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Te whare tapere : towards a model for Maori performance art : a thesis [submitted to the Victoria University of Wellington] in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Theatre and Film

Author: Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal
Publisher: 1998.
Dissertation: Ph. D. Victoria University of Wellington 1998
Edition/Format:   Thesis/dissertation : Thesis/dissertation : Manuscript   Archival Material : English
Summary:
The thesis represents an attempt to develop a written theory upon which a new practical model for Māori performance art, or 'whare tapere', might be constructed. It is subtitled 'Towards a Model for Māori performance art' as, in the author's view, the model itself will be finally created when the theory presented in this thesis is practically applied.
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Material Type: Thesis/dissertation, Manuscript
Document Type: Book, Archival Material
All Authors / Contributors: Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal
OCLC Number: 154293580
Notes: In English and Maori.
Description: ix, 281 leaves : illustrations, maps, genealogical tables, portraits ; 30 cm
Contents: PART ONE 3.0. TE AO MĀRAMA: A WORLD VIEW --
3.1. Whakapapa --
3.2 The whakapapa books of Kipa Roera Te Ahukaramū --
3.3. A manuscript written at the dictation of Hūkiki Te Ahukaramū --
3.4. the teachings of Rev. Māori Marsden --
3.5 Waikato/Maniapoto --
3.6. Ngāti Kahungunu ki Wairarapa --
3.7. Ngāti Porou --
3.8 Ngāi Tahu --
3.9. Ngāti Toa/Ngāti Raukawa --
3.10 Te Ao Mārama: The Māori world view --
3.11. Testing the 'Te Ao Mārama world view' --
3.12.0. Te Ao Mārama as a conceptualisation of reality --
3.12.1. Te Tuauri --
3.12.2. A few interpretations --
3.13 Wide acceptance of Te Ao Mārama --
3.14.0. The 'Te Ao Mārama value system' --
3.14.1 Commissioning Te Ao Mārama --
3.15.0. Cultural expressions of the Te Ao Mārama: The marae --
3.15.1. The marae and its rohe: The house of Raukawa --
3.16.0. Reconstructing the Te Ao Mārama world view and philosophy --
3.16.1 A world view interpretation by Taare Tikao --
3.16.2. An interpretation by James Irwin --
3.16.3. Experiencing Te Ao Mārama --
3.16.4. Further comments on Marsden's subjective methodology --
3.16.5 Variations in the creation narratives --
3.16.6 The nature of sacred knowledge --
3.16.7 variations on a tribal basis --
3.16.8. Problems with constructing single pan-Māori tradition --
3.16.9 The existence of a Supreme Being tradition --
3.16.10. The natural disappearance of traditions --
3.17. Conclusion --
3.18.0. He whakarāpotototanga --
3.18.1. Te Ara ki tō tātou Māoritanga --
3.18.2. Ngā pukapuka a Kipa Roera Te Ahukaramū --
3.18.3 Te pukapuka i whakahaerengia e Hūkiki Te Ahukaramū --
3.18.4. Ngā Whakaako mai a Māori Marsden --
3.18.5 Te Ao Mārama. PART TWO 4.0. TE WHARE TAPERE: TRADITIONAL MAORI PERFORMANCE ART --
4.1 Introduction 4.2 Constructing an image of the Whare Tapere --
4.3.0. The Whare Tapere in Hawaiki --
4.3.1. Te Patunga o Kae: A version dictated by Te Rangihaeata --
4.3.2. Ngāe: A version by Mohi Ruatapu --
4.3.3. Three versions taken from Ancient History of the Māori by John White --
4.3.4. Other sources of the Tinirau/Kae story --
4.3.5. Reconstructing the Tinirau/Kae story --
Further Hawaiki traditions --
4.4.1. Te Haka-a-Tānerore --
4.4.2. Te Haka-a-Hineruhi --
4.4.3. Māui --
4.4.4. Tamatekapua and Whakatūria --
4.5.0. The Whare Tapere in Aotearoa --
4.5.1. Chiefly encounters in the Whare Tapere --
4.5.2. Ponga and Puhihuia --
4.5.3. Te Kahureremoa --
4.5.4. Wairangi --
4.5.5. Puhiwahine --
4.5.6. Miscellaneous items --
4.6. Haka classifications by Arapeta Awatere --
4.7.0. Descriptions by European: The voyages of Tasman and Cook --
4.7.1. Descriptions by European: 19th century --
4.7.2 Descriptions by Pākehā: 20th century --
4.8.0. Summarising the Whare Tapere --
4.8.1. Defining the Whare Tapere --
4.8.2 The Whare Tapere and its types --
4.8.3. The activities and artistic forms of the Whare Tapere --
4.8.4. The Whare tapere and its deities --
4.8.5. Expressions from the Whare Tapere --
4.9.0. He Whakarāpopototanga --
4.8.1 He kupu Whakataki --
4.9.2. Te Waka-o-Hineteiwaiwa --
4.9.3. Te Whare Tapere i Aotearoa --
4.9.4. Ngā Tuhituhi a te Pākehā --
4.9.5. He Tatauranga i ngā Taonga o te Whare Tapere --
4.9.6. Ko ngā atua o te Whare Tapere --
4.9.7. Ko ngā whakatauki o te Whare Tapere.
Responsibility: by Te Ahukaramu Charles Royal.

