skip to content
The Token Economy A Review and Evaluation. Preview this item
ClosePreview this item
Checking...

The Token Economy A Review and Evaluation.

Author: Kazdin, Alan
Publisher: Springer Verlag 2013.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:

Because the token economy literature is vast, the book encompasses programs in diverse treatment, rehabilitation, and educational settings across a wide range of populations and behaviors.

Rating:

(not yet rated) 0 with reviews - Be the first.

Find a copy in the library

&AllPage.SpinnerRetrieving; Finding libraries that hold this item...

Details

Additional Physical Format: (OCoLC)829748564
Material Type: Document
Document Type: Book, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Kazdin, Alan
ISBN: 9781461341215 1461341213
OCLC Number: 968634843
Description: 1 online resource
Contents: 1 Principles of Operant Conditioning.- Reinforcement.- Positive Reinforcement.- Negative Reinforcement.- Punishment.- Extinction.- Maximizing the Effect of Positive Reinforcement.- Delay of Reinforcement.- Magnitude or Amount of Reinforcement.- Quality or Type of the Reinforcer.- Schedules of Reinforcement.- Shaping.- Chaining.- Prompting and Fading.- Discrimination and Stimulus Control.- Generalization.- Conclusion.- 2 Introduction and Historical Overview.- Investigation of the Influence of Response Consequences.- Extensions of Operant Methods to Human Behavior: An Overview.- Conceptual and Experimental Extensions.- Clinical Applications.- Token Economies Antedating Contemporary Behavior Modification.- Joseph Lancaster and the "Monitorial System".- The Excelsior School System.- Alexander Maconochie and the "Mark System".- Contemporary Foundations of Token Economies.- Reinforcement Programs in Applied Settings.- Food and Other Consumable Items.- Social Reinforcers.- Activities, Privileges, and Other High Probability Behaviors.- Informative Feedback.- Token Reinforcement.- Conclusion.- 3 The Token Economy: Program Options and Variations.- The Basic Token Program and Its Requirements.- The Token.- Back-up Reinforcers.- Specification of the Contingencies.- Examples of Token Economies in Three Settings.- Psychiatric Ward.- Home-Style Facility for Pre-Delinquents.- Elementary School Classroom.- Program Variations, Options, and Their Effects.- Types of Contingencies.- Administration of Consequences.- Range and Extent of Back-up Reinforcers.- Token Withdrawal or Response Cost.- Response Cost Programs.- Token Economies Including Response Cost.- Use of Response Cost.- Leveled Programs.- Peer Administration of the Contingencies.- Self-Administration of Consequences.- Conclusion.- 4 Review of Token Economies I.- Psychiatric Patients.- General Ward-Wide Programs.- Complex and Therapeutically Relevant Behaviors and "Symptoms".- Social Behaviors.- Other Behaviors.- The Mentally Retarded.- Ward and Self-Care Behaviors.- Verbal Behavior and Language Acquisition.- Social Behaviors.- Work-Related Behaviors.- Other Behaviors.- Individuals in Classroom Settings.- Disruptive Behavior and Inattentiveness.- Academic Behaviors.- Other Behaviors.- Conclusion.- 5 Review of Token Economies II.- Pre-Delinquents and Delinquents.- Antisocial Behavior.- Classroom and Academic Behaviors.- Social Skills.- Adult Offenders.- Drug Addicts and Problem Drinkers ("Alcoholics").- Applications with Drug Addicts.- Applications with Alcoholics.- Outpatient Applications.- Outpatient Therapy.- Interventions in the Natural Environment with Children and Adolescents.- Interventions in the Natural Environment with Adults.- Other Populations and Applications.- Geriatric Residents.- Stutterers.- Aphasics.- Social Extensions.- Conclusion.- 6 Major Issues and Obstacles in Ensuring Effective Programs.- Training Staff and Other Behavior-Change Agents.- Staff Training Techniques.- Instructional Methods.- Feedback.- Self-Monitoring.- Modeling and Role-Playing.- Social Reinforcement.- Token Reinforcement.- Combined Techniques.- Training Techniques: General Comments.- The Effects of Token Economies on Staff Behavior.- Unresponsive Clients.- Explanations of Unresponsiveness.- Techniques to Enhance Responsiveness.- Response Priming.- Reinforcer Sampling.- Selecting Increasingly Potent Reinforcers.- Modeling Influences.- Individualized Contingencies.- Group Administration of Consequences.- Unresponsiveness: Summary.- Economic Variables in Token Economies.- Income and Savings.- Expenditures and Back-up Events.- Economic Variables: General Comments.- Conclusion.- 7 Generalization of Behavior Change.- Maintenance of Behavior after Withdrawal of Tokens.- Transfer of Training across Situations.- Techniques to Program Maintenance and Transfer.- Selecting Behaviors That Are Likely to Be Maintained.- Substituting One Program for Another.- Fading the Contingencies.- Expanding Stimulus Control.- Scheduling Intermittent Reinforcement.- Delaying Reinforcer Delivery.- Self-Reinforcement.- Self-Instruction Training.- Programming Maintenance and Transfer: General Comments.- Conclusion.- 8 Critical Evaluation of the Token Economy.- Focus of Token Programs.- Target Behaviors.- Settings.- Populations.- Focus of Token Programs: Summary.- Analysis of the Token Economy and Its Effects.- Variables Contributing to the Token Economy.- Instructions.- Social Reinforcement and Interpersonal Interaction.- Feedback.- Modeling Influences.- Subject and Demographic Variables.- Variables Contributing to the Token Economy: Summary.- Possible Deleterious Effects of Extrinsic Reinforcement.- Comparison of the Token Economy with Other Treatment Techniques.- The Token Economy versus Standard or Routine Treatment.- The Token Economy versus Other Specific Treatments.- The Token Economy versus Pharmacotherapy.- Evaluation of the Effects of Treatment.- Important Considerations in Validating the Effects of Treatment.- Conclusion.- 9 Extensions of Reinforcement Techniques to Society.- Pollution Control and Energy Conservation.- Littering.- Recycling Wastes.- Energy Conservation.- Mass Transportation.- Excessive Noise.- Job Performance and Unemployment.- On-the-Job Performance.- Obtaining Employment.- Community Self-Government.- Racial Integration.- Military Training.- Broader Social Extensions: The Design of Communities and Society.- Walden Two.- Twin Oaks Community.- Experimental Living Project.- Evaluation of Social Extensions of Reinforcement Techniques.- Conclusion.- 10 Ethical and Legal Issues.- Ethical Issues.- Behavior Control.- Control for What Purposes and by Whom?.- Individual Freedom.- Legal Issues.- Contingent Consequences and Environmental Restraint.- Selection of Target Behaviors.- Right to Treatment.- Refusal of Treatment.- Informed Consent.- Protection of Client Rights.- Conclusion.- 11 Summing Up.- The Accomplishments of the Token Economy.- Outstanding Issues.- When and How to Use the Token Economy.- The Ethical and Legal Challenge.- References.- Author Index.

