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Spectroscopie raman des excitations électroniques du graphène

Author: Elisa RiccardiYann GallaisSophie GuéronAbhay ShuklaClément FaugerasAll authors
Publisher: 2017.
Dissertation: Thèse de doctorat : Physique : Sorbonne Paris Cité : 2017.
Edition/Format:   Computer file : Document : Thesis/dissertation : French
Summary:
Depuis sa découverte, les propriétés électroniques exceptionnelles du graphène ont fait l'objet d'un nombre impressionnant d'études, faisant émerger un nouveau domaine de recherche autour des cristaux bidimensionnels. La spectroscopie Raman permet d'accéder de façon rapide, non destructive et sélective en symétrie, à la dynamique des électrons et à leur couplage avec les autres degrés de liberté d'un
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Genre/Form: Thèses et écrits académiques
Material Type: Document, Thesis/dissertation, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Elisa Riccardi; Yann Gallais; Sophie Guéron; Abhay Shukla; Clément Faugeras; Denis Basko; Jérôme Lagoute; Université Sorbonne Paris Cité.; École doctorale Physique en Île-de-France (Paris / 2014-....).; Laboratoire Matériaux et phénomènes quantiques (Paris).; Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7 (1970-2019).
OCLC Number: 1090458739
Notes: Titre provenant de l'écran-titre.
Description: 1 online resource
Responsibility: Elisa Riccardi ; sous la direction de Yann Gallais.

Abstract:

Depuis sa découverte, les propriétés électroniques exceptionnelles du graphène ont fait l'objet d'un nombre impressionnant d'études, faisant émerger un nouveau domaine de recherche autour des cristaux bidimensionnels. La spectroscopie Raman permet d'accéder de façon rapide, non destructive et sélective en symétrie, à la dynamique des électrons et à leur couplage avec les autres degrés de liberté d'un matériau. Jusqu'au présent, cependant, cette technique a été réservée presque exclusivement à la caractérisation des propriétés vibrationnelles du graphène, qui ne sondent qu'indirectement ses propriétés électroniques. Dans ce travail je mets en évidence le signal Raman électronique de mono- et multi-couches de graphène en le modulant avec une tension de grille. Pour cela j'ai combiné des techniques avancées de fabrication de dispositifs avec un microscope Raman spécialement conçu pour cet objectif. Grâce à l'effet du champ électrique, le continuum Raman électronique du graphène dû aux transitions inter-bande à travers le cône de Dirac, a été identifié et son intensité quantifiée pour la première fois. Les spectres, avec la présence d'un blocage de Pauli des excitations électroniques, sont en excellent accord avec les prévisions théoriques. Les mesures résolues en polarisation ont mis en évidence une propriété originale de la spectroscopie Raman: le fait d'être une sonde privilégiée des excitations électroniques chirales. Cette propriété, attribuée à un phénomène d'interférences quantiques entre les amplitudes de diffusion, ouvre des prospectives très intéressantes dans l'étude d'autres cristaux bidimensionnels et des phases topologiques.

Since its discovery, the exceptional electronic properties of graphene have been studied in an impressive number of academic works, giving birth to a new research field dealing with two-dimensional crystals. Raman spectroscopy is a quick, non-destructive and symmetry-selective way to probe the dynamics of electrons and to their coupling with the other degrees of freedom of a material. Until now, nonetheless, this technique had been almost exclusively reserved to the characterization of graphene's vibrational properties, which probe its electronic properties only indirectly. In this work I unravel the electronic Raman signal of mono- and multi-layer graphene tuning it with a gate voltage. In order to do so, I combined advanced techniques of device fabrication with a Raman microscope specifically designed for this goal. By means of the electric field effect, I identified and quantified for the first time the intensity of the electronic Raman continuum of graphene due to the inter-band transitions through the Dirac cone. The spectra, with the presence of a Pauli blocking of electronic excitations, match perfectly with theoretical expectations. The polarization resolved measurements revealed an original property of Raman spectroscopy: it is a unique probe of chiral electronic excitations. This property, attributed to a quantum interferences phenomenon between scattering amplitudes, opens very interesting perspectives in the study of other two-dimensional crystals and of topological phases.

