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Synthesis, functionalization and surface treatment of nanoparticles

Author: Marie-Isabelle Baraton
Publisher: Stevenson Ranch, Calif. : American Scientific Publishers, ©2003.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Synthesis, functionalization and surface treatment of nanoparticles.
Stevenson Ranch, Calif. : American Scientific Publishers, ©2003
(OCoLC)606896767
Online version:
Synthesis, functionalization and surface treatment of nanoparticles.
Stevenson Ranch, Calif. : American Scientific Publishers, ©2003
(OCoLC)625399440
Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Marie-Isabelle Baraton
ISBN: 1588830098 9781588830098
OCLC Number: 51525042
Description: xvii, 302 pages, [1] leaf of plates : illustrations (some color) ; 29 cm
Contents: Machine derived contents note: Chapter 1. NANOPARTICLES FROM --
Mechanical Attrition --
Claudio L. De Castro, Brian S. Mitchell --
1. Introduction 1 --
2. Historical Perspective 2 --
3. Principles of M illing 2 --
4. Attrition Devices 4 --
4.1. SPEX Shaker Mills 4 --
4.2. Planetary Ball Mills 5 --
4.3. Attritor M ills 5 --
4.4. Comparison of M ills 6 --
5. M illed M aterials 6 --
5.1. Solid-State Amorphization 7 --
5.2. Metals, Alloys, and Intermetallics 7 --
5.3. Ceram ics 9 --
5.4. Com posites 10 --
5.5. Polym ers 11 --
6. Contamination 13 --
7. Characterization of Nanoparticles 13 --
8. Summary and Conclusions 14 --
References 14 --
Chapter 2. ELECTROCHEMICAL SYNTHESIS OF --
Metallic Nanopowders --
Jean-Luc Delplancke --
1. Introduction 17 --
2. Electrocrystallization 18 --
3. Powder Electrodeposition 19 --
3.1. Copper Powder Production 19 --
3.2. Copper Alloy Powder Production 20 --
3.3. Silver and Silver Alloy Powder Production 20 --
3.4. Lead and Lead Alloy Powder Production 20 --
3.5. Nickel and Nickel Alloy Powder Production 21 --
3.6. Cobalt Powder Production 21 --
3.7. Iron and Iron Alloy Powder Production 21 --
3.8. Other Powder Productions 22 --
3.9. Conclusion 22 --
4. The "Electropufse" Technique 22 --
4.1. Introduction 22 --
4.2. The "Electropulse" Technique 23 --
4.3. Metallic Nanopowders 24 --
4.4. Metal Alloy Nanopowders 25 --
4.5. Semiconductor Nanopowders 25 --
4.6. Oxide and Polymer Nanopowders 25 --
4.7. Other Research Groups 26 --
5. Conclusion 26 --
Acknowledgments 26 --
References 26 --
Chapter 3. SOL-GEL-DERIVED OXIDE AND SULFIDE --
Nanoparticles --
S. Shukla, S. Seal --
1. Introduction 31 --
2. Semiconductor Quantum Dots 33 --
2.1. Properties, Industrial Applications, and Problems in Synthesis 33 --
3. Nanocrystalline Ceramics 34 --
3.1. Industrial Applications 34 --
3.2. Problems in the Synthesis of Nanocrystallide Oxide Powder 35 --
4. Sol-Gel Synthesis of Oxide Nanoparticles 36 --
4.1. The Sol-Gel Process 36 --
4.2. Growth Mechanism and the Particle Shaper 37 --
4.3. Colloidal Stability of Oxide Nanoparticle Sbl 38 --
5. Selection of a Polymer as a Surfactant 39 --
6. Adsorption Characteristics of the HPC Polymer ald Their Effects 40 --
7. Microemulsion Technology 44 --
8. Synthesis of Sulfide Nanoparticles with Sol-Gel add Gas Diffusion Techniques 45 --
9. General Comments 47 --
Acknowledgments 47 --
References 47 --
Chapter 4. TEMPLATING NANOSTRUCTURE --
Through The Self-Assembly Of --
Surfactants --
Blake Simmons, Limin Liu, Vijay John, Chad Taylor, --
Daniel Schwartz, Gary McPhersot, Arijit Bose, Vivek Agarwal --
1. Introduction 51 --
2. Synthesis of Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles 52 --