Reviews

User-contributed reviews
Retrieving GoodReads reviews...
Retrieving DOGObooks reviews...

Tags

Be the first.
Confirm this request

You may have already requested this item. Please select Ok if you would like to proceed with this request anyway.

Linked Data


Primary Entity

<http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/968634843> # The Token Economy A Review and Evaluation.
    a schema:Book, schema:MediaObject, schema:CreativeWork ;
    library:oclcnum "968634843" ;
    schema:bookFormat schema:EBook ;
    schema:datePublished "2013" ;
    schema:editor <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/889847295#Agent/kazdin_alan> ; # Kazdin, Alan
    schema:exampleOfWork <http://worldcat.org/entity/work/id/889847295> ;
    schema:inLanguage "en" ;
    schema:isSimilarTo <http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/829748564> ;
    schema:name "The Token Economy A Review and Evaluation."@en ;
    schema:productID "968634843" ;
    schema:publication <http://www.worldcat.org/title/-/oclc/968634843#PublicationEvent/springer_verlag2013> ;
    schema:publisher <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/889847295#Agent/springer_verlag> ; # Springer Verlag
    schema:workExample <http://worldcat.org/isbn/9781461341215> ;
    wdrs:describedby <http://www.worldcat.org/title/-/oclc/968634843> ;
    .


Related Entities

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/889847295#Agent/kazdin_alan> # Kazdin, Alan
    a bgn:Agent ;
    schema:name "Kazdin, Alan" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/889847295#Agent/springer_verlag> # Springer Verlag
    a bgn:Agent ;
    schema:name "Springer Verlag" ;
    .

<http://worldcat.org/isbn/9781461341215>
    a schema:ProductModel ;
    schema:isbn "1461341213" ;
    schema:isbn "9781461341215" ;
    .

<http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/829748564>
    a schema:CreativeWork ;
    schema:isSimilarTo <http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/968634843> ; # The Token Economy A Review and Evaluation.
    .


Content-negotiable representations

Close Window

Please sign in to WorldCat 

Don't have an account? You can easily create a free account.