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Primary Entity<\/h3>\n
<http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/1090458739<\/a>> # Spectroscopie raman des excitations \u00E9lectroniques du graph\u00E8ne<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nbgn:Thesis<\/a>, schema:CreativeWork<\/a>, schema:MediaObject<\/a>, bgn:ComputerFile<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nbgn:inSupportOf<\/a> \"Th\u00E8se de doctorat : Physique : Sorbonne Paris Cit\u00E9 : 2017.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:oclcnum<\/a> \"1090458739<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:placeOfPublication<\/a> <http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/vocabulary\/countries\/fr<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Thing\/dispositifs<\/a>> ; # Dispositifs<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Topic\/excitations_collectives<\/a>> ; # Excitations collectives<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Topic\/spectroscopie_raman<\/a>> ; # Spectroscopie Raman<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Topic\/analyse_spectrale_raman_dissertation_universitaire<\/a>> ; # Analyse spectrale Raman--Dissertation universitaire<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Topic\/graphene<\/a>> ; # Graph\u00E8ne<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Topic\/graphene_proprietes_electroniques<\/a>> ; # Graph\u00E8ne--Propri\u00E9t\u00E9s \u00E9lectroniques<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Thing\/excitations_electroniques<\/a>> ; # Excitations electroniques<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Thing\/effet_de_grille<\/a>> ; # Effet de grille<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:author<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Person\/riccardi_elisa_1985<\/a>> ; # Elisa Riccardi<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Person\/lagoute_jerome<\/a>> ; # J\u00E9r\u00F4me Lagoute<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Person\/faugeras_clement_1977<\/a>> ; # Cl\u00E9ment Faugeras<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Organization\/universite_paris_diderot_paris_7_1970_2019<\/a>> ; # Universit\u00E9 Paris Diderot - Paris 7 (1970-2019).<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Person\/gueron_sophie_1970<\/a>> ; # Sophie Gu\u00E9ron<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Organization\/laboratoire_materiaux_et_phenomenes_quantiques_paris<\/a>> ; # Laboratoire Mat\u00E9riaux et ph\u00E9nom\u00E8nes quantiques (Paris).<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Person\/gallais_yann<\/a>> ; # Yann Gallais<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Organization\/universite_sorbonne_paris_cite<\/a>> ; # Universit\u00E9 Sorbonne Paris Cit\u00E9.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Organization\/ecole_doctorale_physique_en_ile_de_france_paris_2014<\/a>> ; # \u00C9cole doctorale Physique en \u00CEle-de-France (Paris \/ 2014-....).<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Person\/basko_denis<\/a>> ; # Denis Basko<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Person\/shukla_abhay<\/a>> ; # Abhay Shukla<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:datePublished<\/a> \"2017<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"Depuis sa d\u00E9couverte, les propri\u00E9t\u00E9s \u00E9lectroniques exceptionnelles du graph\u00E8ne ont fait l\'objet d\'un nombre impressionnant d\'\u00E9tudes, faisant \u00E9merger un nouveau domaine de recherche autour des cristaux bidimensionnels. La spectroscopie Raman permet d\'acc\u00E9der de fa\u00E7on rapide, non destructive et s\u00E9lective en sym\u00E9trie, \u00E0 la dynamique des \u00E9lectrons et \u00E0 leur couplage avec les autres degr\u00E9s de libert\u00E9 d\'un mat\u00E9riau. Jusqu\'au pr\u00E9sent, cependant, cette technique a \u00E9t\u00E9 r\u00E9serv\u00E9e presque exclusivement \u00E0 la caract\u00E9risation des propri\u00E9t\u00E9s vibrationnelles du graph\u00E8ne, qui ne sondent qu\'indirectement ses propri\u00E9t\u00E9s \u00E9lectroniques. Dans ce travail je mets en \u00E9vidence le signal Raman \u00E9lectronique de mono- et multi-couches de graph\u00E8ne en le modulant avec une tension de grille. Pour cela j\'ai combin\u00E9 des techniques avanc\u00E9es de fabrication de dispositifs avec un microscope Raman sp\u00E9cialement