barbara Evans -- 9.1.Introduction -- 9.2.Centralized Systems -- 9.3.Unbundling -- 9.3.1.The value chain -- 9.3.2.Vertical unbundling -- 9.3.3.Horizontal unbundling -- 9.4.Decentralization -- 9.5.Technologies -- 9.6.Creating Incentives -- 9.6.1.Contractual incentives -- 9.6.2.Financial incentives -- 9.6.3.Political incentives -- 9.6.4.Professional incentives -- 9.7.Summary -- References -- pt. II The challenges of source separation and decentralization -- ch. 10 Implementation of source separation and decentralization in cities / Willi Gujer -- 10.1.Introduction -- 10.2.The Main Advantages of Source Separation and Decentralization in Cities -- 10.3.Challenges of Source Separation and Decentralization in Cities -- 10.3.1.The challenge of transport -- 10.3.2.The challenge of developing treatment processes -- 10.4.Transition -- 10.5.Conclusions -- References -- ch. 11 Hygiene, a major challenge for source separation and decentralization / Thor Axel Stenstrom -- 11.1.Introduction -- 11.2.Hazard Identification in a System Perspective -- 11.3.Human Exposure Assessment -- 11.4.Treatment Barriers and Examples of Their Reduction Efficiency -- 11.5.Quantifications of Risks and Risk-Benefit Strategies -- 11.6.Future Challenges and Knowledge Gaps -- References -- ch. 12 Closing the loop: Recycling nutrients to agriculture / Bjorn Vinneras -- 12.1.Nutrient Balance Close to Crop Removal -- 12.2.Source-Separated Toilet Wastes are Unique Biological Fertilizers -- 12.3.Nutrient Requirements and Fertilizers Used in Practice -- 12.4.Economic and GWP Value of Nutrients -- 12.5.Urine is Very Low in Pollutants -- 12.6.Low Hygiene Risk -- 12.7.Spreading Machinery -- 12.8.The Farmer -- Businessman, Soil Steward and Entrepreneur -- References -- ch. 13 The potential of control and monitoring / Gustaf Olsson -- 13.1.Introduction -- 13.1.1.Instrumentation, control and automation aspects -- 13.2.The Influent -- 13.3.Treatment Technologies -- 13.4.Instrumentation -- 13.5.Monitoring -- 13.6.Actuators -- 13.7.Operating Competence -- 13.8.The Need for Standardization -- 13.9.Conclusions -- References -- ch. 14 High acceptance of source-separating technologies -- but... / Judit Lienert -- 14.1.Introduction -- 14.2.Social Science Methods -- 14.2.1.Quantitative questionnaire surveys -- 14.2.2.Qualitative methods -- 14.3.Acceptance of Nomix Technology -- 14.3.1.Some results from qualitative approaches -- 14.3.2.Results from quantitative approaches -- 14.4.Acceptance of Urine-Based Fertilizers -- 14.5.Technology Requirements and Outlook -- 14.5.1.Drawbacks of NoMix toilets for users -- 14.6.Conclusions -- References -- ch. 15 Market success of on-site treatment: a systemic innovation problem / Eckhard Stormer -- 15.1.Introduction -- 15.2.The Systemic Innovation Problem -- 15.3.The German On-Site Industry -- 15.4.Major Innovation Challenges -- 15.5.Three Potential Trajectories -- 15.6.Conclusions -- References -- pt. III Potential technologies for source separation -- ch. 16 Conceptualizing sanitation systems to account for new complexities in processing and management / Elizabeth Tilley -- 16.1.Introduction -- 16.2.Emerging Products -- 16.3.Functional Groups for Targeted Product Processing -- 16.3.1.User interface -- 16.3.2.Collection and storage -- 16.3.3.Conveyance -- 16.3.4.Treatment -- 16.3.5.Use and disposal -- 16.4.Operation and Management: Implications for System Boundaries -- 16.4.1.User interface -- 16.4.2.Collection and storage -- 16.4.3.Conveyance -- 16.4.4.Treatment -- 16.4.5.Use and disposal -- 16.5.Conclusions and Recommendations -- References -- ch. 17 Wastewater composition / Yuval Alfiya -- 17.1.Introduction -- 17.2.Domestic Wastewater Flows -- 17.3.Wastewater Flow Patterns -- 17.4.Blackwater -- 17.4.1.Yellowwater -- 17.4.2.Brownwater -- 17.5.Greywater -- 17.6.Proportional Contribution of Nutrients and Organics -- 17.7.Discussion and Significance -- References -- ch. 18 Treatment of the solid fraction / Christopher Buzie -- 18.1.Introduction -- 18.2.Composition of Faecal Solids -- 18.3.Treatment Goals -- 18.4.Composting -- 18.4.1.Process description -- 18.4.2.Stage of development -- 18.4.3.Operational requirements -- 18.4.4.Environmental and health concerns -- 18.4.5.Configurations -- 18.5.Vermicomposting -- 18.5.1.Process description -- 18.5.2.Stage of development -- 18.5.3.Operational requirements -- 18.5.4.Environmental and health concerns -- 18.5.5.Configurations -- 18.6.Terra Preta Sanitation -- 18.6.1.Process description and stage of development -- 18.6.2.Operational requirements -- 18.6.3.Environmental and health concerns -- 18.6.4.Configuration -- 18.7.Dehydration -- 18.7.1.Process description -- 18.7.2.Stage of development -- 18.7.3.Operational requirements -- 18.7.4.Environmental and health concerns -- 18.7.5.Configurations -- 18.8.Pasteurization -- 18.9.Conclusions and Outlook -- References -- ch. 19 Aerobic elimination of organics and pathogens: greywater treatment / Paul Jeffrey -- 19.1.Introduction -- 19.2.Composition and Treatability -- 19.2.1.Organic compounds -- 19.2.2.Xenobiotics -- 19.2.3.Pathogens -- 19.3.Technologies for Aerobic Treatment -- 19.3.1.Removal of organic compounds -- 19.3.2.Xenobiotics removal -- 19.3.3.Pathogen removal -- 19.4.Conclusions -- References -- ch. 20 Biological nitrogen conversion processes / Sarina Jenni -- 20.1.Introduction -- 20.2.Biological Nitrogen Conversion -- 20.2.1.Nitrogen uptake -- 20.2.2.Nitrification -- 20.2.3.Heterotrophic denitrification -- 20.2.4.Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) -- 20.3.Nitrogen Stabilization in Urine -- 20.3.1.Conditions in stored urine -- 20.3.2.Nitrification without base dosage -- 20.3.3.Complete ammonia oxidation with base dosage -- 20.3.4.Use of nitrified urine -- 20.4.Nitrogen Removal from Urine -- 20.4.1.Nitritation/anammox in a two-reactor set-up -- 20.4.2.Nitritation/anammox in a single reactor -- 20.5.Nitrogen Removal from Blackwater -- 20.5.1.Blackwater collected in vacuum toilets -- 20.5.2.Conventionally collected blackwater -- 20.6.Conclusions -- References -- ch. 21 Anaerobic treatment of source-separated domestic wastewater / Katarzyna Kujawa-Roeleveld -- 21.1.Introduction -- 21.2.The Anaerobic Conversion Process -- 21.3.Reactor Types -- 21.3.1.Reactors without enhanced biomass retention -- 21.3.2.Reactors with enhanced biomass retention -- 21.4.Anaerobic Treatment of Black- and Brownwater --"@en ;
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