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Spatial representation : from gene to mind

Author: Barbara Landau; James E Hoffman
Publisher: New York ; Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2012.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
Despite our impression of a seamless spatial world, mature human spatial knowledge is composed of sub-systems, each specialized. This book uses the case of Williams syndrome to argue for specialization of function in both normal and unusual development. The evidence suggests a speculative hypothesis linking the genetic deficit to changes in the timing of emergence for different sub-systems.
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Additional Physical Format: Print:
Landau, Barbara.
Spatial representation.
2012
Material Type: Document
Document Type: Book, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Barbara Landau; James E Hoffman
ISBN: 9780199979189 0199979189
OCLC Number: 940000668
Description: 1 online resource (xv, 375 p.)
Contents: Chapter 1. The Puzzle of Williams Syndrome ; 1.1 Hallmarks of the WS cognitive profile ; 1.2. Three principles for solving the puzzle ; 1.2.1 How can genes cause cognitive deficits? Complexity of the chain, and the importance of cognition ; 1.2.2 The cognitive architecture of space: The importance of specialization of function ; 1.2.3 Timing matters: The importance of normal development ; 1.3 Summary ; Chapter 2. Background on the problem: Genes, Brains, and the Hallmark Spatial Profile ; 2.1 Genes and the WS profile ; 2.1.1 LIMK1 and the spatial deficit ; 2.2 Brain structure and function ; 2.2.1 Brain structure ; 2.2.2 Brain function ; 2.3 Understanding the block construction task and why it might be so difficult ; 2.3.1 The cognitive requirements of the block construction task ; 2.3.2 Components of the block task ; 2.3.3 Summary of the cognitive components of the block construction task and reflections on possible brain correlates ; 2.4 Towards an hypothesis: Weakness in the dorsal stream/parietal lobe functions, strength in ventral stream functions? ; Chapter 3. Objects ; 3.1 Object recognition and levels of processing in the visual system ; 3.1.1 Levels of visual analysis for objects ; 3.2 Object Recognition in People with Williams Syndrome ; 3.2.1 Early Vision ; 3.2.1.1 A comment about orientation sensitivity ; 3.2.1.2 Summary of evidence on early visual processing ; 3.2.2 Middle Level ; 3.2.3 Vision ; 3.2.3.1 Visual Grouping ; 3.2.3.2 Grouping from motion ; 3.2.3.3 Summary of evidence on grouping ; 3.2.4 High level vision: Object recognition ; 3.2.4.1 Recognizing familiar objects ; 3.2.4.2 A special problem: Handedness, or left-right reflections ; 3.2.4.3 Summary of evidence on object recognition ; 3.3 Face recognition ; 3.3.1 Summary of evidence on face recognition ; 3.4 Summary ; Chapter 4. Objects in Places ; 4.1 Review of the components of the block construction task and their relationship to parietal functions ; 4.2 Marking objects: More than one at a time, but only up to 2 ; 4.3 Locating objects: Constructing and using reference frames ; 4.3.1 Matching locations: Are object locations defined in terms of a reference system? ; 4.3.2 Copying locations: Axes, directions, and spatial precision in location representations ; 4.3.2.1 Copying: Task 1 ; 4.3.2.2 Copying: Task 2 ; 4.3.3 Summary of locating objects: Matching, copying ; 4.4 Acting on objects ; 4.5 Summary of marking, locating, and acting on objects ; Chapter 5. Finding our Way ; 5.1 The components of navigation: Division of labor ; 5.1.1 Egocentric and allocentric reference systems ; 5.1.2 The importance of geometry for allocentric representations ; 5.1.3 The special importance of geometric layouts for re-establishing one's orientation after becoming disoriented ; 5.1.4 Summary of behavioral and neural findings ; 5.2 Navigation in people with WS ; 5.2.1 Oriented navigation: Egocentric and allocentric reference systems ; 5.2.2 Reorientation and the geometric representation of layouts ; 5.3 Summary ; Chapter 6. Space and Language ; 6.1 Structure in Spatial language: Places and Paths ; 6.1.1 Geometric meanings of prepositions and reference object construals ; 6.1.2 A basic fact: The small lexicon of place and path terms results in coarse coding of space by language ; 6.1.3 Spatial language and Williams syndrome ; 6.2. Paths ; 6.2.1 The language of motion events: Figure, reference object, motion, path ; 6.2.2 Overall Results ; 6.2.3 Path expression ; 6.2.4 A follow up study: Bias to express TO paths, bias to omit FROM paths ; 6.2.5 Summary: The language of motion events ; 6.3 Places ; 6.3.1 Production task ; 6.3.1.1 Do axial terms engage axes? ; 6.3.1.2 Do axial terms engage direction within axes? ; 6.3.1.3 What else were they saying? ; 6.3.2 Comprehension task ; 6.3.2.1 Do axial terms engage axes? ; 6.3.2.2 Do axial terms engage direction within axes? ; 6.3.3 Summary: Studies of axial term Production and Comprehension ; 6.4 Beyond concrete physical spatial relationships ; 6.4.1 Using "geometric imagination:>" Matching spatial prepositions and reference objects ; 6.4.2 The study ; 6.4.2.1 Stimuli and procedure ; 6.4.2.2 Results ; 6.4.3 Summary of abstract uses of spatial prepositions ; 6.5 How do findings on spatial language fit with other aspects of language in people with WS ; 6.5.1 Vocabulary onset and growth ; 6.5.2 Spatial vocabulary: findings from other labs ; 6.5.3 Morphosyntax ; 6.5.4 Syntax ; 6.5.4.1 Subject and object-relative clauses ; 6.5.4.2 Hierarchical structure, c-command, and the interaction of <"not>" and <"or ; 6.5.4.3 Binding, Raising, and Passives ; 6.5.5 Summary of pattern for broad aspects of language ; Chapter 7. Conclusions: Revisiting the Puzzle of Williams Syndrome ; 7.1 Specialization of function ; 7.1.1 Specialization of function by domain ; 7.1.1.1 Spatial representation in people with WS embodies rich and highly differentiated structure, as in normal development ; 7.1.1.2 Face perception vs. reorientation ; 7.1.2 Specialization of function by stream of visual processing: Dorsal vs. ventral streams ; 7.2 Developmental timing ; 7.2.1 Two examples ; 7.2.2 Extension to other spatial functions ; 7.2.3 Extension to language ; 7.3 A developmental mechanism: Slow development, arrest at an early functional level ; 7.4 Is that all there is? What slow development and early arrest cannot account for ; 7.4.1 Spatial systems that flourish, spatial systems that fail ; 7.4.2 Cognitive systems that continue to grow ; 7.4.2.1 Vocabulary growth ; 7.4.2.2 Reading and mathematical skill ; 7.4.2.3 Copying ; 7.5 Remaining puzzles ; Appendix A ; Appendix B ; References ; Author Index ; Subject Index
Responsibility: Barbara Landau, James E. Hoffman.
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Abstract:

Despite our impression of a seamless spatial world, mature human spatial knowledge is composed of sub-systems, each specialized. This book uses the case of Williams syndrome to argue for specialization of function in both normal and unusual development. The evidence suggests a speculative hypothesis linking the genetic deficit to changes in the timing of emergence for different sub-systems.

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Spatial Representation: From Gene to Mind is an important and scholarly book for anyone with an interest in Williams syndrome or for researchers who are interested in finding a model of how to Read more...

 
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