con\u00E7u pour cet objectif. Gr\u00E2ce \u00E0 l\'effet du champ \u00E9lectrique, le continuum Raman \u00E9lectronique du graph\u00E8ne d\u00FB aux transitions inter-bande \u00E0 travers le c\u00F4ne de Dirac, a \u00E9t\u00E9 identifi\u00E9 et son intensit\u00E9 quantifi\u00E9e pour la premi\u00E8re fois. Les spectres, avec la pr\u00E9sence d\'un blocage de Pauli des excitations \u00E9lectroniques, sont en excellent accord avec les pr\u00E9visions th\u00E9oriques. Les mesures r\u00E9solues en polarisation ont mis en \u00E9vidence une propri\u00E9t\u00E9 originale de la spectroscopie Raman: le fait d\'\u00EAtre une sonde privil\u00E9gi\u00E9e des excitations \u00E9lectroniques chirales. Cette propri\u00E9t\u00E9, attribu\u00E9e \u00E0 un ph\u00E9nom\u00E8ne d\'interf\u00E9rences quantiques entre les amplitudes de diffusion, ouvre des prospectives tr\u00E8s int\u00E9ressantes dans l\'\u00E9tude d\'autres cristaux bidimensionnels et des phases topologiques.<\/span>\"@fr<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"Since its discovery, the exceptional electronic properties of graphene have been studied in an impressive number of academic works, giving birth to a new research field dealing with two-dimensional crystals. Raman spectroscopy is a quick, non-destructive and symmetry-selective way to probe the dynamics of electrons and to their coupling with the other degrees of freedom of a material. Until now, nonetheless, this technique had been almost exclusively reserved to the characterization of graphene\'s vibrational properties, which probe its electronic properties only indirectly. In this work I unravel the electronic Raman signal of mono- and multi-layer graphene tuning it with a gate voltage. In order to do so, I combined advanced techniques of device fabrication with a Raman microscope specifically designed for this goal. By means of the electric field effect, I identified and quantified for the first time the intensity of the electronic Raman continuum of graphene due to the inter-band transitions through the Dirac cone. The spectra, with the presence of a Pauli blocking of electronic excitations, match perfectly with theoretical expectations. The polarization resolved measurements revealed an original property of Raman spectroscopy: it is a unique probe of chiral electronic excitations. 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Related Entities<\/h3>\n
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<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Person\/shukla_abhay<\/a>> # Abhay Shukla<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Shukla<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Abhay<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Abhay Shukla<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
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<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Topic\/analyse_spectrale_raman_dissertation_universitaire<\/a>> # Analyse spectrale Raman--Dissertation universitaire<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Analyse spectrale Raman--Dissertation universitaire<\/span>\"@fr<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Topic\/excitations_collectives<\/a>> # Excitations collectives<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Excitations collectives<\/span>\"@fr<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Topic\/graphene<\/a>> # Graph\u00E8ne<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Graph\u00E8ne<\/span>\"@fr<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Topic\/graphene_proprietes_electroniques<\/a>> # Graph\u00E8ne--Propri\u00E9t\u00E9s \u00E9lectroniques<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Graph\u00E8ne--Propri\u00E9t\u00E9s \u00E9lectroniques<\/span>\"@fr<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/8986595803#Topic\/spectroscopie_raman<\/a>> # Spectroscopie Raman<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Spectroscopie Raman<\/span>\"@fr<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/vocabulary\/countries\/fr<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\ndcterms:identifier<\/a> \"fr<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/www.theses.fr\/2017USPCC166\/document<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nrdfs:comment<\/a> \"Acc\u00E8s au texte int\u00E9gral<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n