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Synergy

Author: Mark L Latash
Publisher: Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2008
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:

Synergy dicusses a general problem in biology: the lack of an adequate language for formulating biological specific problems. Written for an inquisitive reader who is not necessarily a professional  Read more...

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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Mark L Latash
ISBN: 9780195333169 0195333160
OCLC Number: 475817376
Description: xiv, 412 s. : illustrations ; 25 cm
Contents: Indhold: Building a Definition for Synergy (Synergies and Non-synergies: a few examples ; Palama's Concept of Synergy ; Inanimate "Synergies": the table and the rusty bucket ; Examples of Biological Synergies ; The Definition: three components of a synergy) ; A Brief History of Movement Studies (Ancient Greece and Rome ; Renaissance ; The Century of Frogs, Photography, and Amazing Guesses ; The Twentieth Century: wars of ideas ; Nikolai Alexandrovich Bernstein and Movement Science in the Soviet Union ; History of Synergies and the Problem of Motor Redundancy ; Problems with Studying Biological Movement) ; Motor Control and Coordination (Israel Gelfand and Michael Tsetlin ; Structural Units and the Principle of Minimal Interaction ; Motor Control: programs and internal model ; The Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis) ; Motor Variability: a window into synergies (The Uncontrolled Manifold Hypothesis ; Modes as Elemental Variables ; Stability, Variability, and Within-a-Trial Analysis of Synergie ; Timing Synergies: do they exist?) ; Zoo of Motor Synergies (Kinematic Synergies ; Kinetic Synergies ; Multi-Digit Synergies ; Prehensile Synergies ; Multi-Muscle Synergies) ; Atypical, Suboptimal, and Changing Synergies (Is There a "Normal Synergy"? ; Principle of Indeterminicity in Movement Studies ; Plasticity in the Central Nervous System ; Changes in Synergies with Age ; Synergies in Persons with Down Syndrome ; Synergies After Stroke ; Learning Movement Synergies) ; Neurophysiological Mechanisms (Neurophysiological Structures and the Motor Function ; Synergies in the Spinal Cord ; Synergies and the Cerebellum ; Synergies and the Basal Ganglia ; Synergies and the Cortex of the Large Hemispheres) ; Models and Beyond Motor Synergies (Synergies and the Control Theory ; Synergies and Neural Networks ; Synergies without Feedback ; Synergies and the Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis ; Sensory Synergies ; Language as a Synergy ; Concluding Comments: what next?)
Responsibility: Mark L. Latash

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Primary Entity<\/h3>\n
<http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/475817376<\/a>> # Synergy<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Book<\/a>, schema:CreativeWork<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:oclcnum<\/a> \"475817376<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:placeOfPublication<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Place\/oxford<\/a>> ; # Oxford<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:placeOfPublication<\/a> <http:\/\/dbpedia.org\/resource\/New_York_City<\/a>> ; # New York<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:placeOfPublication<\/a> <http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/vocabulary\/countries\/uik<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/neurophysiology_methods<\/a>> ; # Neurophysiology--methods<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/dewey.info\/class\/612.7\/e22\/<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/963167<\/a>> ; # Human mechanics<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/832558<\/a>> ; # Biomechanics<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/movement_physiology<\/a>> ; # Movement--physiology<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/motorisk_kontrol<\/a>> ; # motorisk kontrol<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/human_mechanics<\/a>> ; # Human mechanics<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/bevaegelse<\/a>> ; # bev\u00E6gelse<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/fysiologi<\/a>> ; # fysiologi<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/motor_activity_physiology<\/a>> ; # Motor Activity--physiology<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/biomekanik<\/a>> ; # biomekanik<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/motorik<\/a>> ; # motorik<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/bevaegelseslaere<\/a>> ; # bev\u00E6gelsesl\u00E6re<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/biomechanics<\/a>> ; # Biomechanics<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/biomechanical_phenomena<\/a>> ; # Biomechanical Phenomena<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/neurofysiologi<\/a>> ; # neurofysiologi<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:bookFormat<\/a> bgn:PrintBook<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:creator<\/a> <http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/113200780<\/a>> ; # Mark L. Latash<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:datePublished<\/a> \"2008<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"Indhold: Building a Definition for Synergy (Synergies and Non-synergies: a few examples ; Palama\'s Concept of Synergy ; Inanimate \"Synergies\": the table and the rusty bucket ; Examples of Biological Synergies ; The Definition: three components of a synergy) ; A Brief History of Movement Studies (Ancient Greece and Rome ; Renaissance ; The Century of Frogs, Photography, and Amazing Guesses ; The Twentieth Century: wars of ideas ; Nikolai Alexandrovich Bernstein and Movement Science in the Soviet Union ; History of Synergies and the Problem of Motor Redundancy ; Problems with Studying Biological Movement) ; Motor Control and Coordination (Israel Gelfand and Michael Tsetlin ; Structural Units and the Principle of Minimal Interaction ; Motor Control: programs and internal model ; The Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis) ; Motor Variability: a window into synergies (The Uncontrolled Manifold Hypothesis ; Modes as Elemental Variables ; Stability, Variability, and Within-a-Trial Analysis of Synergie ; Timing Synergies: do they exist?) ; Zoo of Motor Synergies (Kinematic Synergies ; Kinetic Synergies ; Multi-Digit Synergies ; Prehensile Synergies ; Multi-Muscle Synergies) ; Atypical, Suboptimal, and Changing Synergies (Is There a \"Normal Synergy\"? ; Principle of Indeterminicity in Movement Studies ; Plasticity in the Central Nervous System ; Changes in Synergies with Age ; Synergies in Persons with Down Syndrome ; Synergies After Stroke ; Learning Movement Synergies) ; Neurophysiological Mechanisms (Neurophysiological Structures and the Motor Function ; Synergies in the Spinal Cord ; Synergies and the Cerebellum ; Synergies and the Basal Ganglia ; Synergies and the Cortex of the Large Hemispheres) ; Models and Beyond Motor Synergies (Synergies and the Control Theory ; Synergies and Neural Networks ; Synergies without Feedback ; Synergies and the Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis ; Sensory Synergies ; Language as a Synergy ; Concluding Comments: what next?)<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:exampleOfWork<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/id\/110489105<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:inLanguage<\/a> \"en<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Synergy<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:productID<\/a> \"475817376<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:publication<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/475817376#PublicationEvent\/oxford_new_york_oxford_university_press_2008<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:publisher<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Agent\/oxford_university_press<\/a>> ; # Oxford University Press<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:workExample<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9780195333169<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nwdrs:describedby<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/475817376<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n\n