3. Self-Assembled Organogels 56 --
4. Synthesis of Organogel/Nanoparticle Composites 60 --
5. Conclusions 63 --
Acknowledgments 64 --
References 64 --
Chapter 5. SYNTHESIS AND ASSEMOLY OF --
Functionalized Goli Nanoparticles --
Marvin G. Warner; James E. Hutchison --
1. Introduction 67 --
1.1. Fundamental Studies and Technological Applications of --
Functionalized Metal Nanoparticles 67 --
1.2. Challenges Faced in Functionalized Nanop4rticle Synthesis 68 --
2. Synthesis of Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles 69 --
2.1. Overview of Synthetic Approaches to Functionalized Nanoparticles 69 --
2.2. Direct Synthesis of Functionalized, LigandiStabilized Gold --
Nanoparticles 70 --
2.3. Ligand Exchange Methods for Synthesis o4 Functionalized, --
Ligand-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles 74 --
2.4. Postsynthetic Modification of the Exterior 6f a Ligand Shell --
Possessing an w-Functionality I. 79 --
3. Chemical Approaches to Extended Nanoparticle Structures: --
Functional Group-Directed Organization 80 --
3.1. Nanoparticle-to-Nanoparticle Binding 81 --
3.2. Nanoparticle-to-Surface Binding 84 --
3.3. Nanoparticle-to-Template Binding 85 --
4. Conclusions and Future Directions 86 --
Acknowledgments 87 --
References 87 --
Chapter 6. ORGANIC FUNCTIONALIZATION OF --
Metal Oxide Nanoparticles --
Guido Kickelbick, Ulrich Schubert --
1. Introduction 91 --
2. Modification of Metal Oxide Clusters and Particles --
by Functional Organic Ligands 92 --
2.1. Postsynthesis Modification 92 --
2.2. Functionalization of Clusters and Particles --
during Their Synthesis ("In situ Functionalization"). 94 --
3. Inorganic-Organic Nanocomposites 98 --
3.1. "Grafting To" Approach 98 --
3.2. "Grafting From" Approach 98 --
Acknowledgments 101 --
References 101 --
Chapter 7. POLYMER METAL --
Nanocluster Composites --
Horacio Rotstein, Rina Tannenbaum --
1. Introduction 103 --
2. Mechanism and Kinetics of Metal Cluster Formation 107 --
2.1. Formation of Zero-Valent Cobalt Clusters 108 --
2.2. Formation of Metal Oxide Clusters 110 --
3. Control of Particle Size Via Polymer Adsorption 112 --
3.1. Effect of the Viscous Medium on Aggregation Mechanism 112 --
3.2. Particle Size Distribution in a Polymer Containing Nanpcomposite 115 --
4. Modeling of Cluster-Polymer Nanocomposite Formation 117 --
4.1. Description of the Models 117 --
4.2. Description of the Coefficients of Coagulation and Fragmentation 118 --
4.3. The Coagulation Process with Metal Cluster-Polymer Ifteractions 119 --
4.4. Solutions of the Coagulation-Fragmentation Equationsl 120 --
5. Experimental Procedure 122 --
5.1. Preparation of Polystyrene Solutions 122 --
5.2. Decomposition of Cobalt Carbonyl Solutions 122 --
5.3. Infrared Spectroscopic Measurements 123 --
5.4. Transmission Electron Microscopy 123 --
6. Sum m ary. $ 123 --
6. Summary 123 --
Acknowledgments I 123 --
References 124 --
Chapter 8. FUNCTIONALIZED TiO2 --
Nanoparticles For Pigment1s, --
Photoelectrochemistry, And --
SOLID STATE CHEMICAL SENSdRS --
P Knauth, R. Bouchet, O. Schdf, A. Weibel, p. Auer --
1. Introduction 127 --
2. Production and Characterization of TiO2 Powders 129 --
2.1. Industrial Process 129 --
2.2. Synthesis Process for Nanocrystalline Particles 130 --
2.3. Characterization of TiO2 Nanoparticles 131 --
2.4. Surface Segregation in Si- and Al-Doped TiO2 131 --
3. Preparation and Application of Nanocrystalline TiO2 Films 133 --
3.1. Photoelectrochemical Cells 133 --