Abstract:

The thesis represents an attempt to develop a written theory upon which a new practical model for Māori performance art, or 'whare tapere', might be constructed. It is subtitled 'Towards a Model for Māori performance art' as, in the author's view, the model itself will be finally created when the theory presented in this thesis is practically applied.

The thesis is divided into three major parts and is introduced by a section which discusses the title of the thesis, a definition of Māori art by Professor Hirini Moko Mead, methodologies employed and an explanation concerning the place of the Māori language in this thesis.

Part I represents a theory as to the world view of pre-contact Māori culture. Constructed from a mixture of 19th century manuscript and 20th century oral sources, the theory commences with an exploration of the author's own whakapapa. This is posited as a methodology by which to discover the foundation themes and concepts of the Māori world view. Part I then moves to discuss some of the philosophy (or philosophies) that arises from this world view.

The purpose in determining the Māori world view and philosophy is found in the notion that the institutions of any society and culture are created out of and are expressive of that community's world view. Through their activities, institutions express these world views both inwardly and outwardly. Hence, the reconstruction or the creation of a new whare tapere institution in contemporary circumstances is reliant upon the identification of a societal world view and philosophy.

Part I of the thesis argues that the Māori world view is found in the concept entitled 'Te Ao Mārama' which is located in the paradigm of Ranginui (the sky father) and Papatuanuku (earth mother). Upon this world view was constructed the subsequent history of the Māori world, both in the Hawaiki period and in the Aotearoa period. As Ranginui and Papatuanuku are referred to in all iwi traditions, I argue that the Te Ao Mārama world view and philosophy is a pan-Māori phenomenon.

Part II of the thesis considers the historical Whare Tapere, an institution which fell into disuse in the 19th century. The material commences with the Hawaiki story concerning the death of Kae following the birth of Tūhuruhuru. Contained within this story is a description of the mythical first whare tapere of Māori tradition which served as a model for subsequent whare tapere.

The material considers other Hawaiki traditions, including those concerning Māui, Tamatekapua and Tāne-rore (to name a few) before including Aotearoa expressions of the whare tapere. Here we find descriptions of aristocratic figures such as Te Kahureremoa and Tūwharetoa. 19th century figures are also included such as Puhiwahine and Erenora Taratoa, before concluding with Pākeha descriptions (mostly from the 19th century) of the whare tapere in action. As many Pākeha visiting pā did not know what they were witnessing and describing in their diaries and journals, I argue that in many instances they were viewing the whare tapere in action.

Finally, Part III of the thesis presents a theory upon which a new form of the whare tapere might be constructed today. It sets forth the Te Ao Mārama world view and philosophy as the foundation for the whare tapere and how it might be used to influence all the activities of the whare tapere. The theory urges the use of the Te Ao Mārama world view and philosophy upon which the various creative forms that are described in Part II might be employed. In addition to this, the Te Ao Mārama philosophy is also employed to construct a rationale upon which non-Māori forms and concepts such as mimesis might be employed in this new whare tapere.

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