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Thermocouples : theory and properties

Author: Daniel D Pollock
Publisher: Boca Raton, Fla. : CRC Press, ©1991.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Genre/Form: Electronic book
Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Pollock, Daniel D.
Thermocouples.
Boca Raton, Fla. : CRC Press, ©1991
(DLC) 91024377
(OCoLC)24066249
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Daniel D Pollock
ISBN: 9780203735824 020373582X
OCLC Number: 1035845802
Description: 1 online resource (xii, 324 pages) : illustrations
Contents: Cover --
Half Title --
Title Page --
Copyright Page --
Table of Contents --
1: Introduction --
1.1 Thermoelectricity --
1.2 Related Thermal Effects --
1.3 Drude-Lorentz Theory of Metals --
1.4 Beginnings of Solid State Theory --
1.4.1 Black-Body Radiation --
1.4.2 Electron Emission --
1.4.3 Bases for Modem Theory --
1.4.3.1 Optical Behavior of Electrons --
1.4.3.2 Association of Waves and Particles --
1.4.3.3 Confirmation of Duality --
1.4.3.4 Wave-Particle Interaction --
1.4.3.5 Limitations on Electron Behavior --
1.4.3.6 The Concept of Uncertainty --
1.4.3.7 The Need for Statistical Treatment --
1.5 Suggested Reading --
2: Statistical Treatment of Electrons --
2.1 Newtonian Concepts --
2.2 Schrődinger's Equation --
2.3 Limitations on Schrődinger's Equation --
2.4 Electrons in Potential Wells --
2.4.1 One-Dimensional Wells --
2.4.1.1 Classical and Quantum Predictions --
2.4.1.2 Effect of the Potential Well --
2.4.2 Three-Dimensional Wells --
2.5 The Principle of Exclusion --
2.6 Quantum Numbers --
2.7 Electron Configurations of Atoms --
2.8 Suggested Reading --
3: Solid-State Theories --
3.1 Sommerfeld Theory --
3.2 The Fermi-Dirac Theory --
3.2.1 The Fermi Energy --
3.2.2 The Fermi-Dirac Function --
3.3 Comparison of Classical and Modem Statistics --
3.4 The Fermi-Sommerfeld Theory --
3.4.1 Metals --
3.4.2 Heat Capacity --
3.4.2.1 Normal Metals --
3.4.2.2 Transition Metals --
3.4.3 Electrical Conductivity-Normal Metals --
3.5 Band Theory --
3.5.1 Relation to the Fermi-Sommerfeld Theory --
3.6 Brillouin Zone Theory --
3.6.1 Applications of the Brillouin Theory --
3.7 Electrical Conductivity of Semiconductors --
3. 7.1 Intrinsic Conduction --
3.7.2 Electron Properties --
3.7.3 Extrinsic Conduction --
3.8 Suggested Reading --
4: Thermoelectric Phenomena --
4.1 Relative Seebeck Coefficient --
4.2 Peltier Effect --
4.3 Thomson Effect. 4.4 Thermodynamic Interrelations --
4.4.1 Fundamental Theorem --
4.4.2 Role of Entropy --
4.4.3 Relation of the Peltier Effect to the Thomson Effect --
4.4.4 Relation of the RSC to the Thomson Effect --
4.5 Absolute emf and the Thomson Effect --
4.5.1 Thermoelectric Laws --
4.6 Utility of ASC --
4. 7 Thermoelectric Circuit Analyses --
4.8 References --
4.9 Suggested Reading --
5: Modern Theories of Tbermoelectricity --
5.1 Role of Heat Capacity --
5.1.1 Normal Metallic Elements --
5.1.2 Transition Elements --
5.1.3 Semiconductors --
5.2 Role of Electrical Conductivity --
5.2.1 Normal Metallic Elements --
5.2.2 Transition Metals --
5.2.3 Semimetals --
5.3 Role of Internal Potentials --
5.3.1 Normal Metallic Elements --
5.3.2 Transition Elements --
5.3.3 Alternate Evaluation of the Conduction Function --
5.3.4 Semiconductors --
5.4 Relations to Other Physical Properties --
5.5 Relative Thermoelectric Properties --
5.6 Suggested Reading --
6: Variations of the Fermi Energy --
6.1 Temperature --
6.2 Effects of Alloying Elements in Normal Metals --
6.3 Effects of Alloying Elements in Transition Metals --
6.3.1 Dilute Alloys --
6.3.2 Concentrated Alloys --
6.4 Stress Effects --
6.5 Thermoelectric Instability --
6.6 References --
7: Some Effects of Alloying --
7.1 Alloys of Monovalent Metals --
7.2 Alloys of Multivalent Metals --
7.3 Alloys of Transition Metals --
7.3.1 Normal-Metal Alloying Elements --
7.3.2 Transition-Metal Alloying Elements --
7.4 References --
7.5 Suggested Reading --
8: Standard Thermoelements (Dilute Alloys) --
8.1 Platinum and Its Alloys (Types S, R, and B) --
8.1.1 The Influence of Alloying with Rhodium --
8.1.2 Factors Affecting the Use of Platinum-Base Thermocouples --
8.2 Nickel and Its Alloys (Types K, E, and N) --
8.2.1 The Short-Range Order Hypothesis --
8.2.2 Effects of Magnetic Transformations --
8.2.3 Alumel (Type KN). 8.2.4 Nicrosil {Type NP) --
8.2.5 Chromel (Type KP) --
8.2.6 Nisil (Type NN) --
8.2.7 Limitations on Use of Nickel-Base Thermocouples --
8.3 Iron Alloys (Type JP) --
8.4 Some Nonstandard Thermocouples --
8.4.1 19 Alloy-20 Alloy Thermocouple --
8.4.1 19 Alloy-20 Alloy Thermocouple --
8.4.2 Tungsten-Rhenium Thermocouples --
8.4.3 Other Platinum Alloy Thermocouples --
8.4.2 Tungsten-Rhenium Thermocouples --
8.4.3 Other Platinum Alloy Thermocouples --
8.4.3.1 Thermocouples with Platinum-Rhodium Thermoelements --
8.4.3.2 Platinum-Iridium/Palladium Thermocouples --
8.4.3.3 Platinum-Molybdenum Thermocouples --
8.5 Iridium-Rhodium/lridium Thermocouples --
8.6 Platinel Thermocouples --
8.7 Thermocouple Leads (Extension Wires) --
8.8 References --
8.9 Suggested Reading-Magnetic Effects --
9: Constantans --
9.1 Binary Alloy Theory --
9.2 Ternary Alloy Theory --
9.3 Effect of Temperature --
9.4 Thermoelectric Properties of Binary Alloys --
9.5 Thermoelectric Properties of Ternary Alloys --
9.5.1 Scattering of Hybridized s-d Electrons --
9.5.2 Temperature Dependence of d-Level Holes --
9.6 Design of Constantan-Type Alloys (Types EN, JN, or TN) --
9.7 References --
10: Thermoelectric Applications of Semiconductors --
10.1 Theory --
10.2 Practice --
10.3 Peltier Materials --
10.4 Suggested Reading --
11: Thermoelectricity as a Research Tool --
11.1 Phase Boundaries --
11.2 Imperfection Density --
11.3 Band Structure --
11.4 Purity Evaluation --
11.5 References --
A: The Contact Potential --
B: The Debye Theory of Heat Capacity --
C: Methods for Approximating Magnetic Parameters of Nickel-Base Thermoelectric Alloys --
Index.
Responsibility: Daniel D. Pollock.
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