3.2. Thin- and Thick-Film Gas Sensors 133 --
4. Ionic Conductor Composites with Nanocrystalline TiO2 134 --
4.1. M odels 134 --
4.2. Polymer Composites 136 --
4.3. Ceramic Composites 137 --
I. ' A J 1 A 1 --
5. Nanocrystalline TiO2 Ceramics 138 --
5.1. Fabrication by Hot-Pressing 138 --
5.2. Theoretical Analysis of Impedance Spectra 141 --
6. Conclusion 145 --
Acknowledgments 145 --
References 146 --
Chapter 9. SURFACE MODIFICATION OF TiO2: --
A Route For Efficient --
Semiconductor Assisted --
Photocatalysis --
Tijana Rajh, Olga V Makarova, Marion C. Thurna4er, Donald Cropek --
1. Introduction 147 --
2. Colloidal Semiconductors 148 --
2.1. Optical Properties of Semiconductors 148 --
2.2. Quantization Effect 149 --
2.3. Space Charge Layer and Band Bending 150 --
2.4. Energy Band Structure of TiO2 150 --
3. Basic Mechanisms of Semiconductor-Assisted Photocatjlysis 151 --
3.1. Photogeneration of Charge Pairs and Intrinsic Properties of --
Semiconductors 151 --
3.2. Charge Pair Separation and Charge Carrier Trapping 152 --
3.3. Charge Carrier Recombination and Interfacial Electron Transfer 153 --
3.4. Nature of Trapping Sites 154 --
3.5. A dsorption 156 --
4. Surface Modification: Route for Efficient Photodegradation 156 --
4.1. Surface Modification for Selective Removal of Organic Pollutants 157 --
4.2. Surface Modification for Removal of Heavy Met ls 162 --
4.3. Surface Modification for Nanolithographic Appli ations 167 --
4.4. Surface Modification for Improved Optical Propprties 168 --
Acknowledgments 170 --
References 170 --
Chapter 10. SILICON NANOPARTICLES: NEXT --
Generation Of Ultrasensitive --
Fluorescent Markers --
Munir H. Nayfeh, Elena V Rogozhina, tubos Mitas --
1. Introduction 174 --
2. Synthesis of Silicon Nanoparticles 175 --
2.1. Synthesis Techniques 176 --
2.2. Synthesis of Uniform Ultrasmall Ultrabright --
Silicon Nanoparticles 179 --
2.3. M agic Discrete Sizes 4 181 --
2.4. Delivery of Particles/Deposition 183 --
3. Functionalization of Hydrogenated Silicon Surfaces 185 --
3.1. Hydrogenated and Halogenated Silicon 186 --
3.2. Si-Si Bond Cleavage on Hydrogenated Silicon Surfaces 186 --
3.3. Replacement of Hydrogen in Si-H Bonds 188 --
3.4. Modified Si Surfaces Containing Functional Groqps 195 --
3.5. Conclusion 196 --
4. Functionalization of Silicon Nanoparticles 198 --
4.1. Modification of H-Terminated Particles 198 --
4.2. Direct Synthesis/Functionalization 206 --
4.3. Conclusion 208 --
5. Optical Properties of Nanoparticles 208 --
5.1. Luminescence Models 209 --
5.2. Stimulated Emission and Gain 211 --
5.3. Emission, Excitation, and Time Dynamics Measurements 212 --
5.4. Brightness/Detection of Single Particles/Photostalility 213 --
5.5. Assays and Sensor Films/Nonlinear Response 214 --
5.6. Effect of Functionalization on the Optical Properties 216 --
"6. Nanosystems: New Challenge for Theory --
and Computational Methods 219 --
6.1. Density Functional Approaches for the Electronic --
and Atomic Structures 220 --
6.2. Quantum M onte Carlo 221 --
6.3. Computer Time: Scaling with Particle Size 222 --
6.4. Applications to Si Clusters , 222 --
6.5. Structure of Si-Si Bonds 227 --
Acknowledgments L 228 --
References 228 --
Chapter 11. SURFACE-ENGINEERED NANOPAPTICLES --
As Drug Carriers --
Ruxandra Gref --
1. Introduction 234 --
2. Factors Influencing the Fate of Intravenously Administered Partibles 234 --
3. The Role of MPS in Removi.
Responsibility: edited by Marie-Isabelle Baraton.
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