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Toxicity of alternatives to chlorofluorocarbons : HFC-134a and HCFC-123

Author: National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee to Review Toxicity of Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons,
Publisher: Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press, 1996.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : English
Summary:
As part of the effort to phase out the use of stratospheric ozone-depleting substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and Halon gases, the U.S. Navy is planning to substitute hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-134a for the refrigerant CFC-12, and the Air Force is planning to substitute hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC)-123 for the fire suppressant Halon 1211. The Navy asked the National Research Council (NRC) to review the  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Computer network resources
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Toxicity of alternatives to chlorfluorocarbons HFC-134a and HCFC-123.
Washington, DC : National Academy Press, 1996
(OCoLC)35771789
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee to Review Toxicity of Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons,
ISBN: 0309572010 9780309572019
OCLC Number: 567831797
Notes: Title from title screen.
Description: 1 online resource : illustrations
Contents: Toxicity of Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons: HFC-134a and HCFC-123 --
Copyright --
Preface --
Contents --
Executive Summary --
ASSESSMENT OF MODEL FOR CARDIAC SENSITIZATION --
EXPOSURE GUIDANCE LEVELS FOR HFC-134A --
EXPOSURE GUIDANCE LEVEL FOR HCFC-123 --
1 Introduction --
STATEMENT OF TASK --
DEFINITIONS --
Emergency Exposure Guidance Level --
Continuous Exposure Guidance Level --
STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT --
2 Evaluation of the Dog Cardiac Sensitization Test --
INTRODUCTION --
MECHANISM OF ACTION FOR CHEMICALLY INDUCED ARRHYTHMIAS --
PROTOCOL FOR A CARDIAC SENSITIZATION SCREENING STUDY. CARDIAC SENSITIZATION EXPERIMENTS INVOLVING SELECTED HALOCARBONS --
CONCLUSION --
REFERENCES --
3 Exposure Guidance Levels for Hydrofluorocarbon-134a --
INTRODUCTION --
BACKGROUND INFORMATION --
Physical and Chemical Properties --
Occurrence and Use --
TOXICOKINETICS --
TOXICITY INFORMATION --
Acute Toxicity --
Cardiac Sensitization --
Subacute Toxicity --
Subchronic Toxicity --
Developmental Toxicity --
Reproductive Toxicity --
Genotoxicity --
Carcinogenicity --
SUMMARY --
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EXPOSURE GUIDANCE LEVELS --
REFERENCES --
4 Exposure Guidance Levels for Hydrochlorofluorocarbon-123. INTRODUCTION --
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EXPOSURE GUIDANCE LEVELS --
REFERENCES --
Appendix A --
SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION FOR THE EXPOSURE GUIDANCE LEVELS FOR HYDROCHLOROFLUOROCARBON-123 --
BACKGROUND INFORMATION --
Physical and Chemical Properties --
Occurrence and Use --
TOXICOKINETICS --
TOXICITY INFORMATION --
Effects in Humans --
Effects in Animals --
Single-Exposure Studies --
Repeat-Exposure Studies --
EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT --
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EXPOSURE GUIDANCE LEVEL --
REFERENCES --
ATTACHMENT 1 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET --
ATTACHMENT 2 HALOTHANE --
BACKGROUND INFORMATION. Physical and Chemical Properties --
Occurrence and Use --
ACUTE TOXICITY INFORMATION --
Acute Toxicity and CNS Depression --
Cardiac Sensitization --
Effects in Humans --
Malignant Hyperthermia --
Hepatotoxicity --
DISCUSSION --
HCFC-123 AND Halothane Comparison --
Acute Toxicity and CNS Depression --
Cardiac Sensitization --
Malignant Hyperthermia --
Hepatotoxicity --
REFERENCES --
ATTACHMENT 3 SUMMARY OF TOXICITY STUDIES OF HCFC-123 --
I. ANIMAL STUDIES: SINGLE EXPOSURE --
II. ANIMAL STUDIES: REPEAT EXPOSURE --
III. REFERENCES. ATTACHMENT 4 SUMMARY OF ACUTE PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY OF HCFC-123 IN DOGS BY INHALATION --
OBJECTIVE --
MATERIALS AND METHODS --
Exposure System --
Blood and Tissue Sampling --
Analysis of Blood and Tissue Samples --
RESULTS --
DISCUSSION.
Responsibility: Subcommittee to Review Toxicity of Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons, Committee on Toxicology, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council.

Abstract:

As part of the effort to phase out the use of stratospheric ozone-depleting substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and Halon gases, the U.S. Navy is planning to substitute hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-134a for the refrigerant CFC-12, and the Air Force is planning to substitute hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC)-123 for the fire suppressant Halon 1211. The Navy asked the National Research Council (NRC) to review the toxicity data on HFC-134a and to recommend 1-hr and 24-hr emergency exposure guidance levels (EEGLs) and 90-day continuous exposure guidance levels (CEGLs). The Air Force requested the NRC to review the adequacy of the 1-min EEGL proposed by the Air Force for HCFC-123. In addition, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requested the NRC to review the suitability of current methods for detecting and quantifying the risk of cardiac sensitization from exposure to CFCs and their substitutes. The NRC assigned these tasks to its Committee on Toxicology, which established the Subcommittee to Review Toxicity of Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons. The subcommittee reviewed the toxicity data on the two CFC substitutes and the assessment protocol for cardiac sensitization. This report is intended to aid the Navy, the Air Force, and EPA in using CFC substitutes safely.

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