Related Entities<\/h3>\n
<http:\/\/dbpedia.org\/resource\/New_York_City<\/a>> # New York<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"New York<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/dewey.info\/class\/612.7\/e22\/<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Agent\/oxford_university_press<\/a>> # Oxford University Press<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nbgn:Agent<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Oxford University Press<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Place\/oxford<\/a>> # Oxford<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Oxford<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/bevaegelse<\/a>> # bev\u00E6gelse<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"bev\u00E6gelse<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/bevaegelseslaere<\/a>> # bev\u00E6gelsesl\u00E6re<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"bev\u00E6gelsesl\u00E6re<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/biomechanical_phenomena<\/a>> # Biomechanical Phenomena<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Biomechanical Phenomena<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/biomechanics<\/a>> # Biomechanics<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Biomechanics<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/biomekanik<\/a>> # biomekanik<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"biomekanik<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/fysiologi<\/a>> # fysiologi<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"fysiologi<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/human_mechanics<\/a>> # Human mechanics<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Human mechanics<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/motor_activity_physiology<\/a>> # Motor Activity--physiology<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Motor Activity--physiology<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/motorik<\/a>> # motorik<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"motorik<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/motorisk_kontrol<\/a>> # motorisk kontrol<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"motorisk kontrol<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/movement_physiology<\/a>> # Movement--physiology<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Movement--physiology<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/neurofysiologi<\/a>> # neurofysiologi<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"neurofysiologi<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Topic\/neurophysiology_methods<\/a>> # Neurophysiology--methods<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Neurophysiology--methods<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/vocabulary\/countries\/uik<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\ndcterms:identifier<\/a> \"uik<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/832558<\/a>> # Biomechanics<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Biomechanics<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/963167<\/a>> # Human mechanics<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Human mechanics<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/113200780<\/a>> # Mark L. Latash<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Latash<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Mark L.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Mark L. Latash<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9780195333169<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:ProductModel<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"0195333160<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"9780195333169<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/475817376<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \ngenont:InformationResource<\/a>, genont:ContentTypeGenericResource<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/475817376<\/a>> ; # Synergy<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:dateModified<\/a> \"2018-12-05<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nvoid:inDataset<\/a> <http:\/\/purl.oclc.org\/dataset\/WorldCat<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/475817376#PublicationEvent\/oxford_new_york_oxford_university_press_2008<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:PublicationEvent<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:location<\/a> <http:\/\/dbpedia.org\/resource\/New_York_City<\/a>> ; # New York<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:location<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Place\/oxford<\/a>> ; # Oxford<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:organizer<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/110489105#Agent\/oxford_university_press<\/a>> ; # Oxford University Press<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:startDate<\/a> \"2008<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n\n

Content-negotiable representations<\/p>\n