The Token Economy : a Review and Evaluation (eBook, 1977) []
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The Token Economy : a Review and Evaluation

Author: Alan E Kazdin
Publisher: Boston, MA : Springer US, 1977.
Series: Plenum behavior therapy series.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Applications of operant techniques in treatment and education have proliferated in recent years. Among the various techniques, the token economy has been particuƯ larly popular. The token economy has been extended to many populations included in psychiatry, clinical psychology, education, and the mental health fields in general. Of course, merely because a technique is applied widely does not necesƯ sarily argue for  Read more...

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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Alan E Kazdin
ISBN: 9781461341215 1461341213
OCLC Number: 852789970
Description: 1 online resource (volumes)
Contents: 1 Principles of Operant Conditioning --
Reinforcement --
Punishment --
Extinction --
Maximizing the Effect of Positive Reinforcement --
Shaping --
Chaining --
Prompting and Fading --
Discrimination and Stimulus Control --
Generalization --
Conclusion --
2 Introduction and Historical Overview --
Investigation of the Influence of Response Consequences --
Extensions of Operant Methods to Human Behavior: An Overview --
Token Economies Antedating Contemporary Behavior Modification --
Contemporary Foundations of Token Economies --
Reinforcement Programs in Applied Settings --
Conclusion --
3 The Token Economy: Program Options and Variations --
The Basic Token Program and Its Requirements --
Examples of Token Economies in Three Settings --
Program Variations, Options, and Their Effects --
Types of Contingencies --
Administration of Consequences --
Range and Extent of Back-up Reinforcers --
Token Withdrawal or Response Cost --
Leveled Programs --
Peer Administration of the Contingencies --
Self-Administration of Consequences --
Conclusion --
4 Review of Token Economies I --
Psychiatric Patients --
The Mentally Retarded --
Individuals in Classroom Settings --
Conclusion --
5 Review of Token Economies II --
Pre-Delinquents and Delinquents --
Adult Offenders --
Drug Addicts and Problem Drinkers ("Alcoholics") --
Outpatient Applications --
Other Populations and Applications --
Conclusion --
6 Major Issues and Obstacles in Ensuring Effective Programs --
Training Staff and Other Behavior-Change Agents --
Staff Training Techniques --
The Effects of Token Economies on Staff Behavior --
Unresponsive Clients --
Explanations of Unresponsiveness --
Techniques to Enhance Responsiveness --
Unresponsiveness: Summary --
Economic Variables in Token Economies --
Income and Savings --
Expenditures and Back-up Events --
Economic Variables: General Comments --
Conclusion --
7 Generalization of Behavior Change --
Maintenance of Behavior after Withdrawal of Tokens --
Transfer of Training across Situations --
Techniques to Program Maintenance and Transfer --
Programming Maintenance and Transfer: General Comments --
Conclusion --
8 Critical Evaluation of the Token Economy --
Focus of Token Programs --
Focus of Token Programs: Summary --
Analysis of the Token Economy and Its Effects --
Possible Deleterious Effects of Extrinsic Reinforcement --
Comparison of the Token Economy with Other Treatment Techniques --
Evaluation of the Effects of Treatment --
Important Considerations in Validating the Effects of Treatment --
Conclusion --
9 Extensions of Reinforcement Techniques to Society --
Pollution Control and Energy Conservation --
Job Performance and Unemployment --
Community Self-Government --
Racial Integration --
Military Training --
Broader Social Extensions: The Design of Communities and Society --
Evaluation of Social Extensions of Reinforcement Techniques --
Conclusion --
10 Ethical and Legal Issues --
Ethical Issues --
Legal Issues --
Protection of Client Rights --
Conclusion --
11 Summing Up --
The Accomplishments of the Token Economy --
Outstanding Issues --
When and How to Use the Token Economy --
The Ethical and Legal Challenge --
References --
Author Index.
Series Title: Plenum behavior therapy series.
Responsibility: by Alan E. Kazdin.


Because the token economy literature is vast, the book encompasses programs in diverse treatment, rehabilitation, and educational settings across a wide range of populations and behaviors.  Read more...


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